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required to satisfy the financial needs of most We regard the answers to Question 11, in of the population. Doubtless the Federal regard to the abatement of the antagonism Reserve Law will pass into history as the toward the railroads, as providing what is, in most beneficent piece of economic legislation a financial sense, the most important inforthat has ever been enacted in this country. mation in our report. That over ninety per

The response to Question 7 negatives much cent of our correspondents should report of the newspaper talk with regard to the infla. that the disposition to harass the railroads tion of currency and credit in the United is vanishing, is extremely encouraging. The States. If there is any inflation, but few railroads of the United States employ more business men are conscious of it, and it is, labor and disburse a larger sum in wages we think, reasonable to assume that until there than any other single industry. Their puris an inflation of which people are conscious chases constitute a very large proportion of there will be no attempt at contraction. our total commerce; and if their develop

The answers to Question 8, in regard to the ment in the future shall be unrestricted by constructive activity of the country, reveal the unwise legislation and regulation of the basis upon which the present prosperity which they have hitherto been the victims, rests. Constructive activity means the crea- it will be well for the future prosperity of the ation of productive wealth, and it is encour- country. agingly significant that about eighty per cent The negative answers to Question 12, with of our replies indicate that the people are regard to a possible advance of five per cent building new houses, enlarging their plants, in railway freight rates, are, for the most part, and making permanent improvements that qualified by statements of which the followbespeak their confidence in the future. ing from a Southern correspondent is typical :

The answers to Question 9 report an We have already accepted one advance almost unanimous willingness that the tariff of five per cent in ra lway rates without question shall be taken out of politics by the complaint, and would not be willing to subcreation of a tariff commission. In view of mit to a further advance unless it is equithe fact that a very large proportion of our tably distributed throughout the entire coun. replies come from manufacturers and States which on account of their industrial activities The answers to Question 13, in regard to are generally reckoned as “ protectionist," the saving and extravagance, are also qualithis unanimity of opinion may be said to mark fied. Most of our correspondents admit that something of a revolution in American polit- the savings banks, insurance companies, and ical feeling with regard to the tariff. We other repositories of thrift show increased recommend it to the special attention of the sources which bespeak a reasonable provision platform committees of both the Democratic for the future. One informant says that he and Republican parties, and are delighted to “ sees no increase in extravagance except in feel that we are nearing the time when the the matter of automobiles.” His allusion to political energies of each successive Congress the automobile expenditure of the Nation is may be employed more profitably than in the the only comment made upon it, from which revision of tariff schedules. One correspond we infer that there is a noteworthy change ent qualifies his acceptance of the tariff com- in the attitude of thinking men toward the mission plan with the proviso that it shall be American investment in this form of transmade operative “before the end of time.” portation With this we are in hearty agreement.

The answers to Questions 14, 15, and 16, The answers to Question 10, in regard to which deal with preparedness, the sense of the market for real estate, drive another rivet civic responsibility, American Nationalism, in the structure of prosperity that is visualized and the protection of American citizens resiby this investigation. If the Rural Credit dent or having property interests outside of Bill which the Senate has already passed shall the United States, will, we think, be a surbecome a law, the effect will probably be to prise to the pacifists. If they could read the increase greatly the availability of farm lands remarks and letters with which our replies to as a basis for loans, thus stabilizing their value; these questions have been accompanied, they and a prosperity that is buttressed by higher would abandon the theory that the United wages, increased consumption, and stable States has become a spineless Nation. There values for land would seem to be, for a time is natu a wide read disa reement as to at least, immune from any serious reaction. the degree of preparedness to which we

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1916 AMERICAN BUSINESS AS AFFECTED BY PEACE AND PREPAREDNESS 229

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should commit ourselves. Some of our cor- good many who seem to favor the forcible respondents in the rural communities say annexation of sufficient Mexican territory to that “the feeling in favor of preparedness is indemnify us for the damages inflicted upon cooled by the fear that it is inspired by the American life and property in that Republic. Wall Street hope of large profits," but a will- The division of public opinion in regard to ingness is generally expressed to support the Mexican problem seems to be greater Congress and the Administration in any rea- than that disclosed in regard to any other sonable measure that shall be adopted for the question submitted. It is evident that the defense of the Nation, and it is apparent that issue is one in regard to which there is not the war in Europe has quickened the spirit as yet any great unanimity of feeling. of Nationalism and increased the individual Speaking generally, we may say that a consciousness of civic responsibility through- careful examination of the replies received out the country.

leads us to feel great satisfaction in the ecoIn regard to the protection to be afforded nomic condition of the country and increased by our Government to American citizens resi- confidence in the political common sense of dent or having property interests outside the the people. If we were mapping American United States, there is a somewhat wide diver- prosperity, we should paint New England, gence of opinion. One correspondent, in re- Pennsylvania, and Michigan in the most gard to whose Americanism there can be no roseate colors. In fact, one correspondent doubt, writes that “ we ought to protect our in Detroit says that “the boom is dangertrade in foreign countries, but there is no ous.” The Pacific States of the Northwest reason why we should follow and protect the and northern California are the only sections people who leave the United States to live in which the use of even a light shade of blue and invest in foreign lands.” He adds : “I would be justifiable. believe that this country is good enough for In the southern portion of California the any one and its guardianship should not follow absence of war-induced prosperity has been expatriates. They should know what they to some extent offset by the winter influx of are doing and assume the consequences.” tourists from the East and the demand for

Not a few feel that the Nation should the petroleum production of that locality. avoid taking a position that would plunge The clouds have almost disappeared from 100,000,000 people into war for the protec- the Cotton States as a result of the higher tion of those who take unnecessary risks in price of cotton and cotton seed and the inbelligerent countries or on belligerent vessels. crease in cattle production. For the most part, however, our replies indi- In the Middle West the remunerative cate that the people of this country are jealous figures obtained for the grain crops for the of the honor of our flag and the rights of our past two years have made the people conNation and entirely willing to support any tented and happy, although there is some measures that may be necessary for their complaint that the high ocean freight rates protection.

are interfering with the export movement. Upon the question of military intervention Dealing with what we may describe as the in Mexico there is a great division of opinion, politico economic situation disclosed by our and the correspondence that we have re- report, it may be said that there is evidenced ceived provides a symposium that would a much keener appreciation of the essential greatly interest many Congressmen. A Bal- relation between good government and good timore friend says that “weeping prevents a times, and, while there is but little disposition reply to this question," meaning presumably to disparage the constructive achievements that he is ashamed of the policy which the of the present Administration, there is a wideGovernment has thus far pursued. Another spread dissatisfaction with the selfish political correspondent writes us that, “while the individualism of the present Congress and a young men of the country may be in favor of disposition to hold the one that shall succeed Mexican intervention, the older people, who it to a rigid accountability. know the horrors of war, will continue to Our confidence in the permanent prosoppose it to the end."

perity of the country and our optimism in We are somewhat surprised by the num- regard to the benefits and sanity of repreber of answers that advocate the solution of sentative government have been increased the Mexican problem by the purchase of the and to some extent rehabilitated by this innorthern half of Mexi. o, and there are a vestigation.

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“You are complaining in America of thirtycent gasoline," writes a British friend, “but that means to you thirty cents a gallon; what would you say if it meant, as it does to us at this moment, thirty cents a quart! When gasoline went up to $1.25 a gallon, I put up the car and got out my old reliable bicycle !"

A book called “ The Tobacco Habit Easily Conquered says that if a cigarette smoker wishes to give up the practice he should carry a box of crystallized ginger in his pocket. A nip of this aromatic coniection will, it is claimed, ward off any tendency to look wistfully upon the enemy. Another help recommended consists of an oyster on the half shell, sprinkled plentifully with salt and paprika. When this is swallowed, the “bite," it is asserted, will remove the craving for the cigarette.

The American farmer, a correspondent writes, apropos of the hired man problem, too often seems to believe that the eight-hour day means eight hours in the forenoon and eight in the afternoon. But, he asserts, there is no need for the hired man to accept this definition; at present he can demand employment on his own terms. If he puts up with poor accommodations and long hours, it is his own fault. Let him demand a real eight hour day and he will get it; the farmer needs labor so badly that he will give his hired man anything in reason.

In the time of Shakespeare, we learn from “ A Book for Shakespeare Plays and Pageants," theaters were often used for bear-baiting as well as for the presentation of plays, and in some cases were equipped with a stage which could be removed when the bear-baiting was to occur. The contemporary attitude toward this diversion is seen in this quotation : "It was a sport very pleasant to see the bear with his pink eyes leering after his enemies' approach." It is comforting to reflect in these days of international bloodshed that the killing of animals at least, as a form of public amusement, has greatly diminished and in most countries has disappeared.

The former pupil, a girl of twelve, was iniscing " about her old school to her sometime teacher, at whose bouse she was making a call. “You and Miss are the only teachers in that school that I remember," she said. “Ah! and what do you remember about Miss ?" "I remember her because she was a bit of a crank," was the naïve repli. Too often, it is to be feared, this is the unspokea tribute of childhood to its scholastic mentors.

A“chuck hole "club, says the “Rural New Yorker," has been organized in South Dakota to help improve the roads. A“chuck hole " is defined as

a depression in a road; the idea probably being that it is a hole that "chucks? out the unlucky driver whose vehicle gets into

it. The South Dakota club turns out with pick and shovel and fills in these dangerous places whenever it is notified of their existence.

A prize of $250 is offered by a Chicago paper for the best film play illustrating the advantages of the Single Tax. It would seem that the genius who can get inspiration for a thriller for the movies out of a didactic subject like taxation is entitled to even a larger reward.

Among "headlines that will never be printed” “ Life" includes these: “Opera Tenor Objects to Curtain Calls ;" “ Non-Speeding Device Makes New.Crawlo' Car a Great Favorite ;" “Railroads Will Lower Rate of Travel ;" “Kaiser States that He Brought About the World War;" “ Campaign Orator Refuses to Deal in Personalities ;" “Stolen Umbrella Replaced by Better One.”

The demand for platinum for war purposes, according to “ American Photography," has caused the British Government to forbid its use in photography. Even in America the use of platinum paper, which admittedly gives the most beautiful effects of any photographic medium, has been restricted on account of its high cost.

A submarine commander, the “ Popular Science Monthly says, has but one means of judging the speed of the vessel to be attackedby noting the size of the bow-wave thrown up by the intended victim. The correctness of the estimate means either a hit or a miss. To deceive the submarine in this matter British ship-owners have devised the clever ruse of painting a huge bow-wave on the sides of a ship, rendering it extremely difficult for the underwater craft to judge the speed accurately.

Among the humorous scissorings of the week are these: The time-table of a Sea Gate steamboat line shows a boat leaving at 3:30 P.M. On Saturdays, however, it says, “ the boat leaving at 3:30 P.M. will not run." “ Will it walk, swim, sink, or fly?" asks an inquisitive commuter. From across the Atlantic comes this: A muchloved Irish physician was calling on a peasant patient. The grateful woman, wishing to pay him a fine compliment, said, enthusiastically, Ah, doctor, it's a rale Job's comforter ye are !"

A steamship line is proposed between New York City and l'igo, Spain. This route is said to be 1,000 miles shorter than the English route, and fast steamers might make the voyage in five days. l'igo is in almost the same latitude as New York, and, besides, has the advantage of being in neutral territory.

For complete antithesis of object wanted and treasure offered can any one beat this "exchange "advertisement from a New York City newspaper:

Vitri. Well known poet wil exchange nanusrist o mundslinder belume of verse filene 01 parnis alle nishes loitaje for summer. Auswer Post, B-,

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POLITICAL THINKING IN THE

MIDDLE WEST
STAFF CORRESPONDENCE BY
FREDERICK M. DAVENPORT

THE DOUGH-BOY AND THE TRUCK

BY GREGORY MASON
SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT OF THE OUTLOOK

THE MANIA
BY IRVING BACHELLER

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1915
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