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to Indiana first in the Middle West. I think out-and-out a speech from Mr. Fairbanks you can read the real controlling mind of the during his whole career. A powerful navy Republican rank and file better in Indiana which shall command respect for our diplothan in Mr. Barnes's territory or

on the

macy, the guarantee of our own peace and Pacific coast. You can put the acid test to of the protection of the lawful rights of stand-pat Indiana and get a truer reaction American citizens, National safety to be than almost anywhere else.

preserved against all comers, firmness and Take Fairbanks. Of course you don't certainty, a self-respecting and straightforhave to unless you want to. But what I ward policy—if Indiana and Fairbanks thus mean is that Fairbanks is really typical of speak, I can see what the National Republistand-patism, not only of the better sort in can Convention must say. the political organization, but as it exists in And my talks with many citizens of Indithe mind of a large section of the Republican ana, the plain and the prominent, confirm masses. And that is the kind of a man who me in the conviction that, even from the will probably, under present conditions, have standpoint of the Middle West, nothing will to go on the National ticket if a pronounced do but a profoundly National declaration of liberal is named for the Presidency. Fair- the most positive sort, and that no candidate banks has few enemies, is well liked in his for the Presidency can possibly be put across State, has had a large public experience, was by the Republican party who is not known to eight years United States Senator and four be a thoroughly positive character and one of years a Vice-President, is conciliatory and, the best of his kind. I shall have opportuabove all things, cautious. One of the rep- nity in my next letter to state an opinion as resentative men of Indianapolis told me again to how far it seems to me the Middle West that legendary story which I have heard be- is alive to the duties and dangers of the hour. fore of how Mr. Fairbanks was stopping at a There are multitudes of people who are not hotel out in the sheep country. And in the yet thinking at all. But more of them are morning at breakfast he sat at the table with thinking every day. And while they think another man who ventured to say, “ It is a cautiously out here of the present issue and fine morning.” And Fairbanks, after looking are inclined to believe that the East is hystericarefully out of the window and observing cal and that the dangers are overdrawn, noththat the sun was shining brightly, replied, ing but genuine Americanism satisfies them "It is." And a little later the other man when they wake up. further remarked, “ Why, those seem to be As I write this Saturday afternoon of the sheep off towards the horizon.” And Mr. 13th of May, I read in an Associated Press Fairbanks took a little more time to examine despatch that the great citizen throng which in closely, but finally admitted, “ They are." New York is marching up Fifth Avenue is And the other man said, “Why, those sheep forced to face a banner flung across the street are sheared !” And Mr. Fairbanks, after a bearing an inscription to the effect that 500,000 much longer period of scrutiny than before, mine-workers and organized labor in Ameri a at last answered. “Well, they do appear to are opposed to what they are marching fr. be sheared on one side.This story may be Day before yesterday in Indianapolis, in the apocryphal, but it is unquestionably descrip- National offices of the United Mine Workers, tive with a nicety of the supposedly eternal I talked with a man who probably knows as necessities of Indiana stand-pat politics. much about the inner thought of the rank Normally, the vote of the State hangs by a and file of that organization as any man in hair. Any misstep may be fatal to the party, America. He said to me: “It is the Socialand it is best not to take any chance! More- ist section of labor which has the wrong view over, the Fairbanks temperament represents of preparedness. To be sure, all labor wants in an exaggerated form the point of view of to keep out of war and sincerely desires many citizens of the United States who have peace. The effect of war would be disastrous grown in the habit of casting a Republican to labor unions, perhaps cutting their memballot. All the more for that reason the bership in two. And we think that the prespeech which the Indiana candidate for the paredness business is overdone. We want a Presidency delivered in Indianapolis a day or strong navy and strong coast defenses, but two ago is significant of the issue which is not a large standing army. But we are forcing itself upon the Republican party at Americans, and we are troubled about the Chicago. I have never read so strongly Republic.

Republic. We don't think things are going

1916

THE PRE-NOMINATION CAMPAIGN

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right. There is not solidarity enough. Our lived next door to him in Cincinnati, and had labor unions, in developing co-operation and had seven separate warnings not to sail. brotherhood among great masses of men of But in various parts of Indiana and the different races and nationalities, are doing Middle West the fire is beginning to burn, something that the whole country needs to and communities are beginning to be aroused. have done by a real government, and that Americanism is not dead, but sleeping. I cannot be done too soon.”

did not hear of a single community in which I shall have something more to say later discussions favorable to National discipline about the general attitude of the Middle and preparation have recently been held that West German, but 'one of them, a strongly had not been stirred to patriotic feeling and Republican German from Cincinnati whom action. Roosevelt tore up Chicago by the I fell in with in Indiana, and who bitterly de- roots. A man who was at the banquet of nounced England, said to me when I asked the Illinois Bar Association told me that the him if the Germans would stand for a strong first fifteen or twenty minutes were cool and programme of preparedness in the Repub- formal. And then, not the eloquence of lican platform: “Why, of course ; Germany Roosevelt, but the idea which he drove home was prepared; wasn't she ?” “ But,” I said, with such power, got hold of the best brain “ would the Ohio Germans stand for an attack and heart of Chicago. And it was a scene, on Germany in the Republican platform ?” he said, never to be forgotten. “Yes, they would, I think,” he said, "if Richmond, Indiana, is the seat of a Quaker England were included. They are Amer college, Earlham, whose President is an icans. But they don't like to have Wilson, active pacifist, and many leaders of public and they wouldn't like to have the Repub- opinion are of the Quaker faith. At a meetlicans, kowtow to the English. They don't ing the other night to indorse the resolutions like the way Wilson is willing to stand for the of the National Chamber of Commerce upon starving of the Germans. When a man's the subject of preparation, Timothy Nicholchildren are in danger, he will take any son, a prominent Quaker, characterized the means, submarines or anything else, to avert whole programme as only a method of Prusit.” He was for Hughes for President. sianization. And he had strong support. But

But the response was not always so clear William Dudley Foulke and others called to and unequivocal. I have a record of other remembrance our fate during the Civil War kinds in my note-book. In the smoker of —that before the war closed Indiana alone the Pullman going into Indiana I talked with sent between two and three hundred thousand a leading representative of the warehouse volunteers to the field, that many thousands industry who is brought into close touch with unnecessarily and miserably died, and that producers in the Middle West. “West of we had to prepare ourselves by a succession the Alleghanies,” said he, “ the people never of defeats before we learned how to gain the were so contented. They are not cowards, victory. And Quaker Richmond voted two and they will fight if they have to, and fight to one for National preparation. hard, and they are willing to be reasonably The light is breaking over stand-pat ready for it. But they have boys of their Indiana. The most conclusive evidence of own, and they have sickened at the sight of this that I found is in the beginnings of this European blood-letting in the last eight- altered conduct on the part of the Fairbanks een months. Most of the danger of our machine. The returning Progressives have getting into the war is the result of a stub- been welcomed not only with generosity but born commercialism. Why, a friend of mine with an appreciation of the valuable chastenin Cincinnati and his wife went down on the ing which has been bestowed upon the ReLusitania. He was worth three-quarters of publican party by the revolution. One of a million. He had nobody but himself and the Big Four delegation to Chicago is a his wife. He was going across to get some former chairman of the Progressives in the of the European business. He didn't need State. One of the two men who argued the it. I have had a chance to get some of it, Roosevelt cases before the National Comtoo. But I don't want it. There is enough mittee in 1912, and who was one of the at home.” My German friend mentioned founders of the Progressive party, was the above, with whom I fell in some days after, permanent chairman of the recent Republican told me that the man just referred to, who State Convention. Former Progressive canwith his wife went down on the Lusitania, didates appear on the Republican State ticket this year, and all down the line through the return to the faith once delivered to Lincoln. local tickets. In point of fact, because of But man after man of the younger Fairbanks the stiffness of the old-line rank-and-file organization assured me that the whole plan Republicans, who generally went out to the was necessarily as well as happily on the primaries in greater numbers than the rc- level. We are tired, said they, of the longcently returned Progressives, not so many of time prostitution of party government by the the leading Progressives appear on the final union of the Taggart element and the Bour. ticket as the Republican managers themselves bon Republican element. The old idea of greatly desired. There is no silly talk, such the party control in the hands of a few, for as you hear sometimes in the East, about the sole purpose of holding office and keeping the necessity of the Progressives returning up a perfunctory government with special through the back door. There is very little privileges for the few, has maintained itself of the supercilious and arrogant or pinheaded too long. I am using almost the exact lanattitude. The control of the Fairbanks ma- guage of more than one of them. Governchine itself is passing into the hands of young ment, said these young men, is a social funcand more forward-looking men. This has tion as well as a recording and policing device. been accomplished, not by ostentatiously re- And it has got to be used more and more for pudiating the Bourbon element, but by quietly the good of all the people and to make a real relegating it to the rear. The younger and country. Roosevelt talked about it in 1912, more virile Republicans who stood by Taft, and he is talking about it now. We know and the younger and more virile Progressives that some of our old stagers around here who stood by Roosevelt, are many of them have been deficient in morality. We want working shoulder to shoulder in Indiana government to be a vital force for the wellwithin the Republican organization. And all being of the country. We won't accept the this has the cordial co-operation of Fairbanks term “social justice," because it has been and some others of the elder statesmen. Of through the mire, but that's what we mean. course there is an immense amount of self- Roosevelt went at it with a bludgeon. Perinterest about it, because Indiana will never haps that was the only way to get it started. be Republican again except after an eighty But we are going to see if we cannot work or ninety per cent amalgamation of Repabli- it out by a process of healing without speccans and Progressives. Indiana Republican- tacular methods. The last thing we want is ism was hard hit in 1912 and has so remained. a return of the old crowd and the old methods. But enlightened self-interest and the spirit of But we need the element which is behind conciliation work wonders together. And the them in order to win, and so we are not needIndiana idea will have to be extended deep lessly antagonizing them. You cannot do into the National conclave at Chicago and anything without party organization, but all throughout the borders of Republicanism through the country the ser timent against a before anything like permanent party success man's carrying a State to Chicago with him is assured.

in his pocket is as strong as ever. Look at But the new idea has taken hold of Repub- Penrose and his delegation-split in two. lican Indiana. The narrow arrogance of the And New York and its delegation-split in Bourbon inner circle is much less prominent. two. And Massachusetts and its delegationThe fine young chairman of the State Central split in two. The Republicans of Indiana as Committee is sounding across the State the well as in other parts of the country are not slogan that the right of participation in party going to stand much longer for what they affairs by the membership of the party shall have stood for in the past. be and remain equally sacred and sacredly But I shall have to let my Indiana friends equal. The leading Progressives are by no make the rest of their speech to the Repubmeans all reconciled, and some of them are lican National Committee at Chicago. waiting for a little more evidence of real Indianapolis, May 13, 1916

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COPYRIGHT BY SOCIAL PRESS A980CIATION

THE GREAT PREPAREDNESS PARADE IN NEW YORK CITY Saturday, May 13, was observed as a general holiday by most of the citizens and many of the business houses of New York, for the purpose either of participating in or seeing the great procession in favor of

preparedness. For comment on the lesson of the parade see editorial pages

[graphic]

PHOTOGRAPH BY PAUL THOMPSON

A NEW STAGE IN THE PROGRESS OF BUILDING A GREAT CATHEDRAL
The picture shows the Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, Bishop of New York, with spade in hand, ready to turn the first shovelful of
earth for the foundation of the nave of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City. Behind him, from left to
right, are the Rt. Rev. Charles S. Burch, Suffragan Bishop of New York; the Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, Bishop of Massa-
chusetts; and the Rt. Rev. Frederick Courtney, late Bishop of Nova Scotia, and now a rector in New York City. When
completed, this great edifice, occupying one of the most commanding sites on Manhattan Island, will rank with some of the

great cathedrals of Europe

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