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1916

THE WEEK

11

Of course,

who revealed to those New York mothers and the percentage of juvenile delinquency and fathers an astonishing new conception will be cut in half-yes, to a third. Ten kids of the man on the beat.

can find play space where five have it to-day.” ** What's the attitude of the police toward In the vigorous searching for a solution of the children?" Sergeant Ferré repeated, the problem of playgrounds for the city child, reading from a slip that had been handed has a better suggestion been made than is him. “ I'll tell you. We are trying to be the contained in this “ Big Brother” offer of a Big Brothers to the children. We're trying New York police sergeant? to overcome the children's fear of the cop. We're trying to make the parents of the chil- GUATEMALA dren understand that we're the best friends The Outlook on February 16 published an the kids can have. We are going into the account, from facts stated by a correspondent schools, at the assembly hour in the morning, in Guatemala, of the recent election--an acand talking to the kids—telling them why we count in harmony with the views of political have to have laws and why the police have to dominance in that country held by most enforce certain rules. We're trying to make observers. It told how a unanimous election mothers and fathers, as well as the children, was secured by mobilizing all the citizens understand that certain regulations concern- between twenty and sixty years of age, pining the use of the parks must be enforced if ning on them buttons announcing their vote the parks are to be kept for the enjoyment for the re-election of the present President, of all. But we are insisting that no unrea- and then marching them past the election urn. sonable regulation shall be given us to We now have from Mr. Roger W. Pabenforce.

son, writing from Guatemala, a protest, in * The New York police want the children which, while admitting that democracy in to get as much play as they can, in every Central America is only a name, he says that way and in every place it is possible for them the Republics are doing the best they can to play. We are glad to see certain streets with the raw material at hand. set aside for play and closed during certain however, as Mr. Babson adds, with eighty per hours to traffic ; we're with you in wanting cent of the people illiterate, democracy as every vacant lot in the city turned into a play- we know it is practically impossible. ground for the children.

thermore, Mr. Babson insists that President “ Under Commissioner Woods, the police Cabrera “is a conscientious man with the have a strange ambition. I'll tell you what best of purposes.” it is,” Sergeant Ferré paused and smiled Other news via Mexico would indicate that broadly. "You know what people think Cabrera was far from commanding the entire about the cop—what they've always thought confidence of the Guatemalans, that there about him. Well, it's got into the very nature has been an important defection in the army, of the cop himself. So that he's like the and that another familiar Central American little mongrel dog that grew up in the city revolt, if not revolution, is impending. streets. Since the first day that dog could remember some boy had tied a tin can to his THE POPE AND THE JEWS tail, and in time the little dog got used to it In the name of millions of Jewish citizens and thought it was all right-not pleasant, of the United States, on December 30, 1915, but all right. Finally it got so that the little the American Jewish Committee addressed a fellow would just naturally back up to every letter to Pope Benedict XV pleading for his tin can he found on the street !

intercession in alleviating the persecution to * The ambition of the New York police, which the Jews in various lands have been don't faint !—is to get rid of our reputation subjected. as ogres. We are not tyrants. We are, The Pope's reply, in a letter to the Com. most of us, fathers of children that we think mittee from Cardinal Gasparri, Secretary of a lot of ! We are going to see the day, if our State to his Holiness, has just been made efforts can bring it about, when the kid will public. After some prelude the Pope declares: think of the cop first if he wants a friend. As the head of the Catholic Church, whichi, You know what that will mean for law and

faithful to its divine doctrine, . . . considers all order. For solving the question of play men as brethren and teaches them to love one spaces for the children! Why, you take the another, he will not cease to inculcate the obkids and the cops and let them work together, servance among individuals, as among nations,

Fur

of the principles of natural right, and to reprove avoided which could injure the justifiable inevery violation of them. This right should be terests of neutral states and be susceptible of observed and respected in relation to the chil- bringing about an aggravation or extension of dren of Israel as it should be to all men, for

the war. it would not conform to justice and to religion

Speaking concerning this, Deputy Haase, itself to derogate therefrom solely because of a difference of religious faith.

according to a despatch from Berlin printed

in the New York “ Times,” painted both The letter then suys :

economic and military conditions in such dark Moreover, in his paternal heart, pained by and unwelcome colors as to provoke a parthe spectacle of the existing horrible war, the

liamentary storm. President Kämpf was Supreme Pontiff feels in this moment more

forced to close the sitting. deeply than ever before the necessity that all

Haase is a Socialist. He is so much esmen shall recollect that they are brothers and that their salvation lies in the return to the law

teemed that, though adhering to the minority of love, which is the law of the Gospels. He or radical faction, he has remained President also desires to interest to this end all who, of the Socialist caucus. The majority faction especially by reason of the sacred attributes of (the majority of Socialist members of Parliatheir pastoral ministrations, are able to bring ment, but, it would appear, not a majority of efficient aid to this important result.

the whole Socialist voting constituency) have, Finally :

as Herr Bernstein says, grown nearer and In the meantime his Holiness rejoices in the nearer to the non-Socialist parties; they are, unity which in civil matters exists in the United to quote him, like men “who, after a long States of America among the members of dif- time in a room with closed windows, no ferent faiths and which contributes so power.

longer notice that the air is close." fully to the peaceful prosperity of your great These conservative Socialists have been country.

standing with the Government as to war We are not surprised to find the “ Amer

credits. Not so the radical Socialists. They ican Hebrew," under the editorship of its

have steadily increased in numbers, but have new editor-in-chief, Hermann Bernstein, say

now themselves split by the withdrawal from ing :

them of the extreme radicals, eighteen memAmong all the Papal bulls ever issued with

bers of Parliament, led by Herr Haaseregard to Jews, throughout the history of the

the main result of his now famous speech. Vatican, there is no statement that equals this direct, unmistakable plea for equality for the. They believe in calling a spade a spade Jews, and against prejudice upon religious

and in telling the whole truth, as they grounds. The bull issued by Innocent IV de- see it.

They are known as Die claring the Jews innocent of the charge of using

Sozialdemokratische Arbeitsgemeinschaft, or Christian blood for ritual purposes, while a the Socialist Labor Community. Among the remarkable document, was, after all, merely a eighteen may be found the names of Liebstatement of fact, whereas the present statement knecht, Bernstein, Stadthagen, and Zubeil. by Pope Benedict XV is a plea against religious

The “ Journal de Genève” declares that prejudice and persecution.

these men constitute the kernel of the Social

ists of the future. THREE KINDS OF

At all events, for the immediate present GERMAN SOCIALISTS

the German Socialists are divided into three The present is one of the most note

factions. The official organ of the Social worthy sessions of the German Parliament. It

Democratic party, the well-known Berlin was expected to be so because of the assertion

Vorwärts," says, according to press desby the reactionaries that they would support

patches : the policy of “frightfulness." But, though the

Party unity is the outgrowth of the historic ambiguous measure finally adopted may mean

necessity of the proletarian struggle and of anything, it does not indicate that the Parlia

the indestructible force of Socialistic ideals ment has gone on record definitely in that

which will again weld together with irresistible direction.

strength all elements on Social Democratic Far more important and significant was the principles as soon as the errors and confusion resolution offered by the Progressists and of this maritime warfare shall have been overSocialists reading, as telegraphed, as follows: The Reichstag expresses the hope that in the

These “errors and confusion" are causing employment of submarines everything will be what seem to us hopeful divisions in the

now

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come.

1916

TWO MEXICAN POLICIES

13

party of progress in Germany. It is all government is bound to defend. It is cervery well for a staid old historic daily like the tainly bound to defend the lawful rights of Berlin “ Vossische Zeitung” to call the latest men, women, and children lawfully exercisSocialist faction “a small band of political ing their rights in their own lands or in fordesperadoes.” But it is precisely this small eign lands. This is a duty of which the band which recognizes a truth not yet recog.

Government cannot divest itself. If those nized by “ Tante Voss."

who are in charge of the Government are unwilling to perform that duty, they should

resign and give way to those who are willing TWO MEXICAN POLICIES

to perform it.

For failure to perform this duty there is Believing that the writer who appears in this no justification in the plea of altruism and issue under the pen name " McGregor” was idealism. The idealism that leads to the the one who could give our readers the most neglect of homely duty is a false idealism. sympathetic and skillful defense of President The altruism that is generous with other Wilson's Mexican policy, we requested him people's property and rights is not only a to prepare the article that appears on another false altruism but is morally indefensible. page. We have reason to believe that this If a philanthropically minded trustee takes interpretation is such as the President and the money which has been put into his keephis Cabinet would approve. More than that ing for the support of his ward and gives it we are not authorized to say. We think our

away to poor children, he is an unfit trustee. readers may be confident that “ McGregor's” Though he be an altruist and an idealist, he article is a strong statement of the case for should be removed, and a man with a keener the Administration.

sense of duty and honesty put in his place. This article bears on its face evidence that Americans lawfully in Mexico are entitled it is the work of an unqualified supporter of to protection. To deny this to them because the Democratic Administration. It classifies the man who is for the time being the Amerthose who disagree with the present method ican President has certain honest beliefs as and policies as “joyous jingoes, tempera- to “what constitutes the best interests of mental tories, partisan politicians, and com- Mexico," or as to what the Mexicans should mon commercialists.” It declares that every be allowed to do "to work out their own one " whose partisanship really stops at the problem,” or as to what is “necessary for the border” and who knows the facts will be welfare of Mexico," is to substitute philanconvinced that President Wilson's policy is thropic impulses for the obligations of a trus** logical, wise, and just.” On the other tee. The fundamental failure of President hand, it does not stop “at the border " in Wilson's Mexican policy is failure in this its criticism of the preceding Republica sense of trusteeship. Admi aistration, for it applies to that Admin- But this Government is trustee, not only istration's activities such phrases as “dollar for Americans, but also for Europeans in diplomacy tours," " brutal message," and Mexico. Having, under the Monroe Doc"pure bluff.” For the Wilson policy in trine, denied European nations the full exerMexico this article plainly evinces only un- cise of sovereign powers to vindicate the affected admiration.

rights of their citizens or subjects, the United This admiration is based on the belief that States has assumed the obligation itself to in using the power of the United States the protect those Europeans. It has no right to President has been guided by his understand- act the part of benevolent philanthropist at ing of what constitutes the best interest of the expense of this obligation. Instead, howMexico. We share that belief. But the ever, of protecting these Europeans, the powers granted to the President are not his American Government has left Americans personal property, but are the property of to be protected by European governments. the American people and given to the Presi- When American war-ships were ordered away dent in trust for the American people. from Tampico, Americans were rescued by

The first duty of a government is to pro- English and German naval officers. This is tect its own citizens in their lawful rights but one instance of many cases where Amerwherever they are. It is not to pass judg. icans had to apply for protection to the repment on their morals or their motives. The resentatives of European Powers. One does worst criminal has rights which a civilized not need to be a partisan to hold that this

has been neither “logical,” “ wise," nor “just.”

It might have been intelligible if the American Government had acknowledged itself too weak to protect its citizens, and therefore incapable of attempting any kind of intervention.

But it was not intelligible for the United States Government, while declining to intervene for the protection of its own citi. zens, to intervene by both political and military means for the direction of the course of Mexican affairs. It is not childish but highly charitable to explain our intervention at Vera Cruz as an attempt to secure a salute for our fag. If we occupied Vera Cruz not for the sake of obtaining recognition of the rights of Americans which the flag symbolizes, then our occupation was an outrageous use of the forces of the United States to carry out one individual's theory as to what man the Mexicans ought to have or ought not to have for President. We repeat that it is charitable to assert that we went to war with Huerta to obtain a salute to the Aag and failed to obtain it. That is the best construction that can be put upon the Vera Cruz incident.

How is it possible to aver that the reason the Administration refused to intervene for the protection of Americans was that armed intervention “ would infallibly have meant war upon the whole Mexican people,” and “ the probable sacrifice of all the Americans remaining in Mexico”? Twice we have resorted to armed intervention--once at Vera Cruz and once after the Columbus raid-and there has been no war upon the whole Mexican people, and no such sacrifice of American lives as there has been when we have kept to the policy of “ watchful waiting.” As a marter of fact, there has never been during the past three years a moment when intervention in behalf of American life (as distinct from intervention for the pursuit of one man, such as Huerta or Villa) would not have been amply justified and entirely consistene with good will towards and service of the Mexican people.

+ McGregor" asks for an alternative policy We here submit it, repeating what we have said on other occasions :

1. Refusal to recognize Huerta—not, however, because of any theory as to what is best for the Mexicans, but because Huerta's gov. ernment was neither a de jure government nor, since it did not give and could not give

protection to Americans and Mexicans alike, a de facto government.

2. Consultation with the A B C Governments—not to rescue us from a dilemma nor to decide what Mexican faction to support, but to let the A B C nations know that for our own protection and the protection of democracy against the contagion of anarchy we felt compelled to act, and to give them the opportunity of verifying our good faith by participation in the intervention to secure the ends aimed at.

3. Occupation of Vera Cruz—not, however, to obtain a salute or to drive from office any one individual, but to begin a policy of pacification.

+. Occupation of strategic points by small but competent forces of the regular army.

5. The organization of a Mexican constabulary in Mexican uniforms under the immediate command of Mexicans and directed by the American army officers, for the protection of all the residents in Mexico against the depredations of bandits, and for the establishment of such elements of government as are requisite for even the beginnings of democratic rule.

That our army, occupying such centers of protection and influence and so employed, would have been welcomed and supported by the overwhelming majority of the Mexican people we have from the beginning been convinced. It was so welcomed and supported by the people of Cuba when it was given the same task. And this conviction has been proved sound by the good will shown to the army after the first week of occupation at Vera Cruz, and by the welcome and friendliness evinced toward American soldiers (as described by Mr. Mason in The Outlook last week) under the much more difficult and dangerous circumstances surrounding the pursuit of Villa. Against such a proceeding the American Government would encounter the opposition only of those self-seeking Mexican politicians who, like the same sort of polilicians in the Philippines, have been the greatest obstacle to progress and real democracy.

Such a policy, quietly and firmly carried out, would have the support of ample precedent, would have involved little bloodshed, would have required only a small force (much smaller than is now employed in trying to catch a single elusive bandit), and would have been alike a protection to Americans in Mexico, an effective defense of the American border against such raiders as attacked Co

1916

SHAKESPEARE IN CHICAGO

15

66

lumbus, New Mexico, and the greatest possi

SHAKESPEARE IN CHICAGO ble service to the cause of liberty and civilization among the Mexicans themselves.

A judge of the Cook County Circuit Court Sooner or later the United States Govern- has put Shakespeare in his proper place. ment will have to undertake some such policy Incidentally he has vindicated the copious as this. It has been made much more diffi- claims of those who have asserted that Francis cult by the withdrawal from Vera Cruz, the Bacon was the author, not only of the works continued abandonment of Americans in which he was gracious enough to sign, but Mexico, the ignoring of the claims of Euro- also of a wealth of plays with which he found peans upon us, and, finally, the so-called it impolitic to associate his illustrious name. "punitive expedition." Every month that Judge Richard S. Tuthill is the legal luminary the policy of pacification is put off the task who has settled for all time this momentous will be made harder, and meantime lives will question. In the newspaper reports of his be lost, property destroyed and wasted, and decision it appears that the Judge gave great suspicion in Mexico (if not in all Latin weight to the fact that Shakespeare “was America) intensified. No such policy is to not an educated man,” that he also took into be expected from the present Administra- consideration the fact that Francis Bacon tion. Its whole point of view is contrary to was educated not only in English, French, it. Some day some Administration with a Latin, Greek, Italian, German, and that he keener sense of American rights and a had a general education the equal of or supesounder view of real democracy will under- rior to any man of his age.” Next to this take it.

momentous fact it appears that one of the

Baconian ciphers also had due influence with HIT OR MISS

the Court. At any rate, the evidence seems

to have convinced Judge Tuthill that he was From now until the meeting of the great justified in covering with the mantle of the party, conventions this summer, and then law the clattering skeleton of the Baconian again until next November, the voters will

myth. strive, urge, and argue over the question, We have not yet secured an official tranH'ho shall be the next President ? But is script of Judge Tuthill's decision, and so perany one now concerned seriously with the haps we are justified in maintaining a certain question, Who shall be the next Vice-Presi- attitude of skepticism towards the epochdent? Indeed, the Vice-Presidency has al- making quality of his judicial edict. Perhaps most become one of the National jokes. We when we have secured this official transcript choose our candidates for this office on the hit- (if we do) we shall feel it our duty to file or-miss plan ; we expect little of them ; and it (mentally at least) in silent state beside the too often we get less than we expected.

verdict of that other Chicago Judge who found The list of Vice-Presidents who have actu- that Rostand plagiarized “Cyrano de Berally succeeded through the death of a Presi- gerac" from the writings of a Chicago real dent to the Presidency (five in number) is estate agent. not discreditable ; at least this may be said of Doubtless the public will hear more of it—that it is incomparably better than a list Judge Tuthill's decision, for it was given one could easily make of Vice-Presidents who in a suit brought by a moving-picture conmight have been thrown into the Presidency cern against a writer who was about to by fate and, most happily in every sense, were

issue a book containing proofs of Bacon's

authorship of Shakespeare's plays. The We have taken too many chances in this moving-picture concern felt itself aggrieved matter of the Vice-Presidency. It is dan- by the approaching explosion of the Shakegerous and weak to stake our political all spearean legend, because it was praiseworon the life of one man. The Vice-President thily intending to perpetuate Shakespeare's should always be a man of real Presidential fame by putting his plays upon the screen. caliber. It would be a high public service for

Because it sued out an improvident injunction such a man--say a man who stood second in against the champion of Francis Bacon, Judge the balloting for the Presidential candidacy

Tuthill awarded the latter gentleman a verdict to accept a Vice-Presidential nomination, and of five thousand dollars. The press agents thereby dignify and strengthen the country's

of the moving-picture company, of course, have done their best to conceal this fact from

not.

ideal of the office

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