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1916

TWO MEXICAN POLICIES

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party of progress in Germany. It is all government is bound to defend. It is cervery well for a staid old historic daily like the tainly bound to defend the lawful rights of Berlin “ Vossische Zeitung” to call the latest men, women, and children lawfully exercisSocialist faction “a small band of political ing their rights in their own lands or in fordesperadoes." But it is precisely this small eign lands. This is a duty of which the band which recognizes a truth not yet recog- Government cannot divest itself. If those nized by “ Tante Voss."

who are in charge of the Government are unwilling to perform that duty, they should

resign and give way to those who are willing TWO MEXICAN POLICIES

to perform it.

For failure to perform this duty there is Believing that the writer who appears in this no justification in the plea of altruism and issue under the pen name “ McGregor" was idealism. The idealism that leads to the the one who could give our readers the most neglect of homely duty is a false idealism. sympathetic and skillful defense of President The altruism that is generous with other Wilson's Mexican policy, we requested him people's property and rights is not only a to prepare the article that appears on another false altruism but is morally indefensible. page. We have reason to believe that this If a philanthropically minded trustee takes interpretation is such as the President and the money which has been put into his keephis Cabinet would approve. More than that ing for the support of his ward and gives it we are not authorized to say. We think our away to poor children, he is an unfit trustee. readers may be confident that “McGregor's” Though he be an altruist and an idealist, he article is a strong statement of the case for should be removed, and a man with a keener the Administration.

sense of duty and honesty put in his place. This article bears on its face evidence that Americans lawfully in Mexico are entitled it is the work of an unqualified supporter of to protection. To deny this to them because the Democratic Administration. It classifies the man who is for the time being the Amerthose who disagree with the present method ican President has certain honest beliefs as and policies as “joyous jingoes, tempera- to “what constitutes the best interests of mental tories, partisan politicians, and com- Mexico," or as to what the Mexicans should mon commercialists.” It declares that every be allowed to do “ to work out their own one “ whose partisanship really stops at the problem,” or as to what is “necessary for the border” and who knows the facts will be welfare of Mexico,” is to substitute philanconvinced that President Wilson's policy is thropic impulses for the obligations of a trus"logical, wise, and just.” On the other tee. The fundamental failure of President hand, it does not stop “at the border” in Wilson's Mexican policy is failure in this its criticism of the preceding Republican sense of trusteeship. Administration, for it applies to that Admin- But this Government is trustee, not only istration's activities such phrases as “ dollar for Americans, but also for Europeans in diplomacy tours," "brutal message," and Mexico. Having, under the Monroe Doc"pure bluff.” For the Wilson policy in trine, denied European nations the full exerMexico this article plainly evinces only un- cise of sovereign powers to vindicate the affected admiration.

rights of their citizens or subjects, the United This admiration is based on the belief that States has assumed the obligation itself to in using the power of the United States the protect those Europeans. It has no right to President has been guided by his understand- act the part of benevolent philanthropist at ing of what constitutes the best interest of the expense of this obligation. Instead, howMexico. We share that belief. But the ever, of protecting these Europeans, the powers granted to the President are not his American Government has left Americans personal property, but are the property of to be protected by European governments. the American people and given to the Presi- When American war-ships were ordered away dent in trust for the American people. from Tampico, Americans were rescued by

The first duty of a government is to pro- English and German naval officers. This is tect its own citizens in their lawful rights but one instance of many cases where Amerwherever they are. It is not to pass judg. icans had to apply for protection to the repment on their morals or their motives. The resentatives of European Powers. One does worst criminal has rights which a civilized not need to be a partisan to hold that this has been neither “logical,” “ wise," nor protection to Americans and Mexicans alike, “just.”

a de facto government. It might have been intelligible if the Amer- 2. Consultation with the A B C Governican Government had acknowledged itself too ments—not to rescue us from a dilemma nor weak to protect its citizens, and therefore to decide what Mexican faction to support, incapable of attempting any kind of interven- but to let the A B C nations know that for tion.

our own protection and the protection of deBut it was not intelligible for the United mocracy against the contagion of anarchy we States Government, while declining to in- felt compelled to act, and to give them the tervene for the protection of its own citi opportunity of verifying our good faith by zens, to intervene by both political and mili- participation in the intervention to secure the tary means for the direction of the course ends aimed at. of Mexican affairs. It is not childish but 3. Occupation of Vera Cruz—not, howhighly charitable to explain our intervention ever, to obtain a salute or to drive from at Vera Cruz as an attempt to secure a office any one individual, but to begin a salute for our flag. If we occupied Vera policy of pacification. Cruz not for the sake of obtaining recogni- 4. Occupation of strategic points by small tion of the rights of Americans which the but competent forces of the regular army. flag symbolizes, then our occupation was an 5. The organization of a Mexican conoutrageous use of the forces of the United stabulary in Mexican uniforms under the imStates to carry out one individual's theory as mediate command of Mexicans and directed to what man the Mexicans ought to have or by the American army officers, for the proought not to have for President. We repeat tection of all the residents in Mexico against that it is charitable to assert that we went to the depredations of bandits, and for the war with Huerta to obtain a salute to the establishment of such elements of governAag and failed to obtain it. That is the best ment as are requisite for even the beginnings construction that can be put upon the Vera of democratic rule. Cruz incident.

That our army, occupying such centers of How is it possible to aver that the reason protection and influence and so employed, the Administration refused to intervene for would have been welcomed and supported the protection of Americans was that armed by the overwhelming majority of the Mexiintervention“ would infallibly have meant war can people we have from the beginning been upon the whole Mexican people,” and “ the convinced. It was so welcomed and supprobable sacrifice of all the Americans re. ported by the people of Cuba when it was maining in Mexico”? Twice we have resorted given the same task. And this conviction to armed intervention--once at Vera Cruz has been proved sound by the good will and once after the Columbus raid—and there shown to the army after the first week of has been no war upon the whole Mexican occupation at Vera Cruz, and by the welcome people, and no such sacrifice of American and friendliness evinced toward American lives as there has been when we have kept to soldiers (as described by Mr. Mason in The the policy of “ watchful waiting.” As a mal- Outlook last week) under the much more diffiter of fact, there has never been during the cult and dangerous circumstances surrounding past three years a moment when intervention the pursuit of Villa. Against such a proceeding in behalf of American life (as distinct from the American Government would encounter intervention for the pursuit of one man, such the opposition only of those self-seeking Mexias Huerta or Villa) would not have been can politicians who, like the same sort of poliamply justified and entirely consistene with licians in the Philippines, have been the greatgood will towards and service of the Mexican est obstacle to progress and real democracy. people.

Such a policy, quietly and firmly carried "McGregor" asks for an alternative policy out, would have thc support of ample preceWe here submit it, repeating what we have dent, would have involved little bloodshed, said on other occasions :

would have required only a small force (much 1. Refusal to recognize Huerta-not, how- smaller than is now employed in trying to ever, because of any theory as to what is best catch a single elusive bandit), and would for the Mexicans, but because Huerta's gov. have been alike a protection to Americans in ernment was neither a de jure government Mexico, an effective defense of the American nor, since it did not give and could not give border against such raiders as attacked Co

1916

SHAKESPEARE IN CHICAGO

15

lumbus, New Mexico, and the greatest possi

SHAKESPEARE IN CHICAGO ble service to the cause of liberty and civilization among the Mexicans themselves.

A judge of the Cook County Circuit Court Sooner or later the United States Govern- has put Shakespeare in his proper place. ment will have to undertake some such policy Incidentally he has vindicated the copious as this. It has been made much more diffi- claims of those who have asserted that Francis cult by the withdrawal from Vera Cruz, the Bacon was the author, not only of the works continued abandonment of Americans in which he was gracious enough to sign, but Mexico, the ignoring of the claims of Euro- also of a wealth of plays with which he found peans upon us, and, finally, the so-called it impolitic to associate his illustrious name. "punitive expedition.” Every month that Judge Richard S. Tuthill is the legal luminary the policy of pacification is put off the task who has settled for all time this momentous will be made harder, and meantime lives will question. In the newspaper reports of his be lost, property destroyed and wasted, and decision it appears that the Judge gave great suspicion in Mexico (if not in all Latin weight to the fact that Shakespeare " was America) intensified. No such policy is to not an educated man,” that he also took into be expected from the present Administra- consideration the fact that Francis Bacon tion. Its whole point of view is contrary to “ was educated not only in English, French, it. Some day some Administration with a Latin, Greek, Italian, German, and that he keener sense of American rights and a had a general education the equal of or supesounder view of real democracy will under- rior to any man of his age.” Next to this take it.

momentous fact it appears that one of the

Baconian ciphers also had due influence with HIT OR MISS

the Court. At any rate, the evidence seems

to have convinced Judge Tuthill that he was From now until the meeting of the great justified in covering with the mantle of the party conventions this summer, and then law the clattering skeleton of the Baconian again until next November, the voters will myth. strive, urge, and argue over the question, We have not yet secured an official tranWho shall be the next President ? But is script of Judge Tuthill's decision, and so perany one now concerned seriously with the haps we are justified in maintaining a certain question, Who shall be the next Vice-Presi- attitude of skepticism towards the epochdent ? Indeed, the Vice-Presidency has al- making quality of his judicial edict. Perhaps most become one of the National jokes. We when we have secured this official transcript choose our candidates for this office on the hit- (if we do) we shall feel it our duty to file or-miss plan ; we expect little of them ; and it (mentally at least) in silent state beside the too often we get less than we expected. verdict of that other Chicago Judge who found

The list of Vice-Presidents who have actu- that Rostand plagiarized "Cyrano de Berally succeeded through the death of a Presi- gerac" from the writings of a Chicago real dent to the Presidency (five in number) is estate agent. not discreditable ; at least this may be said of Doubtless the public will hear more of it-that it is incomparably better than a list Judge Tuthill's decision, for it was given one could easily make of Vice-Presidents who in a suit brought by a moving-picture conmight have been thrown into the Presidency cern against a writer who was about to by fate and, most happily in every sense, were issue a book containing proofs of Bacon's not.

authorship of Shakespeare's plays. The We have taken too many chances in this moving-picture concern felt itself aggrieved matter of the Vice-Presidency. It is dan- by the approaching explosion of the Shakegerous and weak to stake our political all spearean legend, because it was praiseworon the life of one man. The Vice-President thily intending to perpetuate Shakespeare's should always be a man of real Presidential fame by putting his plays upon the screen. caliber. It would be a high public service for Because it sued out an improvident injunction such a man—say a man who stood second in against the champion of Francis Bacon, Judge the balloting for the Presidential candidacy- Tuthill awarded the latter gentleman a verdict to accept a Vice-Presidential nomination, and of five thousand dollars. The press agents thereby dignify and strengthen the country's of the moving-picture company, of course, ideal of the office

have done their best to conceal this fact from

the public, but they have been pathetically

DOMESTICATING MUSIC unsuccessful.

It is a curious commentary on the quality One of the greatest obstacles to the spread of human understanding that so many writers of a love of good music lies in the difficulties should have laid so much emphasis upon the of making such music readily accessible. fact that Shakespeare's only "education " was Before good music can be widely understood secured within the walls of the Stratford it must be domesticated. grammar school.

What a world of nonsense Orchestral music cannot be given, of there is in the superstition that a knowledge course, without orchestras which are costly to of books means a knowledge of nature and maintain, and which therefore have to charge mankind! How much more nonsense there high prices of admission. Thus orchestral is in the superstition that knowledge of music encounters a material obstacle which nature and mankind cannot be secured ex- prevents it from becoming accessible to the cept through the perusal of many books ! people of small communities. On the other . Apparently, once these twin superstitions hand, chamber music, which does not encounare planted in the mind, all the testimony ter just this material obstacle, encounters a of Shakespeare's contemporaries from Ben mental obstacle which is almost as great. Jonson down, all the experience which the Chamber music can be given by a small world has had of the nature of genius, all number of players, but chamber music has the internal evidence of character and of in it fewer elements of ordinary popularity mind which are displayed so divergently in than orchestral music. It encounters the the writings of Bacon and the writings of obstruction of a limited public taste. Even Shakespeare, count for nothing. Any incon- soloists, who are ordinarily more appresistency which may appear between the ciated than either orchestras or chamber known facts of Shakespeare's education and music organizations, appear, as a rule, in small the products of his pen is child's play com- communities only on rare occasions, and then pared with the preposterous fabric of crypto- as imported curiosities rather than as familiar grams and ciphers which has been built up features of the local life. It is said that the to explain the theory that Shakespeare was people do not like “ highbrow” music. Good not the author of the plays which for three music, therefore, if it is orchestral, is costly, centuries have borne his name.

and other good music is sometimes supposed Perhaps, however, we ought to be more to be an accompaniment of exclusiveness and satisfied with the results of the investigations snobbery. of the Baconian enthusiasts than we are. It is for this reason that an experiment Without their efforts no small mass of sport that has been carried on now for several and humor would be lost to the world. Of years in a small New England city by Mr. course the game which they have developed X-, a local musician with few resources will probably never be as widely popular as beyond good musicianship and boundless chess, for it is too remote from fact and the love of music, promises more for the future rules of ordinary intelligence, and, with the of musical taste among us than many possible exception of Judge Tuthill, we know more ambitious, expensive, and advertised of no umpire to whom the players of this game undertakings. Similar experiments should can turn for a controlling decision. Moreover, be tried as widely as possible, under divers the game cannot be limited, like baseball, conditions and by experimenters variously to any one playing field, or, like “authors,” to' endowed. This gentleman's original idea was any one century or epoch. Any cipher which simple, as are most good ideas. In response to is meet for Shakespeare seems to be equally requests from his friends, about ten years ago meet for Gray's “ Elegy” or the King James he gave a series of piano recitals in his home. Version of the Psalms. If the Baconians will In the course of time the crowd of friends only publish a set of rules for their investiga- attending these recitals so increased that he tions which brings the results to be achieved finally gave them in a neighbor's studio. Then and the facts upon which these results are there was organized a chamber music club. based into some common relation that can be The founder's idea was to gather together understood by the average dweller in our three- the local instrumentalists -- from theater, resdimensional world, we will do our best to have taurant, hotel—into a small group or club, their delightful game introduced into the list coach them in pieces of good chamber music, of sports at the next Olympic Gathering. and play these for the public at moderate

1916

DOMESTICATING MUSIC

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more

prices. There are few cities, even small ones, of difficulties and problems. It was found, where you cannot find a few string players for instance, that many people, even after

- violinists and 'cellists (viola players are considerable hearing of the best ensemble rarer)---men usually who are more or less un- pieces, frankly preferred piano solos, and aware of each other's existence, and who have would say, effusively, thinking to please seldom dreamed of banding together to use the founder : “ A delightful concert, Mr. their music as something more than a means X—but why don't you give us of livelihood. But with only a violinist and solos? We want to hear you play alone.” a 'cellist you have, if you yourself play the To which Mr. X— would always longpiano, a fine musical literature of trios and sufferingly reply that there were certain sonatas open to you, and when there are things string instruments could do that a also clarinetists and cornetişts to be had, the piano could not, and that it was these larger possibilities become exciting.

effects and this new literature that he had But this good idea was like others not only wished to make available to them. Of in being simple in conception, but also in in- course this was, from one point of view, envolving for the execution much devoted labor couraging, as showing the need of just such and the solution of many puzzling problems. training ; so long as a public is more inter

First of all, it is natural that the average ested in an individual soloist, through his pertheater or restaurant player knows as little of sonality, than it is in a co-operating group music as a newspaper man does of literature. through its artistic results, it is fundamentally Singular patience, tact, and contagious enthu. uneducated. siasm are needed to overcome this initial Again it was found that in some neighbordifficulty. How this New England enthusiast ing towns where it was proposed to introduce overcame it may be divined from the following the concerts (which in their home town had interesting chapter of his experiences.

swelled into a regular series of ten each winHe found working in one of the factories ter, at a subscription price of five dollars for a young man who spent all his spare time the series) the public inability to recognize playing the cornet for his own amusement. good music for itself expressed itself, as it He had a good ear and a natural love for often does, in the wish for a label. " We can music, but next to no acquaintance with get ten concerts from Mr. Xo's Club for musical literature, and naturally little sense so much," ran this familiar argument, “but, as of relative values or instinct for style. Find- we can only get one or two from the celeing him anxious to learn the horn, Mr. brated Quartette of New York for the X— bought or hired for him an instru- same money, the - Quartette must be very ment. There followed much coaching, play- much better, and therefore we will have it ing, discussion, study. In the course of a come for one concert rather than have a few years this young horn player was living series from an organization less famous.” in the house of the older man, in a pleas- The fallacy here is not quite so easily ant half-filial, half-comradely relation, and recognizable as that of the preference for participating in pieces like Dukas's Vil- a soloist to a group, but is at last traceable lanelle for Horn and Brahms's Horn Trio. to the same indifference to art in and for itself. Somewhat similar was the story of a clarinet For if a public has really learned to love player in one of the city theaters, who after music for itself, it will prefer a number of a year or two of this inspiring association was concerts by local musicians, sufficiently well taking part in Mozart's Clarinet Quintette trained to present it intelligibly, to concerts and in Brahms's Clarinet Sonatas. Even so infrequent as hardly to keep the musical Saint-Saëns's Trunipet Septette was tried with body and soul together by an organization the help of a cornet player sufficiently coached. of much greater reputation, yes, and even

Thus Mr. X— rendered one kind of by one of measurably greater skill and service in stirring professional musicians authority. For the music is the thing, not the accustomed to a routine of the dance and people that play it. That is a truth which the the theater into the creative activity of real American public must be made to understand. interpretation. But it is another service on Rather especially discouraging was the which we wish to lay emphasis here—the opposition of all the clergymen of the town service which Mr. X- rendered to the in a body to the giving of any concerts whatgeneral public.

ever on Sunday afternoons--the dreariest Here again, of course, there were plenty portion of the dreariest day in the provincial

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