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In substance all answered about like this : Such a wholesale retrogression would mean, “ If our army leaves without finishing its in the first place, practically the permanent job, we will go too. Our army's job, as we loss of the property held by Americans now see it, is not only to kill or capture Villa, but in Mexico. to kill or capture all the bandits that make In the second place, it would mean the life unsafe and peace impossible in Mexico. loss of the lives and property of many MexiKilling Villa, or even killing all Villistas, will cans who have been friendly to our soldiers not settle it. There are other lawless ele- or to other foreigners. Many Mexicans of ments in Mexico just as bad as the Villistas, this class had left their country before the although perhaps not so well led.

Columbus raids, willing to abandon their " Some of us have remained in Mexico in property if they could secure their lives. the past, ignoring President Wilson's advice Not only Mexican capitalists and Mexican to leave. But we know this country, and we families whose sons have been murdered and know the spirit of its people. Many of them whose daughters have been outraged are in are honest and peace-loving. But there are this class. In El Paso I talked with the memmany others of a different stripe, and they bers of the orchestra which formerly made will make life here impossible for Americans nights gay at Sternau's restaurant, the most if our soldiers leave without finishing their luxurious eating-place in Torreon. They real job, as we see it, which is the definite said that they had left that city because dispersal of all lawless factions, and the defi- • "Torreon is not safe for honest men.” nite establishment of law and order through Thirdly, and in the last place, the withthe unlimited support of those elements in drawal of our soldiers from Mexico now the Mexican population which really want would mean, not only the abandonment of peace.”

our own citizens, but the abandonment of all The withdrawal of all Americans from foreigners, whom we are bound by the MonMexico in a sort of grand National scuttle roe Doctrine to protect. It would mean the might not daunt an Administration that has stultification of the Monroe Doctrine. It already advised them all to get out rather would cost us the slender shred of prestige than take the responsibility of protecting which is all that our erratic foreign policy has thein. But if the American public realizes left to us abroad. what such an event would mean, perhaps the That is what our immediate withdrawal public, by the exertion of that mysterious from Mexico would mean. Before we give force which sheer numbers have, would force the order it is wisdom to inquire the the Government to protect its citizens.

cost.

THE NATIONS

NATIONS AT WAR

CANADIAN WOMEN AND THE WAR

BY RICHARD SPILLANE

I

War kills off the best of a nation's manhood, playing their part so gallantly on the stage in therefore extra care must be exercisei to saz'e Flanders and elsewhere.BADEV-POH'ELL. the childnot for its own sake or for its parents' sake, but for the sake of the nation.

N all that has developed out of this war or has got to be saved-sażied from infant mortal. any other war, perhaps nothing is more ity, then from ill health, and finally from remarkable than what has been done drifting into being waste human material. and is being done by the women of Canada. Each individual must be made healthy and They have taken Baden-Powell's idea and strong, endowed with character for becoming broadened it and added to it and improved (1 valuable citizen for the state. IVomen haze upon it until to-day they are doing a wonder here as big a national work op'n to them work. Canada has sent 60,000 of her sons behind the scenes as the men have who are into the battle-line in Europe ; 60,000 more

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are in training in England; 130,000 are being the wives, the widows, and the children. fashioned into soldiers in Canada, and the They have brought order and system out of Dominion is raising 250,000 more. Think disorder. They have raised an unbelievable of it, an army of 500,000 out of a population amount of money, and they have made pro. of little more than seven millions !

vision to have the flow of money continue as The women of Canada have taken upon long as the war lasts and longer. No probthemselves the duty of caring for every Ca- lem is too difficult for them to solve, no work nadian who offers his life in defense of the too hard for them to perform. What they Empire. They care for him in the trench, in are doing is voluntary. the hospital, in the prison camp. They have Through what is known as the Patriotic studied his every need, and provided for it. Fund they care for the wives and the children Theirs is a labor of love and tribute to the of soldiers. There are some small towns in brave. Greater, far greater, is what they are western Canada that have sent practically all doing for the women and children who are their available young men into the army. left at home. They have taken upon them- This has left these towns with very little emselves the care, the protection, and the ployment. It has been the women's probsupport of the wives, the widows, the children, lem to care for the families in these places. and the dependents of the men who have In the larger cities there has not been the been killed or maimed. They have done same proportion of enrollment, but there the more. They have built up the greatest or- phases of the question have been more comganization Canada has ever known. They plex. In what they have done and what are wiping out waste. They are making they are doing the women have been careful character. They are spending millions to to show that their work is not one of charity, save tens of millions. Ten thousand women but an expression of sympathy and protection or more who never suspected they had ability and love of Canada for the family of its solbeyond the narrow lines of their homes have diers. Their work is one of service, of intishown a business capacity, an organizing mate social contact. They see that no one strength, and a perception far beyond any- wants for food and clothing or medical attenthing men have demonstrated. Canada is tion or friendship by reason of the breadgiving an example to the whole of the British winner's having gone to the defense of the Empire-to the whole world, in fact.

Empire. They try to give to the families a To tell the story in detail would take a vol- new outlook upon life, and their endeavor is ume. It can be sketched only here.

to build up a strong, self-reliant group of There are a multitude of women's organi- each and every family.

each and every family. Their work has v zations in Canada. Among them are the proved wonderful in unifying Canada. They 1 Daughters of the Empire, the National have brought all of the people, French CanaCouncil of Women, the Canadian Red dians and English Canadians, closely toCross, the Women's Christian Temperance gether. They have broken down class disUnion, the Young Women's Christian Asso- tinction. Race and creed mean nothing. ciation, Queen Mary's Needlework Guild, The Empire, liberty, justice, free institutions, the Soldiers' Wives League, St. John Ambu- and free people mean everything. They are lance Association, and numerous smaller bod- teaching the great lesson that if the Empire ies. These practically have co-operated and is worth dying for it is well worth living for, are working under one general plan. The and that out of this great struggle there comes whole Dominion is districted. There is a the opportunity for development into a ward head in every city. There is an organ- higher citizenship of better men and better ization in every town and every village. They women. have grasped the great problems of the war Let us look at the ramifications of their as no other people have. They are not pro- work. First let us consider what they do for

1 viding for the present alone, but for the the fighting men. They have studied the period of readjustment when the war-worn needs of the man in the trench. They have men return. They have studied the psychic records of every man who has entered the effect of war upon the soldier who returns service of the King. They have records of able-bodied, just as they have studied the every relative of that man. They keep a effect upon the soldier who is brought back record of that man from the day he enters wounded or with shattered nerves. They the service, through every move in his life as have studied the effect upon the mothers, a soldier. They send to him his home

papers, magazines, tobacco, games, puzzles, is baked at Berne, in Switzerland, and forclothing, candies, anything or everything to warded regularly to the prison camps in lighten the burden of his days and to make Germany. To the honor of the Germans him know that those at home across the sea be it said that the Canadians have ample are watching over him with loving devotion. proof that what they send goes to the man In conjunction with the Red Cross they watch for whom it is intended. They even send over and care for every wounded man. They candy. This is inclosed in special, hermetihave hospitals in France and in England. cally sealed tins, and the sweets arrive fresh They have scores of ambulances. They have almost as the day they were made. They scores of lorries. They have studied the have arranged so that parcels can be sent to need of the wounded man as the subject individual prisoners. They not only send never was studied before. They have found food, but clothing, shoes, etc. They have that one of the first things the man who is arranged a system whereby anyone in wounded desires after his wounds are dressed Canada can "adopt” and provide for a is to write, so they have fixed up a portman- prisoner in Germany. They have been told teau which contains a writing-pad, pencil, a over and over again in the letters they have few delicacies. They have provided also a received that if it were not for the gifts they kit to be put at the head of his cot which he send the men might starve or freeze. Huncan reach with ease, and into which he can dreds of the prisoners have been adopted by place any little personal belongings that he kind-hearted Canadians, and their contributreasures. They provide envelopes, post- tions go forward in regular order. The cards, everything the mind can suggest for women have worked out all the details of him. Throughout Canada many thousands organization themselves. They don't know of women are working day after day for the how they did it, but it is the most businesscomfort of the well and the wounded. They like system that ever has been evolved from make sheets, bedding, towels, socks, surgical the necessities of war. shirts, nightshirts. They cut up and put up The vast majority of women in Canada are into packages, gauze, cotton, lint, ligatures, sewing or working for the fighting men and bandages, splints, chloroform, ether, hot-water the families of the soldiers. Each province bottles. They have established great store- has its Red Cross body. Every town has its houses at Boulogne, in London, and in Canada organization for Red Cross work. How to draw on in case of emergency, such as comes widespread this is may be imagined when it is with the urgent call after a great engagement said that in Nova Scotia alone there are two where the number of wounded to be treated hundred and seventy towns in which practiis tremendous. They have advance store- cally all the women are doing work for the houses near the fighting lines. To the wounded Empire. They are not doing this in any men they send magazines with all the adver- haphazard way. Each branch gets instructising sheets torn out, so that they can get tions in every form of its work, and informalight reading, stories, etc. They see that tion about the progress of every phase of each man gets a scrap-book in which the news the work. Bulletins come from headquarters from his home town is pasted. They send regularly, advising all concerned of the operaharmonicas, piccolos, and games to divert the tions of the gigantic undertaking the women mind in hours that otherwise would be dreary. are engaged in. The women have systemaEvery wounded man has a supply of choco- tized their work in every department. They late. He gets a tooth-brush, a safety razor, look after the boxing, shipping, the records, shaving soap, comb and brush, and toilet the sorting, the packing, the classifying, the accessories that he never had in the trench. stenciling. They have patterns and samples The women have tried to visualize the condi- of every conceivable article that would be tion of the man from the day he leaves useful. They do the work for which they are Canada until he returns, and out of their best fitted. Halifax may serve as an examgreat love and their wonderful fund of com- ple. In that city there are two manufacturmon sense they provide for him.

ing centers where the women gather to sew. It is so, too, with the man who is taken In the Technical College from forty to one prisoner. Through the Red Cross they have hundred women gather each day. There are made provision to feed every soldier of probably five or six hundred women in that Canada who is interned in Germany and in city who sew. Some give one day, some give Austria. They have arranged whereby bread two or more, and all give one evening a

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week. Yarn is furnished in immense quanti- workman in that town signed a pledge whereby ties. It has been proved that the women one per cent of his wages each month goes work better when they work in groups. But, to the Patriotic Fund. That is $5,000. Conin addition to the work done at the Technical sider what that means when this is multiplied College and at the Women's Council House, throughout the Dominion of Canada. This many women work in their homes. Every is what they have done. They have the facility is given to the people for working. money coming regularly for their work. In The Ladies' Aid Society has its group of emergencies they can call on the Dominion workers. So have the churches. Any or- at large for more, but out of what they have ganization that so desires can get material collected thus far they not only have looked with which to work. In the main, the ma- after all Canadians, but they have furnished terial is cut by machinery without cost. The assistance to the Servians, to the Montenelocal manufacturer does this. These women grins, to the French, and even the British make suits for convalescents. They make Government has drawn on their supplies. surgical suits, pajama suits, compresses. Every family of every soldier is kept advised They tailor and they press and they labor as regarding the soldier. If he is wounded, his they never did before. The woman of wealth family know how and where and when he was works side by side with the woman who had wounded. If he is recovering, they are advised been a toiler. The women have studied, too, of the state of his improvement. The women to eliminate waste. They have studied how have worked throughout the official channels to pack stuff in boxes so that every inch of of the British Government a system whereby space will be utilized. They have studied they are kept in absolute touch with all their everything

boys. They have a headquarters in Tooley Montreal affords the best example, per- Street in London—the Tooley Street about haps, of how the families are cared for. which we have heard so much in connection There are six thousand families in Montreal with the little tailors. They have a hospital that are sustained out of the Patriotic Fund headquarters at Cliveden on the estate of which the women gather. The women see William Waldorf Astor. They have a headthat the children of the soldiers do not neg- quarters in Paris for the French to draw lect their schooling. They are the big sisters from. But they are not satisfied. They want of the wives, of the widows, of the children, to do more. They cut army red tape just as of the soldiers of the Empire. In the kindest they have wiped out the barriers between the and most friendly of ways they endeavor to rich and the poor. They have arranged whermake the families approach or start on the ever possible to mark the grave of any soldier way to being self-sustaining.

of Canada who dies in Europe. They care Necessarily the work is slow in develop- for the sick of the soldier's family and they ment. Regularly each month these six thou- bury the dead of the soldier's family. sand families get a monetary allowance from It is not the rich woman of Canada who the fund. The wife or the mother or whoever does all this, or the woman of the middle has had the care of the dependent family class. The work is done just as faithfully in calls at headquarters, is identified, gets her the humblest home, on the farm and in the check, goes to the bank, and receives her tenement. There is a widow, Mrs. Archibald, money.

of Wolfville, in Nova Scotia, who has very To finance their work the women of Canada little of this world's goods, and yet she sent have been as thorough as in every other six hundred jars of preserves to the soldiers thing. In the first burst of patriotic fervor in France. She did not have the money to there was a lot of indiscriminate giving. buy the fruit. She went into the orchards There were concerts, fairs, general entertain- and gathered that which was left on the trees ments. That was fine as far as it went, but after the picking. Some one gave the sugar it wasn't anything to rely on through a long to her. She trudged around the countryside period, so these women have devised a system to gather jars. She made a workshop of her whereby they have a steady income. They cellar. She put up these six hundred jars of have gone, for example, into manufacturing preserves, boxed them all herself, and then towns and they have stated their case to em- she sent them on, blessed with her labor of ployers and to workers. In one small city love. That woman has a boy in khaki fightwhere the pay-roll amounts to $500,000 a ing in Flanders. month they held a public meeting, and every Mention has been made of the work that

one

is done in the city of Halifax. Some idea a burden upon the people. The man who of its magnitude may be obtained from the has lost a leg may be unfitted for the task in statement that thirty-six thousand pairs of which he had been trained. He is taught hand-made socks went from Nova Scotia some other line of work by which he can alone, and that in the Technical College at sustain himself. And the blind—and many Halifax more than forty miles of material of the men who come back are blindwas made up in three months of work by the are being taught. Instructors from blind women laboring there. The children, too, asylums are being drawn in to aid in this help. The children of Canada have their branch. Red Cross Societies. They send all sorts of These women, with the wonderful vision things to the soldiers. They maintain a that they have, possibly have seen what Canmotor ambulance of their own in France. ada might face if the destruction to human In Montreal and some of the other Cana- life or the crippling of many thousands of dian cities every child contributes men should bring the burden of a huge cent a week at least to the Patriotic Fund. pension system upon the Dominion. They There is a bank in every school-room in are going to avoid that, if possible. They are Montreal into which the child makes his going to try and have Canada demonstrate deposit. Some of the children give much more to the world that its men and its women, than one cent. Before long these banks will working together, fighting together for the be in every school-house throughout the Empire, can care for itself with the minimum Dominion.

of a pension system. The women have done more to awaken The women of Canada surely have broad Canada to the elimination of waste than the sympathies. One illustration will serve for Dominion ever knew before. In every city this demonstration. There are so

some German women of every grade have formed an organ- prisoners in the Dominion. In one of the ization for the collection of material that pre- cities there are two hundred of them. For a viously was cast away as useless. They time their lives were dull and their day's were gather the waste paper and bale.it and self dreary. The women pitied them. They it. In one city this brings to them more thought of their own men in the prison than $150 a week. They collect old carpets, camps of Europe. They did what they cast-off kid gloves, shoes, hats—anything or could to bring a little light into the dark everything. They have established junk- days. Some of these men were musicians. shops. They collect bits of iron, steel, cop- They asked for permission to have the instruper, all sorts of metal, and sell it. They ments they played. In a short time there make over the carpets, wherever possible, was a band formed in their prison camp, and into carpet slippers. They take the old kid after a while the German prisoners began to gloves, strip them, and make them up for the give concerts. The concerts were given in inner lining for coats and trousers and such the public square, and they grew and grew things for men to wear, and it is reported that in popularity. A Sunday night concert bethe soldiers have known no warmer garments came a regular thing, but it was stopped at than those kid-lined ones which they have the request of the church authorities. The received from Canada. The women have concert was so good and so popular that the old shoes repaired and soled and put to use. churches were deserted. Now the band They are teaching the people to save in every concerts are confined to week-days. way possible.

It would seem that the women of Canada The women of Canada do not propose to are doing all that could be expected of them, have human waste material either. They are but they are not content. They have been establishing schools in which the maimed and asked to aid in recruiting, and they are volunthe crippled soldiers are being taught useful teering for that work. They are the great employments. From two to three hundred patriots of this war. It would be a joy to men come back each week invalided and give the names of all those who are doing broken. The man who has lost an arm may valiant service for the Empire, but to do so not be able to do the work at which he for- would require a larger number than The merly was employed. They are preparing Outlook ever has printed. to teach him to do something else that will Some one has expressed their whole mismake him self-sustaining, and by which he sion, their whole ideal, fittingly as follows: can maintain his self-respect and not become “Love for Canada and our country does

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