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The Outlook

MAY 3, 1916

Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York


protest of nearly six months ago in regard to RUSSIANS ON THE FRENCH LINE

restrictions on neutral trade by the British The most picturesque and unexpected re- sea blockade. The reply declares that the cent military news has been that of the land- kind of blockade now being maintained is ing of two contingents of Russian troops at perfectly legitimate as a belligerent right; Marseilles; the first on April 20, the second that it is being conducted in the spirit of on April 25. There is even a rumor that a international law; and that the aim is to give detachment of Russian troops arrived at as little inconvenience or injury to neutral Marseilles previous to the first date named. trade as is consistent with effectiveness. If so, the landing was kept a profound secret. That a certain amount of interference with When the first contingent of these Russians such trade is necessary is argued in the asserlanded from their flotilla of transports, they tions that the old method of search at sea is were received by great crowds of the French in present warfare impracticable, so that vespeople, who welcomed them with ringing sels must either be allowed to go without cheers and shouts of Vive la Russie !" while search or taken to port ; that the statistics the French vessels in the harbor manned their of commerce show that, so far from neutral yard-arms and French bands played the Rus- trade having been diminished, it has enorsian anthem. The news, cabled at once all mously increased—thus the exports of the over the world, was received with surprise, United States to Holland and the three Scanand, on the part of all friends of the Allies, dinavian colonies rose from about ninetywith enthusiasm.

seven million dollars in 1913 to two hundred The question at once arose as to the route and thirty-five million dollars in 1915. That by which these troops were brought from this increase is due to genuine commerce Russia. Naturally no statement was made with the neutral countries is scouted, and in on this subject; but the fact that they were support of this it is pointed out that such landed in the Mediterranean and other reasons things have been proved as the consignment have lent probability to the belief that they of meat products to dock laborers; the concame from Vladivostok and Dalny by way of signment of thousands of tons of goods to the Suez Canal and were taken from the great firms which do not exist in the neutral ports concentration camps in Manchuria. Press to which the goods are sent; the consignment despatches estimate that perhaps thirty thou- of goods to a maker of musical instruments, sand of these Russian troops have now been a baker, and the keeper of a small private landed at Marseilles; and other reports, not at hotel ; while it is also asserted that in Sweden all well confirmed, assert that it is the intention at one time when the docks of Swedish ports of the Allies to put 250,000 Russian troops were piled high with cargoes of American on the western front. One underlying reason cotton the Swedish manufacturing spinners for this movement is the fact that it is much could obtain no cotton for their own use, the easier to equip the troops in France than in inference obviously being that the cotton was Russia, and that there are more troops in the intended to go through Sweden to Germany. Russian military concentration camps than The note again calls attention to certain praccan be equipped for work on the battle-line tices and decisions of the United States in between Russia and Germany.

our Civil War. It concludes with a refer

ence to the “shocking disregard by the THE BRITISH NOTE ON

enemy of rights of innocent persons and THE BLOCKADE

neutral peoples," and declares that Great Last week was made public the joint reply Britain would welcome any action by the of Great Britain and France to the American combined neutral nations which would pre


vent the violation of neutral rights a3á Nationalists under Sir Edward Carson in whole.

uniting for patriotic effort for the good of the It seems superfluous to point out again that whole country, Sir Roger escaped to Gerthe questions at issue in this controversy are many, and has been plotting there ever since as far removed froin the questions involved to bring about an invasion of Ireland from in the difference with Germany over the Germany. submarine - warfare as in private affairs a The street fighting in Dublin was probably trespass on one's land is removed from the timed, but wrongly timed, to aid the invasion.” shooting of one's children.

At all events, the rioters seized the post-office

in Dublin and some buildings near by, together THE DISTURBANCE

with the adjacent park, cut the telephone and IN IRELAND

telegraph wires from the post-office, and The word “revolution," and perhaps even resisted attack with some vigor. The report the word “revolt,” is far too high-sounding made in Parliament by the Chief Secretary to be applied to what has happened in Ire- for Ireland, Mr. Augustine Birrell, on April land. Just how much connection exists 25, states that the troops were brought from between the attempt made by a ship under beyond Dublin, that many of the rioters have German commission, but disguised as a mer- been arrested, and that the situation was at chantman, to land arms on the Irish coast the time well in hand. Later Mr. Asquith and the rioting in Dublin it is hard to say. announced that outside Dublin Ireland was It seems probable, however, that there was a tranquil and that in Dublin the situation was real connection between the two things, and satisfactory. Eleven or twelve soldiers and that both represent a futile outcome of the policemen were killed and perhaps twice that pernicious activities of a small but irrepress- number wounded. The number of killed and ible band of Irishmen who hate England be- injured among the rioters is not known at cause of traditional grievances rather than of this writing. An attack by German cruisers present injuries, and who hold that every on the English coast town of Lowestoft may means of revolt, however traitorous or vio- possibly have been timed to increase the imlent, is justified. These men, now repre- pression of invasion ; it did little harm, and sented most prominently by the association on the appearance of British war-ships the called the “ Sinn Fein," are really the polit- German ships hastily retreated. ical heirs of the old Fenian movement. They The Outlook has always favored Home dream of an absolutely independent republic Rule and still favors it, but independence for of Ireland ; and now, as always, that dream Ireland would be ruinous to the Irish, and is without basis of real hope. One might we do not believe that it is desired by more almost wish for these misguided and unrea- than a fraction of them. If this is a revolt sonable men the taste of German colonial by Irish fanatics and self-seekers, uniting government which an absolute German vic- them with the cause of German absolutism tory might bring to Ireland,

when the sympathies of all lovers of liberty With the capture of the vessel containing are united against German absolutism, it the arms was captured that strange person- demonstrates the incapacity of the leaders of age, Sir Roger Casement. There is consid- the revolt to organize or maintain a truly free erable ground for the announced belief of Sir government. The best that can be said of A. Conan Doyle and others that this man is them is that their nationalism is a purely touched with insanity. Although he is from selfish nationalism. They have no notion of the north of Ireland and, we believe, a the meaning of either nationalism, brotherProtestant, he has been an active figure in hood, or self-government. the conspiracies of the most extreme and irreconcilable Irish revolutionists. In his

MILITARY MEASURES early career he did excellent service with the IN NEW YORK British Government, especially in connection Preparedness has found its way into State with the exposure of the cruelties in the legislation—notably in New York. The Congo and the Putumayo affair in Peru. As Legislature of New York State has ada reward he was knighted and pensioned. journed, leaving for the Governor's approval But when the war broke out, instead of fol- or disapproval five military bills. Three of lowing the example of the Irish Nationalists these have to do with the State militia. If under John Redmond and the Ulster anti- we are as a Nation to continue to depend for




It is a

National defense upon the organized militia of view as well as other points of view for of the States, these three bills will, perhaps, the encampment of boys. Yet, as this bill make it somewhat more effective. Such bills provides only a hundred thousand dollars for as these, however, ought to be made entirely all expenses, it is hardly conceivable that any unnecessary by the development of a real other sites will be obtainable. The whole National Guard under Federal control and scheme is amateurish to a degree. All who based on universal military service.

believe in real military training and all who The other two bills relate to the physical have the interest of the boys of New York and military training of boys and girls. One State at heart should urge the Governor to of these bills, known as the Welsh Bill, is veto this measure. good in that it provides for an experiment These five military bills serve to make it worth trying; the other, known as the Slater more than ever evident that the several States Bill, is bad and ought to be vetved.

should be relieved of the problem of National The Welsh Bill provides that after the first defense, and that the whole question of miliof next September all boys and girls over tary training and service should be left solely eight years of age in public and private ele- to the Federal Government under the direcmentary and secondary schools of the State tion of a Council of National Defense. shall receive physical training. This shall include not only training in physical posture

A NEW PLATTSBURG CAMP and bearing, mental and physical alertness, The “ Plattsburg idea” is growing. It and so on, but also training that will develop originated, we believe, with Major-General ** self-control, disciplined initiative, sense of Leonard Wood. Its primary purpose is to duty, and spirit of co-operation under leader- train men in civil life by giving them instrucship.” The courses of instruction shall be tion in summer camps so that we should have determined by the Regents in conference in this country a reserve body of civilians with the Military Training Commission. competent to furnish officers for volunteer

The other bill, introduced by Mr. Slater, regiments in time of military need. provides for military drill for boys. It applies volunteer and civilian movement, although it not only to boys in school, but also to other has the approval and supervision of the Mar boys of school age unless they are lawfully Department of the Federal Government. It employed in an occupation for a livelihood. is a successful attempt to put into practice by This bill is bad, not because it provides for voluntary action the principles of military and such military drill, but because its provisions civic training which the Swiss people have are so faulty and the money it provides so adopted as a part of their fundamental political absurdly inadequate that it exposes the boys structure.

These military training camps, of the State to very real physical and moral which are popularly known as “ Plattsburg danger. The bill bearson its face Camps,” because of the great success last evidence of being the product of a well- summer of the camp at Plattsburg, New thought-out plan of military experts who are York, are peculiarly American because they acquainted with the whole problem of mili- are at once voluntary, civil, and military. tary training and service, but appears rather Although promoted by associations of citizens, to be a well-intentioned attempt to provide they are directed and managed by the Federal military instruction somehow.

Government, through the War Department. The most dangerous feature of the bill is The function of the citizens'associations is to that which relates to the field training. This distribute information, arouse public interest, provides that the State Military Training and obtain the volunteers; the function of Commission (which is created by the bill the War Department is to have control of itself) shall establish and maintain State the moral, intellectual, military, and disciplimilitary camps for the field training of boys. nary education in the camp. The location of the camps is left to the deter- We have already reported how the attendmination of the Commission ; but the bill ance at these camps has grown from eighteen provides that fair grounds held by an organi- hundred in 1913 to an estimated thirty thouzation receiving money's from the State shall sand in 1916." As originally planned, an age be subject to use for this purpose of military limit was set for the Plattsburg camps this training. Of course fair grounds are not summer. No applicant under eighteen or selected because they are good camp sites, over forty-five years of age was to be acand may be totally unfit from a sanitary point cepted. Put some of the head masters of the


prominent preparatory schools of the country general election of importance between two believed that school-boys under eighteen parties. But the recent spring contest for years of age should receive the benefits pro- the Governorship between Colonel Ruffin G. vided by the Plattsburg camps. Under the Pleasant, the regular Democratic nominee, leadership of Dr. Drury, of St. Paul's School, and John M. Parker, the nominee of the Concord, New Hampshire, a committee was Progressive party, is worthy of more attenorganized some weeks ago to plan a train- tion than we have seen given to it except in ing camp for school-boys between fifteen the New Orleans newspapers. John M. and eighteen. The plan has been approved Parker is a close friend of Colonel Rooseby General Wood and by the War Depart- velt’s, and was the Progressive leader in 1912 ment, and such a camp will be maintained on in the State of Louisiana. His total vote in the Government reservation at Fort Terry, the election for Governor the other day was on Plum Island, Long Island Sound, New close to 50,000, while his Democratic oppoYork. The Fort Terry Camp is an exten- nent received between 75,000 and 80,000. sion of the Plattsburg idea and will be man- The city of New Orleans gave Parker about aged on the same basis and under the same 15,000, and Pleasant about 28,000. In the general regulations as the camps at Platts- country districts of Louisiana Parker received burg. It will be held from July 6 to August :

about 33.000, and Pleasant about 47,000. 10, inclusive. All applicants must have had The Third Congressional District, which now a grammar school training or its equivalent. has a Progressive Congressman, as a result It is hoped and believed that there will be a of the fight over the sugar duty, increased its large representation from the public high Progressive majority over 1914, and the schools and grammar schools of the country, Progressives also made a strong entering as well as from the private preparatory wedge in the Seventh Congressional District, schools. The camp will be educational, which has protective tariff inclinations and democratic, and civic in the very best sense of many Northern-born people. these words. The instructors of the camp In the estimation of the New Orleans will be officers of the regular army, and the "Times-Picayune " several important politiphysical condition of each attendant will be cal facts stand out, the first being that forty given the close personal attention of compe- per cent of the biggest vote cast in Louistent medical authorities. The total cost to iana since the Negro was deprived of the each boy, exclusive of transportation to and suffrage was polled by the Progressive canfrom the camp, will be in the neighborhood didate. In the second place, the Progressives of fifty dollars. This sum will cover board, very greatly strengthened their previous hold camp expenses, ammunition, uniform, and upon certain portions of the State. In the shoes. The Federal Government will pro- third place, the vote in the city of New vide tents, blankets, cots, pillows, ordnance, Orleans was very large, considering the etc.

weakness of the Parker political organization We can think of no better way in which there, and it seems to presage a fight of an American school-boy can spend five weeks the reform element for civic control. out of doors than at the Fort Terry Training There is strong opposition in Louisiana Camp. Further information about this camp to the Wilson tariff policies and strong may be obtained by addressing The Officer- sympathy for protection. There is also great in-Charge, Fort Terry Training Camp, 475 opposition to the old Democratic ring Fifth Avenue, New York City. The Military methods in that State. It is much more Training Camps Association, 31 Nassau difficult to set up the two-party cleavage in Street, New York City, will supply full infor- the South, because of the fear that the mation regarding the Training Camp move- Negro may hold the balance of power, but ment throughout the country, with records of where the elements of economy and moral its growth and success.

protest are sufficiently strong the cleavage

is nevertheless sure to come. THE SPRING ELECTION IN LOUISIANA

THE NEW YORK There are sometimes interesting and ex- POST-OFFICE citing primary elections within the Democratic When will the people of the United States party in the Southern States, but it is not learn to treat their public business as they often that we are called upon to record a treat their private business? The New York





City Post-Office furnishes just now a striking kind of Democracy in the New York Postillustration of the inefficiency of the American Office, no matter how much we have to pay public. The New York Post-Office is an for it. When Postmaster Morgan, who has efficient and successful institution. In the served the people of the United States in calendar year ending on December 31, 1915, the New York Post-Office efficiently and sucit did a gross business of $30,000,000. Its cessfully for forty-three years, is supplanted operating expenses amounted to $10,000,000. by an ideal Democrat, some sordid private These figures show gross profit of corporation will undoubtedly avail itself of $20,000,000. The executive under whom Mr. Morgan's great abilities as a business this remarkable showing has been made has executive. The private corporation will not been trained to the postal business from his ask him whether he is a Democrat, a Repubyoung manhood. He began his work as a lican, a Progressive, or a Socialist. He will letter-carrier in the New York Post-Office, be simply asked to do the work intrusted to and to-day is the head of this institution, him, to do it well, and present his balancewhose figures we have just quoted. The sheet as the best testimony of his efficiency. stockholders of any private manufacturing or But no true American wants the Post-Office

rchandising corporation which made such conducted upon the sordid basis of a private a financial showing and had such an execu- corporation. Its great function, of course, tive would be literally tumbling over one is, not to carry letters and newspapers, but to another to retain his services if they possibly

carry elections. could. But we Americans do not handle our public business in that way. What we must OUR PUBLIC BUILDING have just now in the New York Post-Office is POLICY not a good postmaster but a good Democrat. Whenever Congress appropriates money

The President of the United States and the for a site for a public building the value of a senior Senator from the State of New York, possible site for such a building doubles or realizing that what we want is primarily a trebles. And when Congress appropriates a good Democrat and secondarily a good post- sum for the building itself, or a lump sum master, are doing their level best to fulfill our

for both site and building, it is a familiar fact wishes. Senator O'Gorman would like to

that the value of the land and the cost of the have Mr. Joseph Johnson take Postmaster structure are quickly adapted to coincide with Morgan's chair. Mr. Johnson was formerly the appropriations. a newspaper man in Atlanta, Georgia, and Last January, in the House of Representabecame Fire Commissioner of the city of New tives, Representative Clark, of Florida, ChairYork under Mayor Gaynor. When ex Judge man of the Committee on Public Buildings, McCall became Tammany's candidate for said. as reported : Mayor, Mr. Johnson became Mr. McCall's

In the very nature of things it is utterly imcampaign manager, against Mr. Mitchel, who

possible for Congress to determine to the dollar was elected on the Fusion ticket. He natu- what a public building for each and every city rally ceased to be Fire Commissioner when and town in the United States should cost, Mayor Mitchel took office. So far the Presi- and therefore a measure of discretion had to be dent has refused to appoint Mr. Johnson, lodged in the executive department charged apparently because he is not the right kind with their construction. of Democrat. He has asked the Hon. In February Representative Garner, of Robert Wagner, whom he thinks is the right Texas, spoke as follows, as reported : kind of Democrat, to accept the postmaster- There are half a dozen places in my district ship, but Mr. Wagner has declined.

where Federal buildings are being erected or While the President and Senator O'Gorman have recently been constructed at a cost to the are discussing the exact degree of Democracy

Government far in excess of the actual needs which the New York Post-Office ought to

of the communities where they are located. have, the present Postmaster, Mr. Morgan,

Take Uvalde, my home town, for instance.

We goes right on doing a business of nearly

are putting up a post-office down there at a cost $100,000 a day, at a gross profit to the peo

of $60,000, when a $5,000 building would be

entirely adequate for our needs. This is ple of over $50,000 a day. But we are an

mighty bad business for Uncle Sam, and I'll idealistic Nation. We do not care for the admit it; but the other fellows in Congress have almighty dollar. Revering the memory of been doing it for a long time and I can't Jefferson as we do, we must have the right make them quit. Now we Democrats are in

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