The Evolution of the Trade Regime: Politics, Law, and Economics of the GATT and the WTO
Princeton University Press, 2006 - 242 páginas
The Evolution of the Trade Regime offers a comprehensive political-economic history of the development of the world's multilateral trade institutions, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and its successor, the World Trade Organization (WTO). While other books confine themselves to describing contemporary GATT/WTO legal rules or analyzing their economic logic, this is the first to explain the logic and development behind these rules.
The book begins by examining the institutions' rules, principles, practices, and norms from their genesis in the early postwar period to the present. It evaluates the extent to which changes in these institutional attributes have helped maintain or rebuild domestic constituencies for open markets.
The book considers these questions by looking at the political, legal, and economic foundations of the trade regime from many angles. The authors conclude that throughout most of GATT/WTO history, power politics fundamentally shaped the creation and evolution of the GATT/WTO system. Yet in recent years, many aspects of the trade regime have failed to keep pace with shifts in underlying material interests and ideas, and the challenges presented by expanding membership and preferential trade agreements.
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List of Illustrations Box and Tables
Political Analysis of the Trade Regime
12 Understanding the Political Economy of the GATTWTO Regime
13 State Power and International Trade Institutions
14 Nonstate Actors and Domestic Institutional Design
15 Ideas and Institutional Design
16 Accommodating Changes in Power Interests and Ideas
Negotiation of the GATS
53 Health Agricultural Regulations and Industrial Standards
54 Intellectual Property Protection and the Trading System
New Tools Actors and Coalitions?
56 The Search for New Principles and New Coalitions
Expansion of GATTWTO Membership and the Proliferation of Regional Groups
62 GATTWTO Membership Conditions
63 Increasing Involvement of Developing Countries
17 Alternative Perspectives on the Trade Regime
Creating Constituencies and Rules for Open Markets
21 Why Create a Trade Regime?
22 The GATT 1947 Trade Regime
23 The Early GATT
24 Creating the WTO
25 Making Authoritative Decisions
Preferential Trade Agreements
The Trade Regime Domestic Constituencies and Free Trade
The Politics of the GATTWTO Legal System Legislative and Judicial Processes
The Expansion of Judicial Lawmakingand Transatlantic Power
Prospects for Continued Viability of WTO Legislative and Judicial Rules
Expanding Trade Rules and Conventions Designing New Agreements at the Border
42 The Uruguay Round Tasks
43 Extension of Scope of Trade System
44 Incorporating the Laggard Sectors
45 Consolidating the Codes
46 The Unfinished Business
Extending Trade Rules to Domestic Regulations Developing Behind the Border Instruments
64 Different Perspectives and Coalitions
65 Responding to the Concerns of the Developing Nations
66 Preferential Trade Arrangements and Developing Countries
Accommodating Nonstate Actors Representation of Interests Ideas and Information in a StateCentric System
71 The Role of Nonstate Actors
Underrepresentation of New Nonstate Actors Interests
73 Domestic Institutional Processes of Interest Representation and Intermediation
The Legislative Process
The Judicial Process
81 Is Trade Politics Low Politics?
82 What Is New about the WTO?
83 An International Bureaucracy
84 Measuring Success
Trade Relations in the Twentyfirst Century