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The Executive Committee of the Association for International Conciliation wish to arouse the interest of the American people in the progress of the movement for promoting international peace and relations of comity and good fellowship between nations. To this end they print and circulate documents giving information as to the progress of these movements, in order that individual citizens, the newspaper press, and organizations of various kinds may have readily available accurate information on these subjects.

For the information of those who are not familiar with the work of the Association for International Conciliation, a list of its publications is subjoined.

1. Program of the Association, by Baron d'Estournelles de Constant. April, 1907.

2. Results of the National Arbitration and Peace Congress, by Andrew Carnegie. April, 1907.

3. A League of Peace, by Andrew Carnegie. November, 1907. 4. The Results of the Second Hague Conference, by Baron d'Estournelles de Constant and Hon. David J. Hill. January, 1908. 5. The Work of the Second Hague Conference, by James Brown Scott. January, 1908.

6. Possibilities of Intellectual Co-operation Between North and South America, by L. S. Rowe. April, 1908.


America and Japan, by George Trumbull Ladd. June, 1908. 8. The Sanction of International Law, by Elihu Root. July, 1908. The United States and France, by Barrett Wendell. August,

9. 1908.


The Approach of the Two Americas, by Joaquim Nabuco. September, 1908.




The United States and Canada, by J. S. Willison. October,

The Policy of the United States and Japan in the Far East. 13. European Sobriety in the Presence of the Balkan Crisis, by Charles Austin Beard. December, 1908.

14. The Logic of International Co-operation, by F. W. Hirst. January, 1909.

15. American Ignorance of Oriental Languages, by J. H. De Forest. February, 1909.

16. America and the New Diplomacy, by James Brown Scott, March, 1909.

Up to the limit of the editions printed, any one of the above documents, or the copies of this Monthly Bulletin, will be sent postpaid upon receipt of a request addressed to the Secretary of the American Association for International Conciliation, Post Office Sub-Station 84, New York, N. Y.

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The discovery of America opened up a new world; the independence of the United States a new diplomacy.

The discovery of America opened up a world to the broken and depressed of Europe and gave them an opportunity to begin life anew in a world in which there were no traditions of the past, no limitations to the future and which they might fashion according to their will. From all lands they came, from Protestant and Catholic communities, from countries speaking various and discordant languages, the man of unconquerable mind and the broken in spirit, the rich and the poor, the criminal and the outcast. Freed from the restraint of the Old World they bred a race of Freemen. By the sweat of their brow they prospered, and unwilling to surrender the proceeds of their industry and devotion or to yield to the Old World what they had acquired in the New, they maintained in war what they had acquired in peace. United by oppression or fear of oppression, they sank their differences of race, of religion, of language and tradition, founded a Republic and transmitted it to their offspring. Cast in the melting pot, they emerged from the crucible a Union, a Nation, which has stood the test of a Civil War at home and commands because it deserves respect abroad. The experience of the

United States established the simple doctrine that people of various nationalities may live side by side, that questions of religion are no barrier to union for the public good, and that groups of States possessing local self-government in the highest sense of the word may not only live in peace but safely entrust their foreign relations to a central and self-constituted authority, provided only that the Union be based. upon justice, and that it be administered in the interest of the many rather than for the benefit of the few. A new nation without the traditions and surroundings of the past, with no powerful neighbors seeking its destruction, and able to husband its resources and devote them to peaceable internal development instead of squandering them upon petty ambitions which have turned Europe into an armed camp, and under the weight of which it staggers and groans, it was to be expected that this Republic, brought little by little into contact with the outer world, would develop a diplomacy in keeping with its ideals in which peace, necessary to the development of industry and commerce, would be a cardinal policy. But the peace which the Republic desired was the peace based upon justice and upon the observance of its dictates. The scrupulous observance of international duties. and obligations in Washington's administration; the insistence that the rights which flow from the faithful performance of international duties be assured to the

Republic; that these rights be measured and tested. by the principles of law rather than by an appeal to the sword, made an era in diplomacy. The right of a nation to pursue its ideal without hinderance from the world at large; that it be not drawn into controversies in which it has and can have no interest; that isolation is not synonymous with indifference laid the foundations of neutrality-the first fruits of the new diplomacy.

As we have grown and expanded, our interests have become greater and we are brought into daily contact with the world at large; but the recognition. of the right of every nation to pursue peaceably its own development, provided that this development does not interfere with the normal and just development of any and all nations, has made it possible to maintain peace if nations really desire peace. We resist aggression now as we resisted aggression from Great Britain; but we now as then and always have been willing to test our rights by the principles of justice and international law, and we maintain and have maintained, in season and out of season, that no nation has the right to resort to war unless all other means of settlement have been tried and failed, and only then, if the importance of the occasion justifies, indeed compels, an appeal to arms.

We have found that a free and frank explanation of our views prevents controversy and that if controversies

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