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PORTSMOUTH, OHIO.-Each spring students from the Distributive Education and Commercial classes are selected by teachers for part-time employment in the autumn. Employment Service administers tests and does counseling. During summer months, extensive job development campaign conducted by ES staff and teachers to find suitable afternoon work for students in this group. Morning class-work at school features discussions about jobs and possible solutions to problems encountered by applicants. Carefully planned follow-up program involves on-the-job visits by teachers and employment counselors.

FREDERICKSBURG, VA.-Local garment manufacturer uses local office aptitude tests to double staff and production. Employer finds inexperienced workers with aptitude for work succeed on the job in nine out of ten cases whereas only one out of two made the grade when he used his own selection methods.

BELOIT, WIS.-Because of shortage of typists and stenographers, local office develops cooperative school-work plan for

female high school students. Fifteen students placed in parttime jobs which on graduation resulted in satisfactory full-time employment.

MADISON, WIS.-Local office cooperates in setting up school-work program for outstanding commercial students. Training consists of specific work experience and indoctrination in procedures and policies of particular employer and, in general, business practice indoctrination.

RACINE, WIS.-Local office places students in part-time jobs as sales clerks, office clerks, typists, and stenographers in cooperation with local schools. In some instances special shifts have been arranged for male students in factories with purpose of full-time placement upon graduation. Employers enthusiastic in being able to obtain part-time help in offices when fulltime qualified help is scarce and have stretched a point to arrange work schedules in order to utilize this part-time student labor source without interferring with the proper training of students.

8. Jobs Combat Juvenile Delinquency

DENVER, COLO.Local office joins Rotary, public schools and City Recreation Service to combat juvenile delinquency by finding part-time work for in-school youth and full-time work for drop-outs. Program centered in section of city populated by the economically underprivileged of minority groups. Special training classes have been organized to teach restaurant work, soda dispensing, and custodial services. During past 14 months, 850 boys have been placed. Juvenile Court reports a decline in delinquency in this section of city.

PROVIDENCE, R. I.-- Problem youth of this area referred to ES by Division of Probation and Parole.

This coordinated effort on behalf of youthful offenders is outgrowth of the rotating agency-visit program of the local office which requires periodic contact with all cooperating agencies by all personnel assigned to counseling duties.

ES Counselors and counselors in the probation department integrate activities by telephone and personal consultation before applicant is referred to specific counselor who has been briefed on his case. This gives such counselor helpful information for interview of applicant in a manner calculated to insure his respect, confidence, and cooperation.

Applicants have little employment history so training, education, hobbies, interests and aptitudes must serve as the foundation for counseling plan.

Interest Check Lists and GATB frequently used. Counselor motivated by applicant's future, rather than his past.

RAWLINS, WYO.- Cooperating with Police Department, local office fills myriad of summer jobs with teen-age youth. Delinquency thereby checked. Youngsters earn spending money, and at the same time ease usual shortage of workers for summer employment.

9. Teamwork With Community Agencies

ALBUQUERQUE, N. MEX.-Albuquerque Youth Center is focal point built through community-wide participation where young people 12 to 21 regulary gather for social events and discussion of mutual interests. Guidance was recognized as a legitimate function of the Center when it was established. The Employment Service maintains an evening counseling service at the Center. Aptitude tests administered when needed.

Youth problems referred from all local social service agencies throughout the community are handled by a panel of specialized representatives from the public schools the University of New Mexico, the Veterans Administration, the Indian School, the

Employment Service, and other community agencies. This allows for broad exchange of information on the current problems of Albuquerque youth.

RICHMOND, VA.-City-wide conferences over considerable period result in community program for youth. Local office works closely with Family Service Society, YWCA, YMCA, Virginia Consultation Service, schools, Red Cross, Catholic Charities, OVR, VA, State Children's Bureau, Travelers Aid, Social Service Bureau, and labor unions in providing continuity of vocational guidance, counseling, and placement services to youth.

SPOKANE, WASH.-Following successful placement of 1,200 youth in 1942, through a city-wide registration of graduating high school students, youth problems were non-existent until defense and war needs absorbed all employable youth. School authorities estimate 2,000 students interrupted education for defense employment. At least 10 percent of them now require vocational guidance including additional training.

Spokane office contacted four colleges and Spokane high schools, acquainting graduating students with the facilities of the Employment Service. In addition, employer representatives have made special efforts to solicit job openings for youth. The part-time school circularized local employers requesting placement of orders for part-time and entry workers with this office. Part IV of the DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES has been extensively used in counseling and placement; and recently testing program has aided materially in directing youth toward desirable goals.

Cooperate with the Chamber of Commerce, furnishing labor market information, particularly on available workers, emphasizing the adaptability of youth. School authorities are advised of job requirements.

Seasonal farm work, food processing, and Forest Service activities offer employment to students during vacation periods. While not directly contributing to vocational adjustment, it may awaken dormant vocational interests; also provides needed financial assistance.

Spokane rapidly becoming an aluminum manufacturing center, influencing establishment of related industries. Actively

working with community groups to develop job opportunities in these industries for youth entering the labor market.

TACOMA, WASH.-Counselors find aptitude testing program indispensable to employment counseling for youth. Testing, implementing other information, has been instrumental in assisting applicants to discover occupational fields which offer work satisfaction, has pointed up desirability of further training, and has placed the counselors in an advantageous position in their contacts with cooperating agencies. It is the best available means of obtaining direct and objective appraisal of an entry applicant's potentialities for success in a field of work, if used intelligently by the counselor.

Cooperating agencies have recognized the careful evaluation of our employment counseling. Test information, such as personality, color perception, and intelligence tests, is supplied to our counseling unit by other agencies. All tests given by the College of Puget Sound Advisement Counselors, the Vocational Rehabilitation and Educational Counselor at the Veterans' Hospital, and the I. Q. and psychological series given by the public school psychologist are available for our use in crosscounseling. ES reciprocates by supplying information secured by our GATB and our knowledge of occupations and labor market information. Medical statements, physical capacity reports, and other types of information useful in the employment counseling process are obtained on request. Cooperation with local office of State Vocational Rehabilitation Department is excellent.

10. Apprenticeship Opens Doors to Jobs

CAMDEN, N. J.-To meet the problem of the young veteran, Camden local office concentrated on selling apprenticeship and on-the-job training to employers. Through efforts of ES labor relations representative committee formed (three union representatives and three members of South Jersey Contractors Association). Committee and Federal Apprenticeship representative laid out program. Veterans applying at local ES office for carpenter work instructed to send all pertinent data about themselves to Apprenticeship Committee. Twenty-eight veterans placed as carpenter apprentices; waiting list of 35. Bricklayers have adopted similar program.

Camden office has placed other young veterans in apprenticeship as printers, electricians, joiners, and photo-engravers. In the on-the-job training program, openings and placements have developed for young veterans as furniture builders, oil-burnerinstallation men, maintenance and repairmen, electrical refrigeration and air-conditioning-installation men, automobile-body repairmen, and insurance representatives. Many employers contacted and provided with the necessary forms by which they became authorized training units for veterans of their own selection. Over 300 employers in this area have training unit status in the AT or OJT programs.

11. Advisory Committee Serves NYSES

NEW YORK CITY'S ADVISORY COMMITTEE.-An Advisory Committee can be a very useful adjunct to a counseling program. Such a Committee has existed in New York City since 1945. This Committee, which meets about four times a year, is composed of 15 members representing the local Board of Education, the colleges, United Parents Association, the United Neighborhood Houses, the Public Education Association, the Department of Labor, and several voluntary agencies. Metropolitan Consultant on Counseling for the NYSES is chairman of the meetings. Metropolitan director for the ES meets with the group to bring it special information. For the most part, the Committee acts as discussion group but it also takes necessary action to clarify plans for service, particularly those in the developmental stage, for which public support is needed.

The Committee has been a sounding board for new ideas; useful channel for disseminating information about the ES and for interpreting some of its problems; and a source of technical advice to the consultant.

Subjects discussed by the Committee include: Veterans, ada. visement records from Ve ans Administration; methods school cooperation in placement of high school graduates; : volume of unemployment among 16–18 year olds; scope of the employment counselor functions in the ES; Employment Service's limited responsibility for educational guidance; group. counseling; quality versus quantity in counseling and placement service; the titles Interviewer” and “Counselor”; distribution of labor market, industrial and occupational information.

Discussions have also taken place concerning trends in oçcu-. pational distribution and their implications for vocational and other education. There were speakers from the Research Divis. sion of the State Education Department and Research Departa ment of the local Board of Education.

The public relations value of such a Committee is great in a city of New York's size. The Employment Consultant endorses. the Committee as stimulating and helpful in her program planning.


Thank You!

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UR appreciation goes to contributing authors who sent

the manuscripts which have been digested in the foregoing

section. They include: Ark. --Frances H. Allen, Little Rock. Colo.-U. Mike Welch, Canon City; Carl Dunsworth, Denver. Del.-Joseph Scannell, Wilmington. Fla.-Norma T. Ryan, Sarasota; Theron J. Williams, Tampa. Ga.-W. W. De Beaugrine, Athens. Idaho-Jack R. Wilson, Emmett; Howard W. Staples, Sandpoint. La.-Mary S. Saggus, Alexandria: Eugene L. Richard, Baton Rouge; M. D. Lemoine, Lafayette: Doris McIntosh, Shreveport. Maine-George V. Osgood, Lewiston. Mich.-Robert Halbeisen, Detroit; Samuel Freshney, Royal Oak; Charles H. Wade, St. Joseph. Minn. Robert J. Young, Duluth; Chester A. Swanson, Minneapolis: Thomas Connor, St. Paul. N. J.-William J. Cox, Atlantic City; A. E. Lilley, Camden. N. Mex.-Jules A. Vicknair, Albuquerque; Oliver O. Scott, Las Vegas. N. Y.--Evelyn Murray, New York City. N. C.-Howard W. Winstead, Elizabeth City; Ralph E. Miller, High Point; Nicholas J. Frizelle, Winston-Salem. Ohio-Harrison Flick, Cleveland: James Clemens, Toledo. Okla.-Erma D. Jurgins, Enid; John H. Walker, Oklahoma City. Oreg.-Ernest O. Burrows, Prineville; V. J. Bell, Portland; William Baillie, Salem. Pa.-Harry B. Allsworth, Greensburg. R. I.-Fredric Walsh, Providence. S. Dak.--Genevieve Howard, Mitchell; Alma Salkeld, Sioux Falls. Tenn.-Ruth B. Johnson, Shelbyville. Va.-Vinona E. Cary, Alexandria; G. L. Layne, Fredericksburg; Mabel Leigh Rooke, Portsmouth; Annette D. Dabney, Richmond; P. Anderson, Roanoke. Wash.-A. W. Burchill, Seattle; C. Ellwood Lease, Spokane; June Young, Tacoma, W. Va.-George H. Gunnoe, Huntington. Wyo.- Robert E. Brand, Cody; Jack C. Vagner, Rawlins.



Adkins, Dorothy C. and others, Government Printing

Office, Washington 25, D. C., 1947. $1.25. THE NEW USES GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY,

Dvorak, Beatrice J., Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 4. August 1947. Reprints available on request to United States Employment Service, U.S.

Department of Labor, Washington, 25, D. C. GUIDANCE TESTING, Froelich, Clifford P. and Benson,

Arthur L., U. S. Office of Education, Science Research Associates, 228 S. Wabash Avenue, Chicago, II. 1948. $1.00. Copies available by order to publisher. YOUTH AND THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE, Goodwin, Robert C., THE CHILD, February 1948, U. S. Childrens Bureau, Federal Security Agency, Washington 25, D. C. Reprints




YOUTH, Report and Recommendations of Interagency Committee Youth Employment and Education, September 1946, (U. S. Childrens Bureau Publication No. 319). Copies available on request to Child Labor Branch, Wage and Hour and Public Contracts Division, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C. YOUR JOB FUTURE AFTER COLLEGE (Directed to girls

and young women), Womens Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor, March 1947. Copies available on


and resolutions adopted by the International Labor Conference, Paris, France, 1945. U. S. Childrens Bureau, Publication No. 315. For sale by Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 10 cents a

copy. GUIDE TO COUNSELING MATERIALS, Selected ('SES publications useful to counselors of youth and adults, United States Employment Service in cooperation with U.S. Office of Education, December 1946. Can be purchased at 25 cents a copy from Superintendent of Docu

ments, GPO, Washington 25, D.C. EMPLOYMENT PROBLEMS OF OUT-OF-SCHOOL Youth, Johnson, Elizabeth S., Monthly Labor Review', December

1947, U. S. Department of Labor. Why Child Labor Laws, Bureau of Labor Standards,

U. S. Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C.

Copies available on request. A GUIDE TO Child LABOR PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR

LABOR STANDARDS ACT, Child Labor Branch, Wage and Hour and Public Contracts Division, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C. Copies available


Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington, 25, D. C. Copies of this list available on request.



MICHIGAN State College has sponsored three unusual programs in counselor training particularly designed for "Bridging the Gap Between Business, Industry, and Educa. tion." One program, available this summer from June 25 through August 6, provides on-the-job experience in stores, offices, and factories in the Detroit area. Related training and work experience provide unique opportunity to school administrators and counselors to obtain better understanding of occupational requirements and opportunities in business and industry. Wages of $33 to $44 a week are paid to working students and term-hour credits are awarded upon successful completion of the course.

“The Flying Classroom,” conducted in February, brought school administrators to production plants, union headquarters, insurance and broadcasting companies in cities from Chicago to New York. The same type of classroom will fly again this

Under another carefully planned program, about 100 schools in Michigan close their doors for a day while their faculties and other personnel spend the day with business and industry in their communities.

Additional information on these programs may be obtained from Dr. Carl M. Horn, Institute of Counseling, Testing and Guidance, Michigan State College, East Lansing, Michigan.




For this special May number of the Review the single
copy price will be 15 cents, with a 25 percent dis-
count in quantity lots of 100 or more copies. Order
with remittance should be sent directly to the Super-
intendent of Documents, Government Printing Office,
Washington 25, D. C.



The EMPLOYMENT SERVICE REVIEW is published under authority of Public Resolution
No. 57, approved May 11, 1922 (42 Stat. 541), as amended by Section 307, Public Act 212,
Seventy-second Congress, approved June 30, 1932, with approval of the Director, Bureau of
the Budget.

The EMPLOYMENT SERVICE REVIEW, a publication of the United States Employment Service and affiliated State Employment Services, is prepared in the Technical Service Division of the USES. Distributed without charge to personnel of the national and State employment service offices, it is also available on subscription at $1.50 a year (single copies 15 cents) from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. In countries other than the United States, Canada, and Mexico, annual subscription is $2.

Expressions of opinion in articles published in the REVIEW are those of the authors and are not to be construed as official opinions of the U. S. Employment Service.

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