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sophy, and mathematics, procured the fortune. By sobriety and exercise, he titles of Wise, and The Astronomer. He lived (without illness until that of which employed the most learned Jews of he died) to the age of 78. Toledo, among whom was R. Isaac ben Aquinas, ST. THOMAS, born in 1224, Said, to compose those famous astro- studied at Cologne and Paris : was nomical tables, originally written in He- deeply versed in scholastic theology. brew, that yet bear his name, and to He belonged to the order of Dominicans, translate the various renowned Arabic and refused various bishoprics offered works on that science.

him by Gregory X. and John XXIII. : ALSCHECH R. Moses, a learned com- he was canonized by the latter. His mentator born in Saphet, where he was numerous works are well known to Chrishead of the congregation, and flourished tian theologians. in the middle of the sixteenth century, ARAMA, R. Isaac, was a native of noted for the eloquence of his sermons. Zamora, and quitted Spain at the exTo most of his works he gave meta- pulsion; one of the best instructed phiphorical and flowery titles, as "The losophers, theologists, and expositors of Rose of Sharon,” "The Lily of the his time. His two most esteemed works Valley,” &c.

are, his commentary on the Five Rolls AMBROSE, ST., Bishop of Milan, born of the allagiography, and the “Ligation in 340, and died at the age of 57. He of Isaac,” a short philosophical commenwrote various treatises. The softness of tary on the Mishna and Talmud. The his style procured for him the appellation foundation of Jewish jurisprudence is of the Mellifluous Doctor.

there explained according to the docAME', R., Chief of the colleges of the trines and authorities of the most clasHoly Land in 300.

sical of the ancient Rabbins. The ANANIA, JOHN DE, Archdeacon of original manuscripts are in the library Boulogne, wrote in Latin some learned of the Escurial. theological works. He died in 1458. at ARAMA, R. Meir, son of the preceding, the age of 70.

whom he accompanied to Naples, when ANAXAGORAS was a disciple of the they quitted Spain. He was a philosophilosopher, Anaximene, and instructor pher of repute. He wrote comments on of Socrates, Euripides, and Pericles. Psalms, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Job, He was the first who introduced the which are much admired. He died in Asiatic philosophy at Athens. He held 1556 in the sun to be a mass of fire; the moon

| ARISTOTLE, founder of the Peripatetic to contain mountains and valleys; that sect of philosophers, was born 384 years it was or might be inhabited; that the before the Christian era. He studied planets had at first irregular movements, under Plato, and was instructed in the and were subsequently fixed in their pre- Egyptian religion and sciences by a Jew, sent order, and that every thing is com- at Athens, as Eusebius relates, he told posed of an infinity of atoms. He died his friend Clearchus, “ Know that a Jew 428 years before the christian era. came from Asia; we were many days

ANAXIMENE, the philosopher, was born together ; he took away some philosophy at Miletus, one of the principal cities of from us, but left us much more which Ionia, 528 years before the Christian era. we learned from him.” He was preceptor He held the hypothesis that air was to Alexander the Great. His life is to infinite, and the origin of every thing ; be found in so many works, that it need that instead of being produced by the not be extended on here. gods, it produced them. He is consi- ARTEMIDORUS, famous for his treatise dered by Pliny to have invented the on dreams, which, although full of frivosun-dial, which is erroneous, for the lous observations, contains some interestretrogradation of the shadow in the time ing matter. of Hezekiah took place before his birth. ASHER, RABENU, was by birth a GerANGEL, R. Meir, Chief of the Syna

His profound learning procured gogues of Judea and Greece in 1600. his election to the presidency of the He wrote two works on the Masora. college at Toledo, in the beginning of

ANGELUS, PETER, was born at Barges, the thirteenth century. in Tuscany. His preceptor, was subse- ATHANASIUS, Sr., was, for nearly 50 quently raised to the papal see, (Gregory years, bishop of Alexandria, and flourishXIII.) He is considered a first-rate poet. ed in 320. He was a strong opponent to And although born of indigent parents

, his Arianism. His writings are held in estitalents enabled him to acquire a splendid mation by many christians.


AVEROES, a celebrated Arabian phi- BADRASI, R. JEDIDIAH, son of the prelosopher and physician, flourished at Cor- ceding was born at Barcelona in 1250; dova in 1140, surnamed was The Com- from his eloquence he was called by mentator, from having commented the Christians the Hebrew Cicero; he wrote philosophy of Aristotle, which he had a beautiful didactic poem, entitled “ An translated into Arabic, and from which Investigation of the Moral World," an the early Latin versions were derived. epic poem on Chess, and various philoHe wrote various works on physics, me- sophical and moral works. taphysics, ethics, rhetoric, astronomy, BALMES, R. ABRAHAM, a celebrated and music.

philosopher, grammarian, and physician; Avicenna, an Arabian philosopher he practised medicine in the early part and physician, born in 980, possessed so of the 16th century, wrote an excellent astonishing a memory, as to retain the Hebrew grammar and lexicon, to which entire Alcoran when only ten years of D. Bomberg added a Latin preface. age. At sixteen, he commenced visiting BARUCH, R. BEN AYAZIEL, wrote under the sick and practising medicine, which the title of “The Congregation of Jahe had taught himself. After perfect- cob,” a literal Commentary on Ecclesiing himself in astronomy, geometry, astes, and an allegorical one, entitled and mathematics, he began to study “ The Sanctity of Israel;" they were theology, and is said to have read the printed in 1599. Metaphysics of Aristotle forty times BASIL, ST., was born about 328, and before he understood them perfectly. died in his 50th year; he was Bishop of

AUGUSTIN, Sr., or St. Austin, born Cæsaria in Cappadocia ; his comments on in 354, was ordained bishop of Calarne, the Bible are lost. Erasmus considered in 395, and died in 430. He wrote him superior to Demosthenes and the treatises on the Holy Scriptures, com- greatest orators of Ancient Greece; many mentaries on Psalms, and various other panegyrics have been written on him. works. The one most quoted in this is BECHAYAI, R., was born at Saragossa his “ Civitate Dei."

in 1131, among his many esteemed Aulus Gellius, a celebrated gram- works, a number of which are in Arabic, marian of the second century. Under the he left one entitled “The Obligation of title of Noctes Atticæ, (from being the Heart, or the Vanity of the World;" written in the evenings of a winter it treats on spiritual life and the duty of passed at Athens), he wrote for the man towards God, himself, and his fellow use of his children a collection of obser- creatures. vations on authors, which are valuable, BECHAYAI, RABENU BEN ASHER, was from preserving many facts and monu- chief judge and head rabbi of the Jews ments of antiquity not found elsewhere. of Arragon in 1340; he wrote a highly

AZARIAH, R. Adomi, a native of esteemed literal, allegorical, and cabaMantua, resided and flourished at Fer- listical exposition of the Pentateuch. rara in the sixteenth century; wrote a BEDE, THE VENERABLE, born in 673 much esteemed and learned work under at Newcastle-upon-Tyne; Pope Sergius, the title of “ The Light of the Eyes." desirous of benefiting by his counsel, inThe first part treats on earthquakes, and vited him to Rome, but he never quitted the latter on the history, philosophy, and England; he was one of the greatest antiquities of the Jews.

theologists of his age, his Commentaries AZPILCUETA, Martin, commonly call- on Scripture are chiefly extracts from ed, The Navarese, from being born near others in the Works of the Fathers; he Pampeluna, in that kingdom, in the six- completed his History of England four teenth century. At different periods he years previous to his death. was Professor of Civil Law at Toulouse, BELLARMIN, CARDINAL THOMAS, was Salamanca, and Coimbra. He was con- born in 1542, wrote a Commentary on sidered one of the most learned juris- Psalms; he was a profound theologian consults of his age. He died at Rome and a great controversialist against the in 1586, aged 94. He had gone there to Protestants; he died in 1621. defend his friend, the Archbishop of BEN SIRACH, a learned writer 312 Toledo, who was accused of by years before the Christian era. Ecclethe Inquisition.

siasticus, in the Apocrypha, is said to

have been written by him. BADRASI, R. ABRAHAM, called also

BERNARD, Sr., born in Burgundy in Happenini, was a native of Bezieres, 1091, was the first Abbot of Clairvaux, wrote a work on Hebrew Synonymes. his seminary was so distinguished that it

produced a pope, six cardinals, and up- name which means bush: he was thereon wards of thirty prelates; he preached seized and burnt as an Atheist. the Crusade under Louis the Seventh, CARDANAS, J. B., was a native of Vabut strongly opposed the Monk Raoul's lencia, he wrote various ecclesiastical desire of murdering the Jews. For his works, and became Bishop of Tortosa, letter on the subject, see the Jewish Ca- where he died in 1590. lendar, p. 116, Ann. 1146; he died in CARNITOL, R. JOSEPH, flourished in 1153.

1500; he wrote various Cabalistical BEROSUS flourished about three cen- works, the one bearing the title of “ The turies before the Christian era, in the Gates of Justice” is translated entire in reign of Ptolemy Philadelphius. Pliny “ Cabala Desnudata,” published in Latin informs us that on account of his extra- by Rosenroth in 4 vols. 4to. 1677. ordinary predictions, he was so highly CARO, R. Isaac, was born in Castile considered by the Athenians that they a few years previous to the expulsion, raised a statue to him with the tongue when he went to Portugal, whence hé gilt; he was a Chaldean by birth and embarked for the Holy Land; but being served as a priest to Belus.

wrecked he lost his wife, children, and BODIN, John, an able historian, flou- books, which induced him to lead a serished in the 16th century; he wrote cluded life, when he wrote his “Book of rules for the study of history.

Generations;" he was a jurist, philosoPOETIUS, F.A.M.I. S., a celebrated pher, and expositor. The compendium of prose and poetical writer, was born at our rites and ceremonies was written by Rome in 476, went at an early age to him; he died at Saphet in 1575. study philosophy at Athens. His works CASTANEDA, FERDINAND LOPES DE, shew his knowledge of theology, mathe- in 1540 accompanied his father, who matics, ethics, and logic; for centuries went as judge to India, he wrote a “ Hishis Treatise on Music supplied the place tory of the Discovery and Conquest of of the Greek manuscripts that were sup

India by the Portuguese.” posed to have been lost; his “ Consola- CAYETANO, CONSTANTINE, a Benediction of Philosophers” is a master-piece,

tine abbot, flourished at the commenceit was written while in prison (the victim ment of the 17th century, his first work of a conspiracy) where he was ultimately was printed in 1612. In 1641, he pubbeheaded by order of Theodoric the Goth lished a work to prove that Ignatius de to whom he had rendered great services Loyola, the founder of the order of Jein the government of Italy.

suits, was educated by Benedictines. BUONAVENTURA, Sr., was born in Tus- CECINNA, Aulus, a Roman knight, the cany in 1221.

He taught theology in friend and defender of Cicero. In the civil various places ; by his decision as a car- war he sided with Pompey: he is acdinal, Gregory X. was raised to the cused of having written against Cæsar. Papal See: he died in 1274, and was He wrote a treatise on the formation of canonized in 1482 by Sextus IV.


CELSUS, an epicurean philosopher, CALEPIN, AMBROSE, an Augustine flourished in the 2nd century under friar, born at Calepio near Bergami in Adrian. He wrote a work against the Italy, from which he took his name; he Christians under the title of “The True wrote some theological works and died Discourse.” in 1510.

CELSUS, AURELIUS CORNELIUS, a ceCAPELLA, M. M. F., a Latin poet. It lebrated physician in the 1st century; is doubtful whether he was a Roman or he wrote in Latin eight works on media Carthaginian, nor is the precise time cine which are highly esteemed, he is of his writing known; but from Boetius termed the Hippocrates of the Latins. quoting him, it is supposed to have been CENSORIUS wrote in 238 his treatise on at the commencement of the 6th cen- the natal day. It is a work of importance tury

to chronology ; he dedicated it to Q. CARÇA or SARSA, R. SAMUEL, wrote Carrelius. comments on the Commentaries of Aben CHELPHETA, R. an excellent Casuist, Ezra, Nachmanides, and Maimonides on his sons were disciples of R. Meir. the Law. Endeavouring to preach pub- CHRYSOSTOM, Sr. John., was born at licly the Aristotelian philosophy of the Antioch in 384, he obtained his name, eternity of the world, a learned Rabbi which signifies the golden mouth, from made use of Moses' exclamation," Why his elegant delivery as a rhetorician : he is the bush not burned ?" in allusion to his was a profound, philosopher and became

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a Carthusian. He passed forty years in fection of Beauty,” and another on rhesolitude and the strictest discipline of toric. the church: he lived in constant disputes DIODORUS Siculus, the historian, flouwith the clergy of his age, and died in rished in the reigns of Julius Cæsar and 407.

Augustus: his history of Egypt, Persia, CICERO, MARCUS TULLUs, the famous Syria, Rome, Greece, Media, and CarRoman philosopher and orator was born thage, was a labour of thirty years. Ile is 116 years before the Christan era: his said to have visited all the places he deeloquence always had the most powerful scribes: he is too credulous and prolix effect; he was murdered at 63 years of age on fabulous reports; while events of imby a man accused of parricide, who had portance are treated briefly. been saved by his defence of him; his DIOGENES, APOLLINATUS, a philosoPhillipics caused M. Anthony to pro- pher, who lived five centuries before the scribe him; his life is written by Plutarch Christian era. His profound knowledge and many eminent writers.

of nature procured him many enemies CLEMENT, Titus Flavius, surnamed who sought to kill him at Athens. the Alexandrian, lived in the reign of Dion Cassius, the esteemed Roman Severus about 202. Although well ac- historian in the 3rd century, was goquainted with the Scriptures, he was vernor of Dalmatia and proconsul of more of a philosopher than a theologian : Sicily. he explains most passages allegorically, DIONYSIUS, a learned geographer to and in his writings he attends more to whom the Periegesis is attributed; he is morality than dogmas.

supposed to have lived in the Augustan Comes, Natalis, of Venice, flourished age, he wrote many works, but this is the in 1580: his works on mythology and his- only one we have remaining: tory prove his acquaintance with the DOSA BEN, a disciple of R. Meir, his belles-lettres.

maxims in the Ethics of the Fathers are CORDOVA, R. MOSES DE, born in that much esteemed. city in 1508, was a learned jurist, philo- DURAN, R. Peripot, a grammarian, sopher, and cabalist. From Spain he went mathematician, and one of the most ceto Saphet, where his profound learning lebrated Talmudists of his age, was born procured him the post of chief of that in Arragon: he assisted at the disputacongregation : he died there in 1570; his tion held at Tortosa; his work against work, « The Orchard of Pomegranates," Paul of Burgos and the worship of is a key to Cabala; he wrote many other images, printed at Constantinople, is protheological, philosophical, and cabalisti- hibited in Catholic countries; he is the cal works.

author of " The Ephodi,” a 6 GramCYRIL, St. patriarch of Alexandria in mar,” and “ Comments on Maimonides' the 5th century. In 415, he pillaged and Guide." drove away the Jews, seized and desecrated their synagogues and cemeteries, Egypt, R. MOSES OF. See MAIMOwhich led to a quarrel between him and Orestes the governor; he was a subtle ELEAZAR, R., assisted his father, R. metaphysician.

Simeon ben Jochai, in writing the Zoar

in 120. DAMASCUS, ST. JOHN OF, called the ELIEZER, R., was son of Hyrcanus, a Damascene, born about 676, studied phi- relative of R. Gamliel, whose writings he losophy, mathematics, and theology; he collected; he also wrote many learned wrote in favour of the worship of images: and moral axioms in the Ethics of the from his eloquence the Orthodox Chris- Fathers: his celebrated Pirqué contains tians of his time gave him the cognomen some interesting astronomical and geoof Chrysoboas.

graphical information of that early period. DANDEAU, LAMBERT, a French Cal- He flourished about a century before the inist minister, who wrote various the

Christian era. ological works, died in 1596.

ELIEZER, R. ASKENASI, (or the GerDe Leon, R. David, was a physician man), flourished in the 16th century at at Mantua in 1500; he wrote various phi- Mentz, where he died in 1586: among his losophical works.

many learned works, the most esteemed De LEON, R. JUDAH, commonly known was the title of " The Works of God." by the appellation of Messer Leon, EMPEDOCLES, a philosopher, poet, and flourished at Mantua in 1470, wrote a historian, born in Sicily about 450 years philosophical work, entitled “The Per- before the Christian era, believed in


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tian era.

Metempsycosis, and adopted the Pytha- | reside, forced him to quit that city, to gorean philosophy: he entertained the which he was recalled" by Aurelius, on opinion that there were links that united whose death he returned to his native the four elements, and a discord that kept country where he died in 200. them asunder.

GARMISA, R. ELIEZER, of Worms, a EPIMENIDES, GNOSSIUS, a Cretan, con- profound Cabalist, flourished in 1240, temporary with Solon 596 years before wrote among many esteemed works one the Christian era, wrote a poem of 5000 against astrology. verses, is said to have slept for 27 years, GERONA, R. Moses.

See Nachmaand on awaking neither to have known or been known to any one.

GERSHON, R. Ben Solomon, father of EPHRAIM, R., surnamed Lundschutz, R. Levi, lived in Catalonia in 1270, and was Chief Rabbi of the Congregation at wrote an esteemed work on natural phiLemberg in1580, and wrote seven learned losophy under the title of “ The Gates of and esteemed works on various subjects. Heaven:” there is a manuscript copy of

EUCLID taught mathematics at Alex- it at Oxford. andria three centuries before the Chris- Giath, R. ISAAC BEN, was a celebrated

poet, born at Lucena: being deeply versed EUCLID OF MEGARA, a disciple of in Hebrew, Greek, and Arabic literature, Socrates, on whose death and Plato's, he became head of the college at Corfrom his great repute as a philosopher, dova, where he died in 1089. many repaired to him for instruction GREGORY, ST., of Nyssa in Cappadofrom dread of the tyrants of Athens. cia, was bishop of that city, born about

EURIPIDES, a famous Greek tragic 330 : from their philosophical tendency poet, born 480 years before the Christian his writings are said more to resemble era, he died at the age of 75.

those of Plato and Aristotle than those

of a Christian divine, he died in 396. FICIN MARCELLUS, was a native of GUIGATILLA, R. JOSEPH, born in CasFlorence, greatly esteemed by the Medici tile, was one of the exiles at the exfamily as an ecclesiastic, he applied him- pulsion : he was surnamed the Divine self to the study of theology and philo- Cabalist from his learned works on that sophy, his works formn 2 vols. fol. He died subject. He also wrote some excellent · in 1503 aged 70.

theological treatis FINE ORONTES, a celebrated mathematician, born at Briançon in 1494, he HABIB, R. JACOB, a celebrated jurist, wrote various esteemed works on geome- theologist, and cabalist, born in 1450 in try, geography, astrology, optics, and Spain, which he quitted at the expulsion: mechanics.

his work “ The Fountain of Jacob,” is FULGENTIUS, ST., flourished in the an excellent compendium of Jewish juearly part of the 6th century, termed the risprudence. St. Augustin of his age; among his va- HABIB, R. JOSEPH, a learned jurist rious works he left one on Predestination and Talmudist, born at Leon : he comand Grace.

mented the lesser constitutions of Rab

Alfez. GABAY, R. Meir, a cabalistical writer Habib, R. LEVI BEN, flourished at Jeruof note in the 16th century.

salem in thel6th century: he wrote learnGABRIOL, R. Solomon, born at Malaga ed answers to some theological questions. in 1048, resided at Saragossa, and was Halı Bey, chief dragoman at the celebrated for his skill in music : he was court of the Grand Signor in the middle an excellent poet, astronomer, and phi- of the 17th century, born of Christian losopher ; his works on all those subjects parents in Poland : being taken when are deservedly much esteemed; in astro- young by the Tartars, he was sold to the nomy he followed the Ptolemeian sys- Turks: he translated the Bible into the tem, as his beautiful poem “The Crown Turkish language. Some of his works are of the Kingdom” shews.

translated into English by Dr. Hyde. He GALEN, the prince of Greek physi- was acquainted with 17 languages; he cians, was born at Pergamus about 131: also wrote a Turkish grammar and dicnext to Hippocrates he was considered | tionary. the greatest physician of antiquity; he HANINA, R. BEN Dosa, flourished in performed such surprising cures that he the 8th year of the Christian era. was accused of magic; the jealousy of the HASDAI, R. died at Cæsarea in 1380, faculty at Rome, where he had gone to

he wrote three learned works under the

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