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Shortly after this, he published in Latin his “ XXX Problems on the Creation;" and in 1636, his treatise on “ The Resurrection of the Dead, the Day of Judgment, and the Future State.”

At the persuasion of the celebrated and learned Dr. John Beverovicio, Senator of Dordrecht, he committed to the press his opinions on the duration of human life, the major part of which will be found in Part II : he then wrote notes on the Greek poet Phocylides, whose poems he translated into Spanish verse ; and o'n now“On the Immortality of the Soul,” which he dedicated to the Emperor Ferdinand III.

Having studied Rhetoric in his early years, he had so much ease in expressing his ideas, that he never committed to paper any of his numerous sermons previous to delivering them; and when only fifteen years of age, his discourses were generally admired and approved.

He established a Hebrew printing press, and published three editions of the Hebrew Bible, one in Spanish with marginal notes, and various prayer books ; but, notwithstanding the trouble and time employed in the arduous undertaking they did not reward his labours.

In 1642, he published in Spanish his work on “Human Frailty and the Inclination of Man to Sin,” and his “ Congratulatory Address to the Prince of Orange and Queen Henrietta of England” (consort of Charles I.) on their visit to the Portuguese Synagogue at Amsterdam.

In 1645, he wrote the “ Laws, Customs, and Ceremonies of the Jews," the latter part of which, containing the duties of man and wife, he only completed on the marriage of his daughter two years later. He went to the Brazils in 1650, probably to regulate his commercial concerns with his brother-in-law, who was established at Pernambuco. Although the time of his return cannot positively be ascertained, his stay in the southern hemisphere must have been but short; for in the following year the last part of the “Conciliator" appeared before the public. About this time he had the misfortune to lose his eldest son in the flower of his age: this bereavement caused him the most poignant grief, and, as he acknowledges, took such effect on his mind as to render him incapable of the least mental exertion; but, arousing himself from this stupor, he sought and found comfort in that book, the apparent contradictions of which he had so long been occupied in reconciling.

On the invitation of Mr. Secretary Thurlow, he came to England in 1655, and endeavoured to procure the readmission of the Jews into the kingdom, from which they had been exiled 370 years. He presented petitions in behalf of his co-religionists to Parliament, and the Protector, by whom he had been kindly received ; and although there exists no positive proof of the acceptance by Cromwell of the conditions he proposed, they must have been tacitly admitted, for, in the following year, some of them were put into execution. Particulars of what took place on this occasion are fully detailed in the Jewish Calendar, published by the Translator in A.m. 5598--1838, page 127.

While this subject was under discussion, he published his “ Defence of the Jews" under the title of “Vindiciæ Judæorum,” wherein he fully refuted the infamous accusations that had been made against them in former times.

Although it does not appear that he practised medicine, he must have received his degrees as a Physician; for, in the above-mentioned petition, he styles himself M.D., a title he would not have assumed, had he not held a right to it; for, as the learned Dr. Pococke says of him, “ he was a man without passion, without levity, but, alas ! without opulence." Among his most intimate friends was the learned Grotius.

Under the impression that the Aborigines of America migut be part of the Ten Tribes, he wrote a small work entitled “ The Hope of Israel ;" he also published a refutation of the pre-Adamites. And under the title of nop' yan

The Precious Stone;" a comment on Nebuchadnezzar's Statue, in 12mo., with four engravings by Rembrandt: a few copies of the four were printed on one whole sheet; they are now so scarce and rare, that the Translator has seen one that was sold for 100 guineas.

On his return from England, he retired to Middleburgh, in Zealand, where his brother resided; and died there in 1657. He left the following works, some unedited and others unfinished :

,אבן יקרה

1. The Conciliator. 2. A Hebrew Pentateuch with a Spanish version. *3. The Jewish Customs, Rites, and Ceremonies; in Five Parts. 5. A Panegyric on the Queen of Sweden. 6. Phocylides (with Notes) in Spanish Verse.

' “ The Precious Stone;" a Comment on the Statue of Nebu

chadnezzar. 8. Dan now“The Soul of Life;" on the Resurrection of the Dead and

Immortality of the Soul. *9. On the Fall of Man and Frailty of Human Nature. *10. SR70app, "The Hope of Israel." 11. XXX Problems respecting the Creation, in Latin. 12. A Treatise on the Duration of Human Life. 13. 137 'D, a Hebrew Index, alphabetically arranged, of the passages of

Scripture explained in Midrash Raba. 14. D'W' tid, “ Secret of the Righteous," on the Secrets of Nature, or Natural Magic.


“ The Pure Lip,” a Hebrew Grammar. 16. On Logic. 17. A Hebrew and Arabic Nomenclature. 18. A Rabbinical Catalogue with Critical Notes.

,שפה ברורה .15

* The Translator of the present Work has translated those marked *, which he has in Manuscript, into English.

19. Notes on Josephus, and continuation of the History of the Jews to his

time. 20. A Latin Defence of the Babylonian Talmud and Rabbinical Philo

sophy. 21. On the Divinity of the Law of Moses, in refutation of Atheism. 22. A Collection of Epistles, and 450 Sermons in Spanish.




AARON, R. BEN Haim, Chief of the ABARBANEL, Don JUDAH, son of the Synagogues of Morocco and Fez; he preceding, was an excellent scholar and wrote Commentaries on the Pentateuch, elegant poet. He quitted Spain at the Joshua, Judges, and the thirteen exe- expulsion, and finally settled at Genoa, getical rules of R. Ishmael.

where he practised medicine with great ABARBANEL, Don Isaac, born at Lis- credit: he is commonly called the Hebrew bon in 1437; he states in his comment Lion. He wrote in Latin the Philography on Zechariah, that his family settled in or Dialogues of Love, in three parts; Spain shortly after the destruction of the 1st. On Moral Philosophy; 2nd. On the first Temple. He was of the royal Natural Philosophy and Mathematics; stock of David. Alphonso V. of Por- 3rd. The Sublimest Theology: it is tugal was completely guided by his translated into various modern lancouncils ; at his death, to avoid the fate guages. the friends of that monarch experienced ABEN Ezra, R. ABRAHAM, was born from his successor, John II., he fled to at Toledo in 1119; his great learning Castile, where, jointly with Abraham procured for him the distinctive appellaSenior, he farmed the royal revenues. tion of the Sage; he was an excellent In 1484, he was summoned to the court philosopher, grammarian, poet, physician, of Ferdinand and Isabella, in whose ser- astronomer, and cabalist, on all which vice he was employed until the expulsion subjects he wrote. His comments on in 1492, which, after unsuccessfully en- the Scripture were so highly appreciated deavouring to avert, even by the offer of by Maimonides, that he recommended 600,000 crowns, he recommended his them as the best to his son; his thirst brethren quietly to submit to. On quit- after knowledge led him to travel through ting Spain, he repaired to Naples, where Greece, and nearly the whole of Europe: he was kindly received by Ferdinand, to the Library of the Escurial possesses whom he rendered many services. After his numerous works almost complete. the death of this monarch, Charles VIII. He died at Rhodes in 1194. of France invaded Italy; and Alphonso II., ABOAB, R. Isaac, born in Castile in the son and successor of Ferdinand, fed 1432, died at Lisbon in 1493, much reto Sicily, whither Abarbanel accompanied gretted by the king. He was greatly eshim, and remained faithful to him under teemed as a philosopher, jurist, theoloall his misfortunes. On his demise, he gist, and expositor. His work, “ The retired to Corfu, and ultimately to Lamp of Light,” is highly appreciated, Venice, whose senate, knowing his abi- as inculcating the purest morality. lities as a statesman, employed him to ABRAHAM, R. BEN DAVID Daor, negociate the treaty for the spice trade commonly known by the name of with Portugal. He died there in 1508, be- 728) Areabad, was born at Toledo loved and esteemed by all who knew him. in 1120, renowned as a profound TalHis writings are elegant and impressive : mudist and excellent historian. His his commentaries carry such conviction, work, “ The Order of the World,” dethat Popes, who formerly sought our con- monstrates the uninterrupted preservaversion, prohibited those on Isaiah being tion in its purity of the Oral Law from read. He was so ready a writer, that, in Moses to his time; the history of the fifteen days, he completed his comments Jewish Kings during the second Temple; on Joshua, and in seventy-two, those and the Roman History down to the on the books of Samuel and Kings. He commencement of Ismalism : he also also wrote eleven other valuable works. wrote in Arabic a work demonstrating


that the elements of nature lead to those of Knowledge." He also wrote others of religious faith.

of minor interest. ABUDARHAM, R. David, a learned ALBERTUS MAGNUS was born in 1205, astronomer and moral philosopher, born of a noble Suabian family; his numerous at Seville in 1300, wrote many approved extraordinary inventions led to his being works on those subjects, and an explana- accused of sorcery. He became a monk, tion of the Annual Ritual.

and died in 1282. He was beatified by ABULENSIS, vide Tostat.

Gregory XV. in 1622. ADA, R., a learned astronomer of ALBO, R. JOSEPH, born at Soria ; asNahardea, where he was head of the sisted at the disputation held at Tortosa college in 240. He formed the astrono- in the presence of Benedict XIII. with mical tables by which the Jewish Calen- the apostate, Joshua Harloqui. He was dar is regulated: they are found to be much esteemed for his Talmudical and so correct, that no alteration in them has general knowledge. His “ Book of Prinbeen made during sixteen centuries. ciples” is a fine example of the meta

ADERETH, R. SOLOMON BEN, better physics and philosophy of the Jews. He known by the appellation of Rawing also wrote on the existence of God, and Arishba, was born at Barcelona, where on future rewards and punishments. he flourished in 1300. From his abilities, ALCABES, R. SOLOMON, flourished at in philosophy and civil law, he became Saphet in the 16th century. He wrote chief of all the Jews in Spain. He wrote commentaries on the Five Rolls, and various esteemed works; manuscripts of some cabalistical works. some are in the Vatican library.

ALCIATO, TERENCE, a Jesuit professor ÆLIANUS, MEccius, an Italian phy- of philosophy and theology at Rome, sician, highly praised by Galen; he was born in 1570, died in 1671. the first to administer theriaca as a cure ALDABI, R. MEIR, wrote in 1360 a and preventive against the plague. highly esteemed philosophical and theolo

Æmilius, Paulus, a celebrated his. gical work entitled, “The Seeds of Faith.” torian, was born at Verona. The Car- ALES, ALEXANDER, born at Edinburgh dinal of Bourbon, in the reign of Louis in 1500. At the confession of Augsburg, XII., invited him to write the history of he entered the lists against Luther, but France in Latin : it is much admired. subsequently embraced Protestantism. AGELLIUS, ANTHONY,

Bishop of Acerno He came to London in 1535, and was in Naples, flourished in the beginning of much esteemed by Cranmer and Latimer. the 17th century. He wrote commenta- On their fall, he returned to Germany, ries on Solomon's Song, Psalms, Lament- the Elector of Brandenburg appointing ations, and Habakkuk.

him Professor of Divinity at Francfort on AKIBA, R., said to be a descendant of the Oder. He wrote various commentSisera, was born the same year as the aries, and died in London in 1565. Christian era commenced: while attend. ALGAZEL, ALGAMATA, wrote an Arabic ing the flocks of a rich master, he work on moral precepts, and a philosobecame enamoured of his daughter ; but phical one under the title of “ The Deshe having declared she would not marry struction of Philosophers ;” both were a man who was not learned in the Law, translated into Hebrew by R. Abraham he applied himself to its study at the age bar Hasdi. It was also printed in Latin, of forty, and became so renowned, as to with Aristotle's works, in 1560, at Venice. have had, it is said, 24,000 scholars. ALMOLI, R. SAMUEL, practised physic When she became his wife, it is said he with great repute in Italy. He wrote a could give a reason for every letter in philosophical treatise, on the articles of the Law. Having taken part with Bar- faith, and an account of all religions. chochab in the revolt against Adrian, he ALMOSNINO, R. Moses, a learned was taken prisoner with him at Bither. philosophical writer in 1538. He wrote, During his trial before Rufus, at the under the title of the “ House of God," hour of prayer, he calmly performed his a work on the terrestrial globe, “ Instrucdevotions, and was condemned to be tions for life,” “Rules for upright conflayed alive at the age of 120.

duct,” a refutation of heathen philosophy ALBELDA, R. Moses, Chief of the entitled, “The Tower of Strength, College of Thessalonica, wrote, under the some commentaries, and various other title of the “Gates of Tears,” a highly learned works. moral work on the vanity and vicissitudes ALPhonso X. succeeded his father, of human things, and a philosophical and Ferdinand III. of Spain, in 1252. His allegorical one entitled, “The beginning profound knowledge of history, philo

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