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20. Different kinds of demonstrations.

1. Immediate consent.

2. Induction.

3. Sopbism.

4. Coagruity. The rigour and curiosity in requiring the more severe proofs in some things, and chiefly the facility in contenting ourselves with the more remiss proofs in others, hath been amongst the greatest causes of detriment and hindrance to knowledge.

21. This is deficient.



Retaining knowledge is by writing or memory.


The nature of the character is referred to grammar.
The disposition of our knowledge depends upon common places.
Of common places injuring the memory.

Because it is but a counterfeit thing in knowledges to be forward and pregnant, ercept a man be deep and full, I hold the entry of common-places, to be a matter of great use and essence in studying, as that which assureth copia

of invention, and contracteth judgment to a strength. The mode of common placing is defective.


195 It is weakly enquired. Precepts for memory have been exalted for ostentation, not for


I make no more estimation of repeating a great number of names or words upon once hearing, or the pouring forth of a number of verses or thimes ex tempore, or the making

(t) See note (T) at the end.

of a satirical simile of every thing, or the turning of every thing to a jest, or the falsifying or contradicting of every thing by cavil, or the like, (whereof in the faculties of the mind there is great copia,and such as by device and practice may be exalted to an extreme degree of wonder,) than I do of the tricks of tumblers, funambuloes, baladines ; the one being the same in the mind that the other is in the

body, matters of strangeness without worthiness. Art of memory is built upon prenotion and emblem. Prenotion is a limitation of an indefinite seeking by directing us

to seek in a narrow compass. Emblem reduces conceits intellectual to images sensible.

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It is the transferring our knowledge to others.
Division of the subject.

1. The organ of speech.
2. The method of speech.
3. The ornament of speech.


Whatever is capable of sufficient differences and perception by

the sense is competent to express thought.

Different Signs of Thought. 1. Having similitude with the notion.

1. Hieroglyphics.

2. Gestures. 2. Not having similitude or words. The antiquity of hieroglyphics. Gestures are as transitory hieroglyphics.

Periander, being consulted with how to preserve a tyranny newly usurped, bid the messenger attend and report what he saw him do; and went into his garden and topped

all the highest flowers. Hypotheses respecting the origin of words


Of Grammar. Man still striveth to reintegrate himself in those benedictions, from which by his fault he hath been deprived ; and as he hath striven against the first general curse by the invention of all other arts, so hath he sought to come forth of the second general curse, which was the confusion of tongues, by the art of grammar : whereof the use in a mother tongue is small, in a foreign tongue more ; but most in such foreign tongues as have ceased to be vulgar tongues, and are turned

only to learned tongues. The accidents of words, as measure, sound, &c. is an appendix

to grammar. There are various sorts of cyphers.

As there be many of great account in their countries and provinces, which, when they come up to the seat of the estate, are but of mean rank and scarcely regarded; so these arts, being here placed with the principal and supreme sciences, seem petty things; yet to such as have chosen them to spend their labours and studies in them, they seem great matters.


It is deficient.
Impatience of method.
Different sorts of methods.
The use of grammar is small in mother tongues-is greater in

foreign living tongues; but greatest in dead languages 198 Duties of grammar are two.

1. Popular.

2. Philosophical Popular grammar is for the learning and speaking languages. Philosophical grammar examines the power of words as they are the footsteps of reason

199 First Method. Magistral which teaches, or initiative which insi

201 He that delivereth knowledge, desireth to deliver it in such form as may be best believed, and not as may be best


eramined ; and he that receiveth knowledge, desireth rather present satisfaction, than expectant inquiry; and so rather not to doubt, than not to err.

Knowledge that is delivered as a thread to be spun on, ought to be delivered and intimated, if it were possible, in the same method wherein it was invented ; and so is it possible of knowledge induced.

It is in knowledges as it is in plants; if you mean to use the plant, it is no matter for the roots; but if you mean to remove it to grow, then it is more assured to rest upon roots than slips : so the delivery of knowledges, as it is now used, is as of fair bodies of trees without the roots; good for the carpenter, but not for the planter. But if you will have sciences grow, it is less matter for the shaft or body of

the tree, so you look well to the taking up of the roots. Second Method. A concealed or revealed style

203 Third Method. Method or aphorisms. 1. Delivery by aphorisms is a test of the knowledge of

the writer. %. Methodical delivery is better to procure consent than

to generate action. 8. Aphorisms invite to augment knowledge. Fourth Method. Delivery by assertions, with their proofs or in

4. Delivery by interrogations should be used only to

remove stray prejudices.
If it be immoderately followed, is as prejudicial to the
proceeding of learning, as it is to the proceeding of an
army to go about to besiege every little fort or hold. For
if the field be kept, and the sum of the enterprise pursued,

those smaller things will come in of themselves. Fifth Method. Accommodation of delivery according to the

matter which is to be treated. Sixth Method. Delivery according to the anticipation in the

minds of the hearers.
1. Those whose conceits are seated in popular

opinions need only to dispute or to prove.

2. Those whose conceits are beyond popular opinions

have a double labour. Ist. That they may be

conceited, 2d. That they may prove. 3. Science not consonant to presuppositions must

bring in aid similitudes. Method considers the disposition of the work, and the limitation of propositions

206 It belongeth to architecture to consider not only the

whole frame of a work, but the seceral beams and columns. Observations upon the limits of propositions. Of the method of imposture.

A mass of words of all arts, to give men countenance, that those which use the terms might be thought to understand the art; which collections are much like a fripper's or broker's shop, that hath ends of every thing, but nothing of worth.


208 1. Eloquence is in reality inferior to wisdom; but in popular

opinions superior to it.

It is said by God to Moses, when he disabled himself for want of this faculty, Aaron shall be thy speaker, and thou

shalt be to him as God. 2. The deficiences in eloquence are rather in some collections

than in the art itself. 3. The office of rhetoric is to apply reason to imagination for the

better moving of the will. 4. The disturbers of reason are fallacies of arguments: assiduity

of impression, and violence of passion. 5. The counteractors of these disturbers are logic, morality and

rhetoric. 6. Speech is more conversant in adorning what is good than in

colouring evil.

Virtue, if she could be seen, would move great love and affection ;" so seeing that she cannot be shewed to the sense by corporal shape, the next degree is to shew her to the imagination in lively representation,

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