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2. Of the errors in antient philosophy from mixing formal and final causes

141 Not because those final causes are not true, and worthy to be inquired, being kept within their own province; but because their excursions into the limits of physical causes

hath bred a vastness and solitude in that track. 2. There is no repugnance between formal and final causes 14 3. These opinions confirm divine providence.


142 1. Reason for classing it as a part of metaphysic. 9. From the nature of the mind to wander in generalities,

mathematics have more laboured than any other form. 3. There is no difference in mathematics

144 4. Division of maihematics : Ist, pure; 2d, mixed.


Pure Mathematics. 1. It is that science which handles quantity determinate, merely

severed from axioms of natural philosophy, and is geometry or arithmetic

144 2. Pure mathematics cure many intellectual defects.

If the wit be too dull, they sharpen it; if too wandering, they fir it; if too inherent in the sense, they abstract it. So that as tennis is a game of no use in itself, but of great use in respect it maketh a quick eye and a body ready to put itself into all postures ; su in the mathematics, that use which is collateral and intervenient is no less worthy than that which is principal and intended.

Mixed Mathematics

144 1. Its subject is some axioms or points of natural philosophy,

and considers quantity determined, as auxiliary and

incident to them, as perspective, music, architecture, &c. 2. They will increase as nature is more disclosed.

OPERATIVE NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, 1. It is the production of effects.

2. Division.

1. Experimental.
2. Philosophical.

3. Magical 3. Of the analogy between this division and the division of spe

culative natural philosophy 4. The knowledge of physical causes will lead to new particulars.



Magical. 1. Natural magic is defective

146 2. Appendices hereto are,

Ist. A calendar of inventions,
2d. A calendar of discoveries which may lead to
other inventions

148 The invention of the mariner's needle, which giveth the direction, is of no less benefit for navigation than the in

vention of the sails, which give the motion. 3. Conclusion of natural philosophy, speculative and operative.

The voice of nature will consent, whether the voice of man do or not. And as Alexander Borgia was wont to say of the expedition of the French for Naples, that they came with chalk in their hands to mark up their lodgings, and not with weapons to fight : so I like better that entry of truth which cometh peaceably, with chalk to mark up those minds which are capable to lodge and harbour it, than that which cometh with pugnacity and contention.

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1. Division of doubts.

1. Particular.

2. Total.

2. Particular doubts.

1. Uses of registering doubts.

2. Of the evil of continuing doubts. That use of uit and knowledge is to be allowed, which

laboureth to make doubtful things certain, and not those which labour to make certain things doubtful.

Of a Calendar of Popular Errors. General doubts, or those differences of opinions, touching the 2. The art of ascertaining the state of the body from the appear

principles of nature which have caused the diversities of sects

152 Thus have we now dwelt with two of the three beams of man's knowledge; that is Radius directus,which is referred to nature, Radius refractus,which is referred to God; and cannot report truly because of the inequality of the medium : there resteth Radius reflexus," whereby man beholdeth and contemplateth himself.

HUMAN PHILOSOPHY, OR THE KNOWLEDGE OF MAN(O) 153 1. The knowledge of men deserves more accurate investigation,

because it touches us more nearly. 2. The knowledge of man is to man the end of all knowledge:

but of nature herself a portion only.

All partitions of knowledge should be accepted rather for lines and veins, than for sections and separations; ihat the

continuunce and entireness of knowledge be preserved. 3. Division of human philosophy.

1. Man as an individual.
2. Man as a member of society.

1. Division,
1. The undivided state of man.

1. Discovery.

2. Impression.
%. The divided state of man.

Discovery. 1. The art of ascertaining the state of the mind from the appear

ance of the body, as physiognomy, &c.

(o) See note (O) at the end.

ance of the mind, as exposition of dreams, &c.



155 1. The discovery of the mind from the appearance of the body. 2. Aristotle has laboured physiognomy as far as relates to the

countenance at rest; but not when in motion, 3. The lineaments of the body disclose the general inclinations

of the mind : the motions its present dispositions.

A number of subtle persons, whose eyes do dwell upon the faces and fashions of men, do well know the advantage of this observation, as being most part of their ability.

Impression. 1. It is the science of the relative action of the body and mind

upon each other.
2. Of the action of the body on the mind.

1. This has been enquired as a part of medicine.
2. The doctrine that the body acts upon the mind does

not derogate from the soul's dignity.
The infant in the mother's womb is compatible with the
mother and yet separable ; and the most absolute monarch

is sometimes led by his servants and yet without subjection. 3. The action of the mind on the body. 1. Physicians have ever considered “accidentia animi,”

as of great importance. 2. The power of imagination as well to help as to hurt

is a subject neglected, but deserving enquiry. It cannot be concluded that because there be pestilent airs, able suddenly to kill a man in health, therefore there should be sovereign airs, able suddenly to cure a man in sickness. 3. There should be an enquiry of the seats and domiciles

which the several faculties of the mind occupy in the body and the organs thereof.*

* See the


words of Bacon in page 157, and query as to its application to the subject of craniology.


The divided State of Man

1. The body.
2. The mind.



1. Health.
2. Beauty.
3. Strength.
4. Pleasure,

Health. 1. Man's body is of all things most susceptible of remedy, but

this remedy most susceptible of error. 2. No body is so variously compounded as the body of man. ... The variety in the composition of man's body is the

cause of its heing frequently distempered. The poets did well to conjoin music and medicine in Apollo : because the office of medicine is but to tune this curious harp of man's body and to reduce it to harmony. 2. The variety in the composition of man's body has made

the art of medicine more conjectural; and so given

scope to error and imposture. The lawyer is judged by the virtue of his pleading, and not by the issue of the cause. The master of the ship is judged by the directing his course aright, and not by the fortune of the voyage. But the physician, and perhaps the politician, hath no particular acts demonstrative of his

ability, but is judged most by the event. 3. The quack is often prized before the regular physician. 4. Physicians often prefer other pursuits to their own professions.

You shall have of them antiquities, poets, humanists, statesmen, merchants, divines, and in every of these better seen than in their profession ; and no doubt upon this ground, that they find that mediocrity and excellency in their art maketh no difference in profit or reputation to


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