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said office he caused several superstitious pictures to be burnt at the inarket-place of Oxford, and among the rest, one in which was the figure of God the Father, over a crucifix, ready to receive the soul of Christ, and he profeffes in this letter, that he was moved to such proceedings by his own observation and experience. I “ remeinber (says he) in that college (Baliol] where I “ first lived, a young man was taken praying, and beating ko bis breast, before a crucifix in a window; which caused “ the master and fellows to pull it down and set up “ other glass. Which example, makes me nothing doubt, “ but that the cross in Cheapside hath many, in the

twilight and morning early, who do reverence before “ it, besides Campian, whole act is famous, or rather “s infamous for it. And, I am informed, that so much “ hath been signified by the neighbours, or inquest, mak

ing presentments concerning the circumstances of this “ cause. By all which, I do conclude, that it is a “ monument of their fuperftition; a great inducement, “ and may be a ready way to idolatry; and that there “ can be no tolerable use of this matter, which may be « able to countervail the dangers and obloquy arising

upon the retaining of it, and so much the rather, be“ cause it is perceived that many evil affected men do “ make their advantage from hence, to infinuate into the « minds of their credulous hearers, that it is a token of " the return of their faith again into this land, since " their monuments are not extinguished in the chief street « of our greatest city."

He afterwards desires, that the reader would observe, that the magistrates are to redress such enormnities : " For (continues he) I do not permit inferior men to run “ headlong about such matters; and to rend, break, and “ tear, as well within, as without the churches, which “ was that which Luther reprehended; but the advice and “ consent of fuperior powers is to be had herein, that all

things may be done decently and in order." He held it therefore necessary, that they should apply to the archbishop of Canterbury (Whitgift] and to the bishop of London [Bancrofi] for instructions. The issue of the matter was, that the cross only was erected again, without either the body or the dove, which was agreeable in the main to the sentiments of the vice-chancellor, and the heads of houses at Oxford.

He likewise published the same year his fermons on the prophet Jonah, which were received with great applaufe.


In 1603, he was again chosen vice-chancellor of the university, and discharged that office a second time with general approbation. In the succeeding year 1604, that translation of the Bible, which is now in ule, was made by the direction of K. James, and Dr. Abbot was the second of eight learned divines in the university of Oxford, to whom the care of translating the whole New Testament (excepting the Epistles) was committed. He likewise published this year an answer to Dr. Hill's Reasons for upholding Popery. In 1605, he was a third time vicechancellor. In the succeeding year, he is said to have had a great share in the troubles of Laud, who was called to an account by the vice-chancellor, Dr. Ayry, for a sermon of his preached before the university; and that year, like. wife, he loft his father and mother.

In 1608, died his great patron Thomas Sackville, earl of Dorset, lord high treasurer of England, and chancellor of the university of Oxford, suddenly at the council table; at whose funeral, Dr. Abbot preached a fermon, which was afterwards printed, and generally commended.

After bis decease, Dr. Abbot becaine chaplain to George Hume, earl of Duxbar, and treasurer of Scotland, one of K. James's early favourites, and who all along had a very high fhare in his esteem; and with him he went this year into Scotland, in order to assist in the execution of a very important design, for establishing an union between the Churches in that kingdom and this, wherein he behaved with so much prudence and moderation as gained him a very high character, and is thought to have been the first step to all his future preferment.

Dean Abbot now stood so high in the king's favor, that on the death of Dr. Overton, bishop of Litchfield and Coventry, which happened the latter end of April, 1609, his majesty thought of Dr. Abbot for his fucceffor; and he was accordingly consecrated bishop of those united fees, on December 3, in the same year. But this, it seems, did not appear in the king's eyes a sufficient recompence for the services rendered him by so able a man; and therefore, before he had fat a month in this bilnoprick, he was translated to London, that fee becoming void by the death of Dr. Thomas Ravis; and he was accordingly removed thither on the 20th of January following. It was but a short time that he posferred both there bin shopricks; and yet, in that fhort time, he so remarkably diftinguished himself by the diligent performance of his function, by constant preaching, and by expressing the

atmost readiness to promote learning and learned men, that he obtained a general good character, as appears from feveral memorials of those times.

While the good bishop was thus employed, a new opportunity offered of the king's testifying his esteern of, and confidence in him, by the archiepiscopal fee of Canterbury's becoming vacant, as it did on the ad of November, 1610, by the death of Dr. Richard Buncroft. The court bithops immediately cast their eyes upon the celebrated Dr. Lancelot Andrews, then bishop of Ely, and pointed him out to the king, as one sufficiently qualified to take upon him the government of the church ; and they thought this recommendation, joined to the king's knowa regard for the parts and piety of this eminent man, enough to secure his promotion to the primacy; but either the king himself thought of the bishop of London, or he was proposed to him by his old friend and patron, the earl of Dunbar ; and therefore, without taking the advice of those prelates, his majesty preferred bishop Abbet to the fee of Canterbury, in which he was feated on the gth of April, 1611 ; and, on the 23d of June following, was sworn of his majesty's most honourable privy council. Thus we see him, before he had arrived at the


of fifty, exalted to the highest dignity in the church, and celebrated by Godwin, one of his contemporaries, and a bishop too, for his learning, eloquence, and indefatigable diligence in preaching and writing, notwithstanding the great burthen that lay upon him, from the peceffary attendance on the duties of his high office; especially presiding in the high-commiffion court, which fat weekly at his palace, and his regular assisting at council, which, while his health permitted, he never failed. At this time, he was in the highest favor both with prince and people, and appears to have had a principal hand in all the great transactions in church and state; he was never esteemed excessively fond of power, or desirous of carrying his prerogative, as primate of England, to an extraordinary height; yet, as soon as he had taken possession of the archbiloprick, he fhewed a steady resolution in the maintainance of the rights of the high commiffion-court, and would not fubmit to lord Coke's prohibitions. He likewile fhewed his concern for the interest of the protestant religion abroad, by procuring his majesty's application to the it ates general against Conrade Vorjiius, whom they had called to the professorship of Leyden ; in which affair Sir

Ralpo Ralph Winwood was employed ; and when it was found difficult to obtain from the states that satisfaction which the king desired, his grace, in conjunction with the lord treasurer, E. of Salisbury, framed an expedient for contenting both parties. In all probability this alarmed some of the warm churchmen at home, who were by no means pleased with the king's discountenancing abroad thote opinions which themselves favored in both universities; but, whatever their sentiments upon this matter might be, archbishop Abbot seems to have had as great concern for the church, as any of them, when he thought it really in danger, as appears by a short and plain letter of his to Sir Ralph Winwood, about one Mr. Amias, who had been appointed preacher in the English congregation at the Hague, of whom the bishop says, that he was a fit person to breed up the captains and soldiers there in mutiny and faction, and, consequently, very unfit for his office.

His great concern for the true interest of religion, made him a zealous promoter of the match between the Ele&tor Palatine and princess Elizabeth; and that prince being here in the beginning of the year 1612, his grace thought fit to invite the nobility that attended him to an entertainment, at his archiepiscopal palace at Lambeth, where, though uninvited and unexpected, the elector himself resorted, to shew his great respect for the archbishop, and was so well pleased with his welcome, that when he feasted the members of the privy council at Essex-house, he shewed particular respect to the Archbishop, and those who attended him. On the fourteenth of February following, the marriage was folemnized with great fplendor, the archbishop performing the ceremony on a stage erected in the middle of the royal chapel ; and, on the tenth of April, his electoral highness returned to Germany; but before his departure, he made a present of plate to the archbishop, of the value of a thousand pounds, as a mark of the just sense he had of the pains his grace had taken in the accomplishing his marriage ; and as an additional mark of his confidence, he wrote to him from Canterbury, in relation to the causes of that discontent, with which he left England.

The concern his majesty had shewn for removing Arminius first, and then Vorstius, had given their favorers in Holland so much uneasiness, that the famous Hugo Grotius, the great champion of their cause, was jent over to England, to endeavor to mitigate the king's


displeasure, and, if possible, to give him a better opinion of the Remonstrants, as they began then to be called; and we have a very singular account of the man, and of his negotiation, from the pen of the archbishop t.


+ This is contained in a letter from his grace to Sir Ralph Winwood, dated June 1, 1713, from Lambeth ; it contains a great variety of curious particulars, fome of which follow. " You must take heed, “ how you trust Dr. Grotius too far, for I perceive him to be so “ addicted to fome partialities in those parts, that he feareth not to “ lash, so it may serve a turn. At his first coming to the king, by “ reason of his good Latin tongue, he was so tedious, and full of " tittle-tattle, that the king's judgement was of him, that he was some " pedant, full of words, and of no great judgement. And I myself, “ discovering that to be his habit, as if he did imagine that every man “ was bound to hear him, so long as he would talk, (which is a great “ burthen to men replete with business) did privately give him notice “thereof, that he should plainly, and directly, deliver his mind, or * else he would make the king weary of him. This did not fo take « place, but that afterwards he fell to it again, as was especially ob“ served one night at supper at the lord bishop of Ely's, whither being “ brought by Mr. Casaubon, (as I think) my lord intreated him to Itay to fupper, which he did. There was present Dr. Steward, “ and another Civilian, unto whom he fings out some question of that “ profession, and was so full of words, that Dr. Steward afterwards “ told my lord, that he did perceive by him, that, like a smatterer, " he had studied some two or three questions, whereof when he came “ in company he must be talking to vindicate his skill; but if he were “ put from those, he would few himself but a simple fellow. There " was present also, Dr. Richardson, the king's professor of divinity in Cambridge, and another doctor in that faculty, with whom he falleth " in also about some of those questions, which are now controverted “ among the ministers in Holland. And being matters wherein he * was studied, he uttered all his skill concerning them : My lord of “ Ely sitting still at the supper all the while, and wondering what a “ man he had there, who, never being in the place or company before, « could over-whelm them so with talk for so long a time. I write this « unto you so largely, that you may know the disposition of the man, “ and how kindly he used my lord of Ely, for his good entertainment. " You will ask me what is this to you? I must tell you therefore, that " you shall not be without your part. At the same time that Sir Noch Caron was together with Grotius, being now to take his leave of the “ king, it was desired of his majesty, that he would not hastily give “ his judgement concerning points of religion, now in difference in “ Holland, for that his majesty had information but of one fide, and " that his ambassador did deal partially, making all reports in favor “ of the one side, and saying nothing at all for the other. For he " might have let his majesty know, how factious a generation these con. “ tradicters are ; how they are like to our puritans in England; how “ refractory they are to the authority of the civil magistrate, and other " things of like nature, as I wrote you in my former letter. I doubt « not but Grotius had his part in this information, whereout I conceive « you will make some use, keeping these things privately to yourself, " as becometh a man of your employment. When his majesty told

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