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intercourse, and its influence on morality and civilisation, has never been more beautifully and forcibly illustrated than in the writings of the great Channing.*

There are no bonding warehouses in the United States, and this circumstance adds to the other restrictions of the whole fallacious system of customs duties and regulations, which we have endeavoured to exhibit in greater detail than may have been necessary, were it not important to afford such information as we have been enabled to collect, upon a question so interesting, to the two greatest commercial and maritime states in the world.

If there be one course of policy, more than another, which we would advocate - to which we would devote our labours, in order to aid in obtaining the only certain guarantee of peace and of friendship, between two great nations, who, in language and race, are one people—that course of policy is to establish the least possible restrictions on the interchange of the commodities of the one country in the other—upon the arrival at, remaining in, and departure from, of the ships and citizens of America, in every British port and place in the universe-of British ships, and subjects, in every port, and place, within the American regions.

If ever the history of the world presented two states in a position, and condition, to do each other the utmost possible good, or the greatest possible evilsuch are the actual positions, and actual conditions, of the United Kingdom and the United States. These constitute subjects of serious consideration for the governments, and for the people, of both England and America.

Awful, indeed, would be the consequence, if those wild or foolish politicians, who, from ignorance, vanity, ambition; or, with more dangerous, and unprincipled, designs, would involve the British and American powers in the certain calamities of war, by misguiding the people, and the governments, of both countries. Civilisation in America, and in Europe, would, for the time, be paralysed; and, not only the present generation, but succeeding generations, would suffer, grievously, by an interruption of peace, and intercourse, between the members of a great family:

1841, there were sixty-eight ships laden in whole or in part with grain from the United States to Great Britain ; and the average length of the voyages was thirty days. In every point of view in which we can contemplate this subject, we discover nothing to encourage the hope that we may soon find in the English market a demand for our surplus grain at remunerating prices.”

* The exhortation of the philanthropic Channing, contains the following beautiful passage, given not long previous to his death : “Allow me to say a word to the merchants of our country on another subject. The time is come when they are particularly called to take yet more generous views of their vocation, and to give commerce a universality as yet unknown. I refer to the juster principles, which are gaining ground on the subject of free trade, and to the growing disposition of nations to promote it. Free trade! this is the plain duty and plain interest of the human race. To level all barriers to free exchange; to cut up the system of restriction, root and branch ; to open every port on earth to every product ; this is the office of enlightened humanity. To this a free nation should especially pledge itself. Freedom of the seas; freedom of harbours; an intercourse of nations, free as the winds; this is not a dream of philanthropists. We are tending towards it, and let us hasten it. Under a wiser and more Christian civilisation, we shall look back on our present restrictions as we do on the swaddling-bonds by which, in darker times, the human body was compressed.”

who, though divided as to their governments, are, nevertheless, in spite of their respective prejudices, bound together as one people: by the inseparable union of speaking the same language; of being educated in schools, in which the same lessons are taught, and trained at firesides, where the mothers instil into their children the same virtues; by reading the same literature; by studying similar laws,-professing, generally, the same religion ; by cherishing the same domestic associations ; practising, from hereditary and common usage, the same manners ; by having, until a very late period, a common history: in short, by inheriting their vices and virtues, and their folly and wisdom in common.

It has been the long, and serious, contemplation of these grave circumstances, which has at all times,—while in America,—and while in Europe, urged, and does, and will, hereafter, urge us to advocate and promote every measure, which materially, morally, and honourably, can strengthen the ties that will bind and maintain, in peaceful harmony, the whole British Empire and the United States of America.

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