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the capital of the world, and when expended reproduces it again. What it first creates, then, it again repairs and sustains. Every want of man is thus supplied—every evil incident to humanity, labour tends to lessen or destroy. Without labour, constant and unremitting, of some human beings, the whole mass of society, themselves included, would soon crumble to pieces, and be reduced to wretchedness and destitution; so soon, indeed, that one single year of perfect idleness of all now engaged in useful labour would probably more than onehalf thin the ranks of mankind. All would be consumers, none producers. What a hideous what a frightful prospect! A populous town in a state of siege, and without supplies, but faintly prefigures such a scene.

To find out and keep up a market for labour, then, appears to be the first and also the last duty of civil government, on which the safety, peace, and welfare of every state depends, and without which none can ever stand secure.

Colonization is one mode of doing this with great advantage when well conducted, and it is with regard to colonization that these remarks are made ; for an equally certain market exists at home, with quite as happy, if not happier, results to the mother country. The only capital of the labourer is his labour; he has no other ; he needs no other, if the fair opportunity be given him to use it, as he is entitled to do, for his own advantage.

This opportunity is readily afforded in a new country to which he is taken, and wherein he is set to work. Now, to a man so circumstanced, it may

be asked, what is to be the size of his farm, and what is he to pay for it? Why, it is clear that more than he could cultivate would be too much at first, even if it were rent free ; but some return he could make in produce, if not in money, and in a short time and on agreed terms, probably be able to buy the land. He would have the best natural right to it, as occupant, and be best able to keep it, as cultivator. If he afterwards, and by degrees, could cultivate more, he should be entitled to more. If his family increased to assist him, the sphere of his labour should consequently be enlarged. To elucidate this more clearly, let us take, for an example, a labourer here, who has an allotment for which he pays thirty shillings rent, and which he can fully cultivate, and that he could get more land for forty shillings, which he could not fully cultivate ; in other words, that he could only do justice to himself and his landlord on threefourths of his allotment or farm ; would he not then be paying ten shillings more rent than he could meet by produce ? for produce must always pay the rent, and keep the farmer too. I do not say the labourer might not do this, but it would be improvident and useless. Would he not gain more by adhering to the smaller allotment, in which every part would be fully cultivated ? Would he not clearly save the ten shillings extra rent paid, in truth, for nothing ? Now, this applies to the farmer or the settler, just as well, and on just the same grounds, as it does to the labourer or smaller farmer. If he (the farmer) take one hundred acres, having the capital, and no more than the capital, to buy labour for eighty acres, he pays rent in reality for twenty acres quite useless to him, for though he might not suffer the twenty acres to be wholly uncultivated or idle, yet the whole of his farm, the one hundred acres, would be inefficiently managed by the labour required for eighty. It is clear, then, that the farmer so circumstanced would make more by the eighty than by the one hundred acres. The same reasoning applies to all farms, large or small; and no safer rule than that of capital or labour equal to, and neither more nor less than equal to, the farms, can be followed. But the great practical use to be made hereof is proved in evidence by the allotment system in this country, (now extended to nearly, if not quite, 100,000 tenants,) for that the average increase by these cottagers' labour alone is an addition of 2s. 6d. to their weekly wages. This is of their own earning. Their rents are well paid, and their produce to pay them, by spade husbandry, generally double, sometimes treble, and in many cases quadruple, that of the larger farmer. Thus this principle will apply, and may be carried out, as well in a colony as at home the benefit is equal, and the labour probably less. Still there is a directing hand needed in the first mode of locating colonists, so that the greatest good shall be secured, and the greatest inconveniences averted.

On this point I refer to the text with confidence; but in a new country and climate much, no doubt, must ever be left to the good sense and practical experience of the settlers. Here again, however, the principles of the common law apply in happy accordance with those of cultivation. They mutually support and improve each other, and lead necessarily to the greatest degree of peace, and comfort, and happiness, our nature is capable of enjoying. Advancing in this combined and harmonious course, who loses ? No one. Advancing on this impregnable foundation, who gains ? Everyone. Is it possible to imagine a failure even in a less fertile season ? No; for even then all the evils attendant thereon would be diminished, all the benefits of industry and providence increased. Such are the certain

results and advantages attending this system in the mother country. Carrying out the same principles and almost the same practice, how can it be otherwise than equally favourable to the colony ?

Assuming that such principles are acted upon by a population derived from the parent state, not of convicts, not of doubtful or desperate characters, not of vagabonds, but of selected, honest, and industrious individuals, whose habits are all formed, some to one mechanical or agricultural pursuit, some to another, but all leagued together in pursuit of one common object, the improvement of the country, and consequently of their own condition in it, what can be more gratifying to the philanthropist? All labouring for the common good, by pursuing each his own separate interest in the value of that labour, without which, as we have seen, nothing can be secured for either profit or convenience,—all united on the congregational principles, so clearly established and set forth in the text,—what can be predicted of such a society, increasing, as it may, in numbers, either by birth or immigration-what, but a state as enviable, as happy, contented, and flourishing, as the imagination can conceive ? The whole machinery of the least complex, and most simple, but efficient character, and never varying, or in any degree

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