« AnteriorContinuar »
Loans and Finances.
[H. OF R
actual application of the moneys to the discharge upon the receipt of such bills, although the moneys of the debt; and it is evident that from the times may not actually be in Bank for some time after the loans are respectively created, to the times of the credit is entered, and hence it is inferred that the actual application of the moneys borrowed, the Bank-book does not conclusively show the real the United States are paying the usual interest sum in Bank, not to mention that such bills answer upon the debt intended to be redeemed, and the all the purposes of cash, and ought therefore to be stipulated interest upon the moneys borrowed for credited upon the receipt of them. It is to be rethe redemption. This remark is equally applica- marked that there is regular and continual inble to the payments of other foreign debts with flux of moneys into the Bank by the operation of the payments of the debt to France.
these bills. It is not very material whether a bill The third resolution has arisen from calcula- | lodged in Bank to-day, should be paid to-day, protions drawn partly from the last page of the vided something like the same sum should be paid printed report, and from the original Bank book of in consequence of a bill lodged in Bank one or two the United States, from which it appears that the months ago, and the bill of to-day should be paid balances in Bank in favor of the United States one or two months hence. The following statewere as follows:
ment will, in some measure, explain this idea, by exIn Bank, Philadelphia, 30th May,
hibiting half-monthly the balances of public money 1792, and 16th June, same year,
in all the banks, about the middle and end of each in branch banks
$676,952 55 month, beginning with May, 1792, and ending 1792, June 30th, in all banks in the
with December of the same year :
$340,322 11 July 28th and 31st, in all
332,116 35 banks in the United States 511,423 91 ) June
776,107 65 August 25th, 30th, and 31st,
523,272 22 in all banks in the United
441,637 13 States 740,903 87 July
521,426 91 On the 1st of June, a loan was negotiated with August
743,470 19 the Bank of the United States on the part of the August
740,903 08 United States, for $100,000, at 5 per cent. per an- September
695,302 23 On the 1st of July, another loan was made September
367,961 25 upon the same terms for the like sum. On the October
456,895 52 1st of August, another loan was made upon the October
473,388 99 same terms for the like sum. On the 1st of Sep- November
681,250 09 tember, another loan was made upon the same November
811,212 51 terms for the like sum. It appears from the last December 15
1,020,824 73 page of the printed Report, that there had been December 22, and January 5drawn into America, from the 15th of December, last returns
790,642 11 1790, to the 27th of January, 1792, of the moneys The fourth resolution has arisen from that part borrowed abroad, the sum of 2,663,621 forins, 2 of the printed Report which remarks that the restivers, and 6 deniers. If this sum were unex- sidue of the sum drawn from Holland, amounting, pended, and lodged in the bank at the times of to $1,668,188 27 is applicable to the purchase of making these loans, (and Congress have never yet the public debt. It is known that the sum of been informed of any deficiency of revenue,) the $1,374,656 40, being the surplus of the revenue up United States will, of consequence, have paid upon to the end of December, 1790, was originally apthe moneys borrowed from the Bank of the Uni- propriated to the Sinking Fund; that the surplus ted States, from 15 to 17 per cent. per annum, to of other appropriations have been applied to this wit: they will have paid 5 per cent. upon the ori- fund, and that the interest of the debt purchased ginal debt to France, 5 per cent. upon the moneys has also been wholly appropriated to its increase. borrowed for its redemption, exclusive of douceurs It is also known that between $1,100,000 and and other charges, and 5 per cent. upon the sum $1,200,000, and no more, of the original appropriaborrowed of the bank, which may be deemed part tion, have been really invested in the purchase of of this deposite made in the Bank by the United the debt; it is, therefore, somewhat unaccountaStates. But, discarding these inferences, it must ble that so large a sum as $1,668,188 should be at least be admitted that the United States are drawn from the loans abroad, when the Sinking paying 5 per cent. for the loan of moneys from Fund has always overflowed from domestic rethe Bank, when a sum larger than the loan itself, sources, and when the probability of purchasing is actually deposited in Bank. It is here to be re- is extremely lessened by the rise in the price of marked, that a balance of cash is admitted, by the paper and the limitations of the last act of ConTreasurer's return, to have been in his hands gress upon that subject. It would not be deemed on the 31st of December, 1790, amounting to an economical arrangement to make a loan of so $973,342 43, and in July 30, 1791, the sum of large a sum of money upon terms by no means $582.189 54.
honorable or advantageous, and appropriate it to I am informed that bills are often drawn in fa- the purchase of the debt under limitations which vor of the Bank for moneys in the hands of the would forbid its investiture. The information revenue officers in distant parts of the United called for in this resolution may possibly explain States, and that credit is entered in the Bank book these difficulties.
H. OF R.)
Loans and Finances.
The fifth and last resolution has arisen from Bonds payable in December, 1792 460,126 00 that part of the printed Report (page 5) which Bonds payable in January, 1793 129,332 00 states the whole sums drawn from Holland to Bonds payable in February
87,057 00 amount to $2,304,769 13; but neither immedi- Bonds payable in March
202,447 00 ately presents to view the balance on hand, nor Surplus of the revenue of 1792 277,305 27 informs where that balance is deposited. It ap- All the revenue of the current pears by the Bank-book, that the whole deposite of year, estimated at
1,000,000 00 the United States in Bank at this time, from all resources, amounts to $790,642 11. Hence, it will These sums make the sum of 4,224,389 54 appear from a statement partly conjectural, and partly founded upon the statements in the printed
Cr. ed Report, and some official documents, that $1,554,851 43 remain unaccounted for, as will Debt to Bank, if paid
$2,000,000 00 appear from the following account:
One quarter's interest, to April, Sums which ought to be in the Treasury.
Bonds payable in December, if apWhole moneys drawn from Hol
plied to the last quarter's interest land, as stated in the printed
One quarter's expenses of Army Report, page 5 :
$2,304,769 Deduct paid for St. Domingo, as
and Government, estimated at - 400,000 00 stated in printed Report, page 5 455,263
Deduct this sum from
4,224,389 54 1,859,506 Deduct to foreign officers, if paid 191,316
Balance in favor of the Treasu
ry, if the debt of the Bank be Leaves a balance of
1,668,190 Add surplus of Sinking Fund,
664,263 54 conjectural
400,000 Add surplus of revenue of 1792,
The papers from which I have collected these reported at
statements may be deceptive in themselves, or
may be subject to explanations from others. CanWhole amount
2,345,495 dor, however, induces me to acknowledge that Sums not taken into this estimate: First. Any impressions resulting from my inquiries into this moneys not paid of the $191,316, due to foreign subject, have been made upon my mind, by no officers. Second. So much moneys in Bank as
means favorable to the arrangements made by the arose from the revenues. Third. The receipts of gentleman at the head of the Treasury Departthe current year.
ment. But I shall keep myself open to convicFrom this aggregate sum of
$2,345,495 tion, in case of any sufficient explanation which Deduct in Bank
may be hereafter given, and I now avow that my
acknowledgment of mistake shall be at least comBalance not accounted for 1,554,853
mensurate to any conviction produced.
I cannot help remarking, before I sit down, that In this last estimate, cents have not been taken we have been legislating for some years without into calculation, which makes an inconsiderable competent official knowledge of the state of the variation in some of the sums.
Treasury, or revenues; in the course of which Another circumstance appears somewhat sin- time, we have been engaged in the most importgular: in the printed Report, 2,986,000 florins
ant fiscal arrangements; that we have authorized stated to have been drawn from Holland in the a loan of the Bank of the United States for more year 1792. In the Bank-book, it appears from the than $500,000, when probably a greater sum of list of bills drawn, that 8,695,237 forins were
public money was deposited in the Bank ; that we drawn for in the same time. This difference, I have passed a vote this session, authorizing a presume, may admit of explanation probably from further loan for $800,000, and that we were the manner of negotiating this matter, or from upon the point of authorizing a loan abroad for some casual mistake. It deserves, however, to be $2,000,000, without knowing the extent
of the auexplained.
thorities at present existing for borrowing, the It appears from another statement, made up to loans already made, or the application of the mo
amount of moneys on hand in consequence of the 1st of April, 1793, that there ought to be at that time a sufficient sum of money in the Trea- neys which
may have been used; and I conceive sury to reimburse the loan of 2,000,000 dollars to it is now time that this information be officially the Bank, and to answer all the other
laid before this House. purposes
The said resolutions were then severally agreed Treasury,
to by the House. April 1, 1793. Balance of foreign
BALANCES DUE CERTAIN STATES. loans
$1,668,182 27 The House again resolved itself into a ComSurplus of Sinking Fund, conjec
mittee of the Whole House on the bill to authortural
400,000 00|ize a Loan in the certificates or notes of such
Balances due certain States.
States as shall have balances due to them upon a
THURSDAY, January 24. final settlement of accounts with the United States.
BALANCES DUE CERTAIN STATES. Mr. Williamson's proviso was taken into con The House resumed the consideration of the sideration.
bill to authorize a Loan in the certificates or notes Mr. Macon offered another, in lieu of Mr. Wil- of such States as shall have balances due te them, LIAMSON's; the purport specifying particularly upon a final settlement of accounts with the Unicertain notes of the State of North Carolina, which ted States; whereupon, a motion was made, and that State had proscribed, and which he proposed the question being put, further to amend the said should be excluded from the loan now under con bill, by adding, to the end of the second section, sideration. The certificates are those issued at the following proviso, to wit: Warrenton, in 1786; certificates to pay for a mi “ Provided, That no such notes or certificates shall litia expedition against the Indians in 1788; and be subscribable in any name, other than that of the certificates signed Patrick Travers.
original owner, if living, or if dead, of his legal repreMr. WilliAMSON withdrew his motion, and that sentative, and except such as are, or may be, transfermoved by Mr. Macon was agreed to.
red by executors, administrators, or assigns, under any Several other amendments were moved, but not bankrupt act, unless accompanied with an affidavit
, ceragreed to.
tified by a magistrate, that the transfer or assignment The Committee, having gone through with the to the party, in whose name and behalf the subscription discussion of the bill, rose, and reported it, with is offered, was not made at any time between the first sundry amendments. The House took the same such party is the true and bona fide proprietor thereof :"
day of January and the first day of June next, and that into consideration, and agreed thereto. Mr. MERCER then renewed his motion for a pro
It passed in the negative-yeas 30, nays 33, as viso respecting assignments or transfers of Siate
follows: certificates. The object is, to exclude from the YEAS.—John Baptist Ashe, Abraham Baldwin, Abraloans all certificates so transferred or assigned, ham Clark, Jonathan Dayton, William Findley, Wilfrom the first day of January, 1793, to the first day liam B. Giles, Christopher Greenup, Andrew Gregg, of June following:
Samuel Griffin, William Barry Grove, Daniel Heister, Some further debate took place. It was urged Israel Jacobs, Aaron Kitchell, Richard Bland Lee, Nain support of the motion, that the provision now thaniel Macon, James Madison, John Francis Mercer, to be made for a certain description of creditors, is John Milledge, Andrew Moore, Nathaniel Niles, Alex merely a benefit; in conferring which, the Go- ander D. Orr
, John Page, Josiah Parker, Cornelius C. vernment had a right to annex what conditions Schoonmaker, John Steele, Thomas Tredwell
, Abraham they thought proper ; that it was the duty of the Venable, Alexander White, Hugh Williamson, and
Francis Willis. Legislature to take measures to prevent those at
Nays.-Fisher Ames, Robert Barnwell, Egbert Bena distance from the Seat of Government from be
son, Elias Boudinot, Shearjashub Bourne, Benjamin ing speculated upon, to their great injury and loss; Bourne, Thomas Fitzsimons, Elbridge Gerry, Nicholas that imputations have been thrown upon the mem- Gilman, Benjamin Goodhue, James Gordon, Thomas bers of the Legislature, in respect to the advan- Hartley, James Hillhouse, Daniel Huger, Philip Key, tages taken of the uninformed on the first assump- John Wilkes Kittera, John Laurance, Amasa Learned, tion; and therefore, as an opportunity is now George Leonard, Samuel Livermore, Frederick Augusoffered to the House to purge themselves of all | tus Muhlenberg, William Vans Murray, Theodore Sedgsuspicions of improper motives, the amendment wick, Peter Sylvester, Jeremiah Smith, William Smith, ought to take place. In answer to the objection Samuel Sterrett, Jonathan Sturges, Thomas Sumpter, on the proviso's being retrospective, it was said, George Thatcher, Thomas Tudor Tucker, Jeremiah that it had relation to such assignments or trans- | Wadsworth, and Artemas Ward. fers only, as have taken place since this act origi A motion was then made, and the question benated.
ing put, further to amend the said bill, by inserting, In opposition to the proviso, it was said, that the after the word “State,” in the second section, the present bill was not merely a bounty or benefit words " for services rendered, or supplies furnishconferred on the creditors; it is a measure just, ed, during the late war:" it passed in the negative; reasonable, and proper in itself; and on this prin- yeas 29, nays 30, as follows: ciple only it is to be justified. It was further urged, that the proviso was unconstitutional, hav
YEA8.- John Baptist Ashe, Abraham Baldwin, Elias ing a most manifest retrospective operation, inter- Boudinot, Abraham Clark, Jonathan Dayton, William fering, with contracts which the parties at the Findley, William B. Giles, Christopher Greenup, Wiltime had a most undoubted right to make, and liam Barry Grove, Daniel Heister, Aaron Kitchell
, Nathus altering the value of their property; it was John Milledge, Andrew Moore, Frederick Augustus
thaniel Macon, James Madison, John Francis Mercer, reviving the principle of discrimination between Muhlenberg, William Vans Murray, Nathaniel Niles, the original holders and the assignees, a principle Alexander D. Orr, John Page, Josiah Parker, Cornelius that had been so pointedly reprobated by a large C. Schoonmaker, Jeremiah Smith, John Steele, Thomajority of the Legislature on a former occasion.
mas Tredwell, Abraham Venable, Alexander White, Å motion was then made, and seconded, further and Hugh Williamson. to amend the said bill, and debate arising there Nays.-Fisher Ames, Robert Barnwell, Egbert Benupon, an aujournment was called for, and the son, Shearjashub Bourne, Benjamin Bourne, Thomas House adjourned.
Fitzsimons, Elbridge Gerry, Nicholas Gilman, Benja2d Con.—28
H. OF R.]
Balances due certain States.
min Goodhue, James Gordon, Thomas Hartley, James Christopher Greenup, Andrew Gregg, Samuel Griffin, Hillhouse, Daniel Huger, Israel Jacobs, John Wilkes William Barry Grove, James Hillhouse, Israel Jacobs, Kittera, John Laurance, Amasa Learned, George Aaron Kitchell, John Wilkes Kittera, Amasa Learned, Leonard, Samuel Livermore, Theodore Sedgwick, Pe- Richard Bland Lee, Samuel Livermore, James Mater Sylvester, William Smith, Samuel Sterrett, Jona- dison, John Milledge, Andrew Moore, William Vans than Sturges, Thomas Sumpter, George Thatcher, Tho- Murray, Alexander D. Orr, John Page, Josiah Parker, mas Tudor Tucker, Jeremiah Wadsworth, Artemas Cornelius C. Schoonmaker, Theodore Sedgwick, JereWard, and Francis Willis.
miah Smith, Israel Smith, William Smith, Samuel Ordered, That the further consideration of the Sterrett, Jonathan Sturges, Thomas Sumpter, Abrasaid bill be put off until to-morrow,
ham Venable, and Alexander White.
Nars.--Elias Boudinot, Abraham Clark, Thomas
Fitzsimons, Elbridge Gerry, Benjamin Goodhue, ThoFRIDAY, January 25.
mas Hartley, Daniel Heister, Daniel Huger, John LauMr. Ames, from the committee appointed, pre- rance, George Leonard, Nathaniel Macon, Frederick sented a bill to authorize the adjustment of a claim Augustus Muhlenberg, Nathaniel Niles, Peter Sylvester, of Joseph Henderson against the United States; John Steele, George Thatcher, Thomas Tredwell
, Thowhich was read twice and committed.
mas Tudor Tucker, Artemas Ward, and Hugh WilThe House resolved itself into a Committee of liamson. the Whole House on the bill granting further And on the question that the said bill be encompensation to certain Receivers of Continental grossed and read the third time, it was resolved in taxes; and, after some time spent therein, the the affirmative, the House being equally divided, Chairman reported that the Committee had had to wit: yeas 32, nay$ 32, and the SPEAKER dethe said bill under consideration, and made no claring himself with the yeas. amendment thereto.
The yeas and nays are as follows: And on the question, that the said bill be en Yeas.- Jonathan Trumbull, Speaker, Fisher Ames, grossed and read the third time, it passed in the Robert Barnwell, Egbert Benson, Élias Boudinot, Shearnegative-yeas 22, nays 24, as follows:
jashub Bourne, Benjamin Bourne, Jonathan Dayton, YEAS.—Egbert Benson, Benjamin Bourne, Thomas Thomas Fitzsimons, Elbridge Gerry, Nicholas Gilman, Fitzsimons, Elbridge Gerry, William B. Giles, Samuel Benjamin Goodhue, James Gordon, Thomas Hartley, Griffin, Thomas Hartley, Daniel Huger, Amasa Learn- James Hillhouse, Daniel Huger, John Wilkes Kittera, ed, Richard Bland Lee, Samuel Livermore, James Ma- John Laurance, Amasa Learned, George Leonard, Sadison, John Milledge, Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, muel Livermore, Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, Theo John Page, Josiah Parker, Theodore Sedgwick, Peter dore Sedgwick, Peter Sylvester, William Smith, SaSylvester, Samuel Sterrett, Thomas Sumpter, Abraham muel Sterrett, Jonathan Sturges, Thomas Sumpter, Venable, and Alexander White.
George Thatcher, Thomas Tudor Tucker, Jeremiah Nars.-John Baptist Ashe, Abraham Baldwin, Elias Wadsworth, Artemas Ward, and Alexander White. Boudinot, Shearjashub Bourne, Abraham Clark, Jona
Nars.John Baptist Ashe, Abraham Baldwin, Abrathan Dayton, Nicholas Gilman, Benjamin Goodhue, ham Clark, William Findley, William B. Giles, ChrisAndrew Gregg, William Barry Grove, Daniel Heister, topher Greenup, Andrew Gregg, Samuel Griffin, WilJames Hillhouse, Israel Jacobs, Aaron Kitchell, John liam Barry Grove, Daniel Heister, Israel Jacobs, Philip Wilkes Kittera, George Leonard, Nathaniel Macon, Key, Aaron Kitchell, Richard Bland Lee, Nathaniel Andrew Moore, Jeremiah Smith, Israel Smith, William Macon, James Madison, John Francis Mercer, John Smith, George Thatcher, Thomas Tredwell, and Arte- Milledge, Andrew Moore, William Vans Murray, Namas Ward.
thaniel Niles, Alexander D. Orr, John Page, Josiah
Parker, Cornelius C. Schoonmaker, Jeremiah Smith, So the said bill was rejected. The Speaker laid before the House a Letter Venable, Hugh Williamson, and Francis Willis.
Israel Smith, John Steele, Thomas Tredwell, Abraham from the Secretary of War, accompanying his report on the petition of John Manly; which were read, and ordered to lie on the table.
SATURDAY, January 26.
The SPEAKER laid before the House a Letter BALANCES DUE CERTAIN STATES. from the Treasurer of the United States, accomThe House resumed the consideration of the panying his account of expenditures for the War bill to authorize a Loan in the certificates or notes Department, from the 1st of October, to the 31st of such States as shall have balances due to them of December, 1792, inclusive; which was read, upon a final settlement of accounts with the United and ordered to lie on the table. States. Whereupon,
A motion was made, and the question being put, further to amend the said bill as follows, to
MO.IDAY, January 28. wit: strike out, in the first section, the words
BALANCES DUE CERTAIN STATES. " within
months,” and, in lieu thereof, after An engrossed bill to authorize a Loan in the certhe word “same," insert to commence on the tificates or notes of such States as shall have bafirst day of January, 1794," it was resolved in the lances due to them, upon a final settlement of acaffirmative-yeas 39, nays 20, as follows: counts with the United States, was read the third
YEAs.—Fisher Ames, John Baptist Ashe, Abraham time, and the bill being on its passageBaldwin, Robert Barnwell, Egbert Benson, Shear Mr. Hartley said: I have attended to the debates jashub Bourne, Benjamin Bourne, Jonathan Dayton, on this bill, and considered the subject, and am William Findley, William B. Giles, Nicholas Gilman, fully convinced that the bill should pass. By the
Balances due certain States.
[H. OF. R.
act for settling the accounts between the United mean to act upon principle, and vote for the passStates and individual States, the balances were ing of the bill. assumed to be paid to the creditor States. The Mr. Page, having moved the previous question, bill under consideration gives the alternative to said that, in consequence of his aversion to waste the State (which shall be found a creditor) either the time of the House, which he always regarded to receive the balance herself and pay it to her as precious, he generally waited for the question, citizens, or suffer them to fund their certificates without troubling the House with his reasons for with the General Government. I believe it will his vote, always satisfied if what occurred to him be found, on experience, most convenient to the in support of it was offered by any other member, creditor, and least expensive to the people, for the who might be better heard and understood—but creditors to subscribe to a loan with the General that, when the names of the voters were to be Government. This, however, will rest in a great held up to the public view, and when the vote he measure upon the individual States. Two taxes meant to give had been represented by some will be more expensive to collect than one; and members, for whom he had the highest respect, as if money is to go through two hands instead injurious to public creditors, as retrospective, and of one, in general it is attended with a double therefore unconstitutional in its operation, he charge.
thought himself bound to endeavor to justify his It is said, that the bill will offer a new field for vote. speculation. It is possible that, to a certain degree, If the creditors, Mr. SPEAKER, who are the obthere may be weight in the observation; but after ject of the bill before you, were, by the amendthe experience we have had, the holders of certifi- ment, excluded from an application to their debtor, cates will not be easily imposed upon; and if the or were the General Government the only body certificates of the individual States would be to whom they could look for payment or common equalized, I am led to believe, that it would be of justice, I would most scrupulously avoid interservice to the community. They might, in a con- fering with their claims; or, did the bill extend siderable degree, act as a medium in commerce, its influence to all the creditors of the States imand in the transfer of property; but whilst they partially, I might listen to some objections which remain at different values, they will be mere ob- have been made to a discrimination, said to be jects of speculation. I regret exceedingly the great produced by the amendment. But, sir, granting
inequality of fortune, which has arisen among citi-all that has been objected to have its full force, i • zens, by the speculations in our paper; but in a only find that such creditors of creditor States
great and mighty revolution, some partial evils (for no others are to be benefited by this bill) as must be expected, to obtain a general good. We may not be able to establish their claims founded are bound to pay our debts. I do not think that a on a speculation, which was grounded on a suplarge national debt is a blessing, but it is of high position that this bill would pass, without the importance that the Government which is in debt amendment now proposed, will only be left where should so dispose of it, as to do as little injury as they are, and where, in my opinion, they ought to possible, and if the same is practicable, produce a be left—that is, to look to their original contract; partial good.
and I do not contribute to seduce them from their In Pennsylvania our affairs appear to be in the attachment to their State, and from their reliance highest state of prosperity; the farmer compensa- on its plighted faith. I wish not to see them deted for his labor; the mechanic everywhere fully luded into an acceptance of four per cent. interest employed and amply paid ; commerce flourishing from the General Government of the United Objections have been made against the law; yet States, instead of six from their respective States, I imagine if it is published, and the reasons for which I believe are willing and able to comply enacting it known, the public opinion of the State with their engagements. But, sir, if I were even I represent, will be in favor of it. If we pass the an advocate for the assumption and for the comact this session, we shall save the next Congress plicated Funding System, I should vote for the from much trouble and perplexity. We act now amendment now proposed; because I think with upon principle, without knowing how the balances my colleagues [Messrs. MADISON and Giles) and will operate. If the creditor and debtor States the member from Maryland [Mr. MERCER] that were known, it would be found exceedingly diffi- it is not only well calculated to prevent an imcult to reconcile the several interests. Remember proper scramble among speculators for the supthe Representative bill; the Government had like posed benefit of the bill, but is proper to rescue to have been dissolved, on account of the various the members of Congress from temptation, as well interests.
as from suspicion of speculating on their own Much has been said about the interested motives laws.. I therefore think, sir, I can honestly and of members. I may here say that I do not belong conscientiously vote for the amendment. to that class called aristocrats, (if such there is Whilst I am up, (said Mr. P.,) I will take the among us.). I have always supported the rights liberty of remarking that those gentlemen who so of the people, according to the best of my judg- loudly and warmly replied to the member from ment and abilities. I have almost in every in- Maryland, and supposed they were vindicating stance received their approbation of my public the honor of the House, in my opinion were greatly conduct. In the present question I am not more mistaken; their conduct tended to check free deinterested than any other citizen ; I have no cer- bate and bold investigation, and their remarks tificates, I am no public creditor of any sort. Il respecting newspaper information might be a dan