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into the hands of the officer or other person that pursues him. And if there be help required for the safe returneing of any such offender, then it shalbe graunted to him that craves the same, he paying the charges thereof.

IX. And for that the justest warrs may be of dangerous consequence, espetially to the smaler plantacons in these vnited Colonies, It is agreed that neither the Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connectacutt nor New Haven, nor any of the members of any of them shall at any tyme hereafter begin, undertake, or engage themselues or this Confederacon, or any part thereof in any warr whatsoever (sudden exegents with the necessary consequents thereof excepted) which are also to be moderated as much as the case will permit) without the consent and agreement of the forenamed eight Commissioners, or at least six of them, as in the sixt Article is provided : And that no charge be required of any of the Confederats in case of a defensiue warr till the said Commissioners haue mett and approued the justice of the warr, and have agreed vpon the sum of money to be levyed, which sum is then to be payd by the severall Confederates in proporcon according to the fourth Article.

X. That in extraordinary occations when meetings are summoned by three Majistrats of any Jurisdiccon, or two as in the fift Article, If any of the Commissioners come not, due warneing being given or sent, It is agreed that foure of the Commissioners shall have power to direct a warr which cannot be delayed and to send for due proporcons of men out of eich Jurisdiccon, as well as six might doe if all mett; but not less than six shall determine the justice of the warr or allow the demanude of bills of charges or cause any levies to be made for the same.

XI. It is further agreed that if any of the Confederates shall hereafter break any of these present Articles, or be any other wayes injurious to any one of thother Jurisdiccons, such breach of Agreement, or injurie, shal

be duly considered and ordered by the Commissioners for thother Jurisdiccons, that both peace and this present Confederacon may be entirely preserued without violation.

XII. Lastly, this perpetuall Confederacon and the several Articles and Agreements thereof being read and seriously considered, both by the Generall Court for the Massachusetts, and by the Commissioners for Plymouth, Connectacutt and New Haven, were fully allowed and confirmed by three of the forenamed Confederates, namely, the Massachusetts, Connectacutt and NewHaven, Onely the Commissioners for Plymouth, having no Commission to conclude, desired respite till they might advise with their Generall Court, wherevpon it was agreed and concluded by the said court of the Massachusetts, and the Commissioners for the other two Confederates, That if Plymouth Consent, then the whole treaty as it stands in these present articles is and shall continue firme and stable without alteracon: But if Ply. mouth come not in, yet the other three Confederates doe by these presents confirme the whole Confederacon and all the Articles thereof, onely, in September next, when the second meeting of the Commissioners is to be at Bostone, new consideracon may be taken of the sixt Article, which concernes number of Commissioners for meeting and concluding the affaires of this Confederacon to the satisfaccon of the court of the Massachusetts, and the Commissioners for thother two Confederates, but the rest to stand vnquestioned.

In testymony whereof, the Generall Court of the Massachusetts by their Secretary, and the Commissioners for Connectacutt and New Haven haue subscribed these presente articles, this xixth of the third month, commonly called May, Anno Domini, 1643.

At a Meeting of the Commissioners for the Confederacon, held at Boston, the Seaventh of September. It appeareing that the Generall Court of New Plymouth,

and the severall Towneships thereof have read, considered and approoued these articles of Confederacon, as appeareth by Comission from their Generall Court beareing Date the xxixth of August, 1643, to Mr. Edward Winslowe and Mr. Will Collyer, to ratifye and confirme the same on their behalf, wee therefore, the Comissioners for the Mattachusetts, Conecktacutt and New Haven, doe also for our seuerall Gouernments, subscribe vnto them.

JOHN WINTHROP, GOVERNOR OF MASSACHUSETTS, THO. DUDLEY,

THEOPH. EATON, GEO. FENWICK,

EDWA. HOPKINS, THOMAS GREGSON.

CHARTER OF CONNECTICUT-1662.

On the accession of Chas. II. Connecticut appointed John Winthrop, one of the first settlers, her agent to solicit from the king a royal charter. His mission was successful and the patent was sealed April 20, 1662. This charter was remarkable for its liberality—“all that Massachusetts had given displeasure by claiming for herself was now expressly allowed to the new colony.” (Palfrey.) “It confirmed to the colonists the unqualified power to govern themselves, which they had assumed from the beginning. Nothing was changed in their internal administration, nor in their relation to the crown." “The king, far from reserving a negative on their laws, did not even require that they should be transmitted for his inspection; and no provision was made for the interference of the English government in any event whatever. Connecticut was independent except in name.' (Bancroft.)

In commenting on the charters of Connecticut and R. I., the tory historian Chalmers remarks : “ Thus was established in R. I. and Ct. a mere democracy, or rule of the people. Every power, as well deliberative as active, was invested in the freemen of the corporation or their delegates; and the supreme executive magistrate of the empire, by an inattention which does little honour to the

statesmen of those days, was wholly excluded.” During the administration of Sir Edmund Adros the charter government was suspended, but on his overthrow it was re-established and the charter was not abrogated by a state constitution till 1818.

Consult Palfrey's N. E. II., 540; Chalmers' Political Annals, 293 ; Bancroft's U. S., ist ed. II., 54; Cen. ed. I., 421; last ed., I., 358; Hildreth's U. S., I., 456; Bryant and Gay's U. S., II., 255.

CHARTER OF CONNECTICUT-1662.

CHARLES the Second, by the Grace of GOD, KING of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. To all to whom these Presents shall come, GREETING.

Whereas by the several Navigations, Discoveries, and Successful Plantations of divers of Our loving Subjects of this Our Realm of England, several Lands, Islands, Places, Colonies, and Plantations have been obtained and settled in that Part of the Continent of America called New-England, and thereby the Trade and Commerce there, hath been of late Years much increased : And whereas We have been informed by the humble Petition of our Trusty and Well beloved John Winthrop, John Mason, Samuel Wyllys, Henry Clarke, Matthew Allyn, John Tapping, Nathan Gold, Richard Treat, Richard Lord, Henry Wolcott, John Talcott, Daniel Clarke, John Ogden, Thomas Wells, Obadiah Bruen, John Clarke, Anthony Hawkins, John Deming, and Matthew Camfield, being Persons principally interested in Our Colony or Plantation of Connecticut, in New England, that the same Colony, or the greatest part thereof, was Purchased and obtained for great and valuable Considerations, and some other Part

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