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was adopted in 1851, a third in 1864, and a fourth in 1867

Consult Doyle's English Colonies, I., 281; Bancroft's U.S., ist ed. I., 241; cen. ed. I., 181; last ed. I., 157; Hildreth's U. S., I., 206; Bryant and Gay's U. S., I., 487; Neil's English Colonization, Browne's Maryland, 18; Bozman's Maryland; Chalmers' Political Annals, 200.

CHARTER OF MARYLAND.

(Translated from the Latin original.]

CHARLES, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scot. land, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting: Whereas our right trusty and well-beloved subject Caecilius Calvert, Baron of Baltimore, in our kingdom of Ireland, son and heir of Sir George Calvert, knight, late Baron of Baltimore, in the same kingdom of Ireland, pursuing his father's intentions, being incited with a laudable and pious zeal for the propagation of the Christian faith, and the enlargement of our empire and dominion, hath humbly besought leave of us, by his industry and charge, to transport an ample colony of the English nation into a certain country hereafter described in the parts of America not yet cultivated and planted, though in some parts thereof inhabited by a certain barbarous people, having no knowledge of the Almighty God; and hath humbly besought our royal majesty to give, grant and confirm the said country; with certain privileges and jurisdictions, requisite for the said government and State of his colony and country, aforesaid, to him and his heirs for.

ever.

Know ye, therefore, that we, favoring the pious and noble purpose of the said Barons of Baltimore, of our

especial grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion, have given, granted, and confirmed, and by this our present charter, for us, our heirs and successors, do give, grant, and confirm, unto the said Caecilius, now Baron of Baltimore, his heirs and assigns, all that part of a peninsula lying in the parts of America between the ocean on the east, and the bay of Chesapeak on the west, and divided from the other part thereof by a right line drawn from the promontory or cape of land called Watkins' Point (situate in the aforesaid bay, near the river of Wighco) on the west, unto the main ocean on the east; and between that bound on the south unto that part of Delaware Bay on the north, which lieth under the fortieth degree of northerly latitude from the equinoctial where New England ends; and all that tract of land between the bounds aforesaid ; that is to say, passing from the aforesaid unto the aforesaid bay called Delaware Bay, in a right line by the degree aforesaid, unto the true meridian of the first fountain of the river Potomac, and from thence tending towards the south unto the further bank of the aforesaid river, and following the west and south side thereof into a certain place called Cinquack situate near the mouth of the said river, where it falls into the bay of Chesapeak, and from thence by a straight line unto the aforesaid promontory and place called Watkins' Point (so that all that tract of land divided by the line aforesaid, drawn between the main ocean and Watkins' Point, unto the Promontory called Cape Charles, and all its appurtenances, do remain entirely excepted to us, our heirs and successors forever).

We do also grant and confirm to the said Lord Baltimore, his heirs and assigns, all islands and islets within the limits aforesaid, and all and singular the islands and islets which are or shall in the ocean, within ten leagues from the eastern shore of the said country towards the east, with all and singular ports, harbors, bays, rivers, and inlets belonging unto the country and islands afore

said, and all the soil, lands, fields, woods, mountains, fens, lakes, rivers, bays, and inlets, situate or being within the limits and bounds aforesaid. With the fishing of all sorts of fish, whales, sturgeons, and all other royal fishes in the sea, bays, inlets, and rivers, within the premises, and all the fish therein taken.

And moreover all veins, mines, and quarries, as well discovered as not discovered, of gold, silver, gems, and precious stones, and all other whatsoever, be it of stones, metals, or of any other thing or matter whatsoever, found, or to be found within the country, isles and limits aforesaid.

And, futhermore, the patronages and advowsons of all churches, which (as Christian religion shall increase within the country, isles, islets, and limits aforesaid) shall happen hereafter to be erected; together with license and power to build and found churches, chapels, and oratories, in convenient and fit places within the premises, and to cause them to be dedicated and consecrated according to the ecclesiastical laws of our kingdom of England; together with all and singular the like, and as ample rights, jurisdictions, privileges, prerogatives, royalties, liberties, immunities, royal rights and franchises, of what kind soever, temporal, as well by sea as by land, within the country, isles, islets, and limits aforesaid, to have, exercise, use and enjoy the same, as amply as any bishop of Durham, within the bishopric or county palatine of Durham, in our kingdom of England, hath at any time heretofore had, held, used, or enjoyed, or of right, ought or might have had, held, used, or enjoyed.

And him the said now Lord Baltimore, his heirs and assigns, we do by these presents, for us, our heirs, and successors, make, create, and constitute the true and absolute lords and proprietaries of the said country aforesaid, and of all other the premises (except before excepted), saving always the faith and allegiance and sovereign dominion due unto us, our heirs and success

ors.

To have, hold, possess, and enjoy the said country, isles, inlets, and other the premises, unto the said now Lord Baltimore, his heirs and assigns, to the sole and proper use and behoof of him the said now Lord Baltimore, his heirs and assigns forever.

To be holden of us, our heirs and successors, Kings of England, as of our castles of Windsor, in our county of Berks, in free and common soccage, by fealty only, for all services, and not in capite, or by knight's service, yielding and paying therefor to us, our heirs and successors, two Indian arrows of those parts, to be delivered at our said castle of Windsor, every year the Tuesday in Easter week, and also the fifth part of all gold and silver ore, within the limits aforesaid, which shall from time to time, happen to be found.

Now, that the said country, thus by us granted and described, may be eminent above all other parts of the said territory, dignified with large title, Know ye, that we, of our further grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion, have thought fit to erect the same country and islands into a province, as out of the fullness of our royal power and prerogative, we do, for us, our heirs and successors, erect and incorporate them into a province, and do call it Maryland, and so from henceforth we will have it called.

And forasmuch as we have hereby made and ordained the aforesaid now Lord Baltimore, the true Lord and proprietary of all the province aforesaid, Know ye, therefore, that we, reposing special trust and confidence in the fidelity, wisdom, justice, and provident circumspection of the said now Lord Baltimore, for us, our heirs and successors, do grant free, full, and absolute power, by virtue of these presents, to him and his heirs, for the good and happy government of the said country, to ordain, make, enact, and under his and their seals to publish any laws whatsoever, appertaining either unto the public state of the said province, or unto the private

utility of particular persons, according to their best discretions, by and with the advice, assent, and approbation of the freemen of the said province, or the greater part of them, or of their delegates or deputies, whom, for the enacting of the said laws, when and as often as need shall require, we will that the said now Lord Baltimore, and his heirs, shall assemble in such sort and form as to him and them shall seem best, and the said laws duly to execute upon all people within the said province and limits thereof, for the time being, or that shall be constituted under the government and power of him or them, either sailing towards Maryland, or returning from thence towards England, or any other of ours or foreign dominions, by imposition of penalties, imprisonment or any other punishment: yea, if it shall be needful, and that the quality of the offence require it, by taking away members or life, either by him the said now Lord Baltimore, and his heirs, or by his and their deputies, lieutenants, judges, justices, magistrates, officers, and ministers, to be ordained or appointed, according to the tenor and true intentions of these presents, and likewise to appoint and establish any judges, justices, magistrates, and officers, whatsoever, at sea and land, for what cause soever, and with what power soever, and in such form as to the said now Lord Baltimore, or his heirs, shall seem most convenient; also to remit, release, pardon, and abolish, whether before judgment or after, all crimes and offences whatsoever, against the said laws, and to do all and every other thing or things, which unto the complete establishment of justice unto courts, prætories, and tribunals, forms of judicature, and manners of proceedings, do belong, although in these presents express mention be not made thereof; and by judges by them delegated to award process, hold pleas, and determine, in said courts and tribunals, all actions, suits, and causes whatsoever, as well criminal as civil, personal, real, mixt, and prætorial, which laws, so as aforesaid, to be published, our

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