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said Company, and such of the Assistants and Freemen as aforesaide, and published in Writing, vnder their comon Seale, shalbe carefullie and dulie observed, kept, performed, and putt in Execućön, according to the true Intent and Meaning of the same; and theis our Letterspatents, or the Duplicate or exemplificacón thereof, shalbe to all and everie such Officers, superior and inferior, from Tyme to Tyme, for the putting of the same Orders, Lawes, Statutes, and Ordiñnces, InstrucCóns, and Direccons, in due Execučon against Vs, our Heires and Successors, a sufficient Warrant and Discharge. AND WEE DOE further, for Vs, our Heires and Successors, give and graunt to the said Governor and Company, and their Successors by theis Presents, that all and everie such Chiefe Comaunders, Captaines, Governors, and other Officers and Ministers, as by the said Orders, Lawes, Statuts, Ordiñnces, Instruccons, or Direcćöns of the said Governor and Company for the Tyme being, shalbe from Tyme to Tyme hereafter ymploied either in the Government of the saide Inhabitants and Plantadón, or in the Waye by Sea thither, or from thence, according to the Natures and Lymitts of their Offices and Places respectively, shall from Tyme to Tyme hereafter for ever, within the Precincts and Partes of Newe England hereby menčoed to be graunted and confirmed, or in the Waie by Sea thither, or from thence, have full and Absolute Power and Authoritie to correct, punishe, pardon, governe, and rule all such the Subiects of Vs, our Heires and Successors, as shall from Tyme to Tyme adventure themselves in any Voyadge, thither or from thence, or that shall at any Tyme hereafter, inhabite within the Precincts and Partes of Newe England aforasaid, according to the Orders, Lawes, Ordiffinces, InstrucCons, and DirecCons aforesaid, not being repugnant to the Lawes and Statutes of our Realme of England as aforesaid. AND WEE DOE further, for Vs, our Heires and Successors, give and graunte to the said Governor and Company, and their Successors, by theis Presents, that it shall and maie be lawfull, to and for the Chiefe Comaunders, Governors, and Officers of the said Company for the Time being, who shalbe resident in the said Parte of Newe England in America, by theis Presents graunted, and others there inhabiting by their Appointment and Direcćön, from Tyme to Tyme, and at all Tymes hereafter for their speciall Defence and Safety, to incounter, expulse, repell, and resist by Force of Armes, aswell by Sea as by Lande, and by all fitting Waies and Meanes whatsoever, all such Person and Persons, as shall at any Tyme here. after, attempt or enterprise the Destruccon, Invasion, Detriment, or Annoyaunce to the said Plantation or Inhabitants, and to take and surprise by all Waies and Meanes whatsoever, all and every such Person and Persons, with their Shippes, Armour, Municon, and other Goodes, as shall in hostile manner invade or attempt the defeating of the said Plantacon, or the Hurt of the said Company and Inhabitants: NEVERTHELES, our Will and Pleasure is, and Wee doe hereby declare to all Christian Kinges, Princes and States, that yf any Person or Persons which shall hereafter be of the said Company or Plantacon, or any other by Lycense or Appointment of the said Governor and Company for the Tyme being, shall at any Tyme or Tymes hereafter, robb or spoyle, by Sea or by Land, or doe any Hurt, Violence, or vnlawful Hostilitie to any of the Subiects of Vs, our Heires or Successors, or any of the Subiects of any Prince or State, being then in League and Amytie with Vs, our Heires and Successors, and that upon such iniury don and vpon iust Complaint of such Prince or State or their Subjects, WEE, our Heires and Successors shall make open Proclamačon within any of the Partes within our Realme of England, cofiodious for that purpose, that the Person or Persons haveing coffitted any such Roberie or Spoyle, shall within the Terme lymytted by such a Proclamacon, make full Restitudön or Satisfaccón of all

such Iniureis don, soe as the said Princes or others soe complayning, maie hould themselves fullie satisfied and contented; and that yf the said Person or Persons, haveing comitted such Robbery or Spoile, shall not make, or cause to be made Satisfacón accordinglie, within such Tyme soe to be lymytted, that then it shalbe lawfull for Vs, our Heires and Successors, to putt the said Person or Persons out of our Allegiance and Proteccon, and that it shalbe lawfull and free for all Princes to prosecute with Hostilitie, the said Offendors, and every of them, their and every of their Procurers, Ayders, Abettors, and Comforters in that Behalf: PROVIDED also, and our expresse Will and Pleasure is, And Wee doe by theis Presents for Vs, our Heires and Successors ordeyne and appoint That theis Presents shall not in any manner envre, or be taken to abridge, barr, or hinder any of our loving subjects whatsoever, to vse and exercise the Trade of Fishing vpon that Coast of New England in America, by theis Presents menčoed to be graunted. But that they, and every, or any of them, shall have full and free Power and Liberty to continue and vse their said Trade of Fishing vpon the said Coast, in any the Seas therevnto adioyning, or any Armes of the Seas or Saltwater Rivers where they have byn wont to fishe, and to build and sett vp vpon the Landes by theis Presents graunted, such Wharfes, Stages, and Workehouses as shalbe necessarie for the salting, drying, keeping, and packing vp of their Fish, to be taken or gotten vpon that Coast; and to cutt down, and take such Trees and other Materialls there groweing, or being, or shalbe needefull for that Purpose, and for all other necessarie Easements, Helpes, and Advantage concerning their said Trade of Fishing there, in such Manner and Forme as they have byn heretofore at any tyme accustomed to doe, without making any willfull Waste or Spoyle, any Thing in theis Presents conteyned to the contrarie notwithstanding. AND WEE DOE further, for Vs, our Heires and Successors, ordeyne and graunte to the said Governor and Company, and their Successors by theis Presents that theis our Letters-patents shalbe firme, good, effectuall, and availeable in all Things, and to all Intents and Construcdons of Lawe, according to our true Meaning herein before declared, and shalbe construed, reputed, and adiudged in all Cases most favourablie on the Behalf, and for the Benefitt and Behoofe of the saide Governor and Company and their Successors: ALTHOUGH expresse menčon of the true yearely Value or certenty of the Premisses or any of them, or of any other Guiftes or Grauntes, by Vs, or any of our Progenitors or Predecessors to the foresaid Governor or Company before this tyme made, in theis Presents is not made ; or any Statute, Acte, Ordifince, Provision, Proclamačān, or Restrainte to the contrarie thereof, heretofore had, made, published, ordeyned, or provided, or any other Matter, Cause, or Thinge whatsoever to the contrarie thereof in any wise notwithstanding. IN WITNES whereof, Wee have caused theis our Letters to be made Patents. WITNES ourself, at Westminster, the fourth day of March, in the fourth Yeare of our Raigne. Per Breve de Privato Sigillo, WOLSELEY.

CHARTER OF MARYLAND–1632.

LORD BALTIMORE's first attempt at colonization was at Avalon, Newfoundland. Discouraged by the severity of the climate he visited Virginia, and obtaining from Charles II. a promise of lands there, abandoned Newfoundland. Dying shortly after, the promised patent was issued in 1632 to his son and successor, who made the first settlement at St. Mary's. The Palatinate of Durham served as a model for Lord Baltimore's Avalon patent, and this in turn helped mould the Maryland charter. “The Maryland , charter is full of interest as being the first proprietary constitution that bore any actual fruit. It conferred on the grantee probably the most extensive political privileges ever enjoyed by an English subject since the great houses had bowed before the successive oppression of Yorkist and Tudor rule.” (Doyle.) With the exception of the reservation of allegiance, and the provision that the laws “be consonant to reason and be not repugnant nor contrary to the laws and statutes of the kingdom of England,” Lord Baltimore was an independent monarch. Maryland continued under this charter till 1776, when a convention meeting at Annapolis (Aug. 14–Nov. 11) formulated a constitution for the state. A second constitution

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