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upon the number of vessels of war, to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine States assent to the same: nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day be determined, unless by the votes of a majority of the United States in Congress assembled.
The Congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the United States, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six months, and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances or military operations, as in their judgment require secresy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each State on any question shall be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegate ; and the delegates of a State, or any of them, at his or their request shall be furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the Legislatures of the several States.
ARTICLE X. The committee of the States, or any nine of them, shall be authorized to execute, in the recess of Congress, such of the powers of Congress as the United States in Congress assembled, by the consent of nine States, shall from time to time think expedient to vest them with; provided that no power be delegated to the said committee, for the exercise of which, by the articles of confederation, the voice of nine States in the Congress of the United States assembled is requisite.
ARTICLE XI. Canada acceding to this confederation, and joining in the measures of the United States, shall be admitted into, and entitled to all the advantages of this Union: but no other colony shall be admitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by nine States.
ARTICLE XII. All bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed and debts contracted by, or under the authority of Congress, before the assembling of the United States, in pursuance of the present confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said United States, and the public faith are hereby solemnly pledged.
ARTICLE XIII. Every State shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them. And the articles of this confederation shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the Union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them ; unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the Legislatures of every State.
And whereas it has pleased the Great Governor of the world to incline the hearts of the Legislatures we respectively represent in Congress, to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the said articles of confederation and perpetual union. Know ye that we the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said articles of confederation and perpetual union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained : and we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions, which by the said confederation are submitted to them. And that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States we re[s]pectively represent, and that the Union shall be perpetual.
In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in
Congress. Done at Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania the ninth day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, and in the third year of the independence of America.
On the part & behalf of the State of New Hampshire. JOSIAH BARTLETT,
JOHN WENTWORTH, Junr.,
August 8th, 1778.
On the part and behalf of the State of Massachusetts Bay. JOHN HANCOCK,
FRANCIS DANA, SAMUEL ADAMS,
JAMES LOVELL, ELBRIDGE GERRY,
On the part and behalf of the State of Rhode Island and
Providence Plantations. WILLIAM ELLERY,
JOHN COLLINS. HENRY MARCHANT,
On the part and behalf of the State of Connecticut. ROGER SHERMAN,
Titus HOSMER, SAMUEL HUNTINGTON, ANDREW ADAMS. OLIVER WOLCOTT,
On the part and behalf of the State of New York. JAS. DUANE,
WM. DUER, FRA. LEWIS,
On the part and in behalf of the State of New Jersey,
Novr. 26, 1778.
22d July, 1778.
On the part & behalf of the State of Delaware.
NICHOLAS VAN DYKE.
On the part and behalf of the State of Maryland.
DANIEL CARROLL, March 1, 1781.
Mar. I, 1781.
On the part and behalf of the State of Virginia.
FRANCIS LIGHTFOOT LEE. THOMAS ADAMS,
On the part and behalf of the State of No. Carolina. JOHN PENN, July 21, 1778. JNO. WILLIAMS. CORNS. HARNETT,
On the part & behalf of the State of South Carolina. HENRY LAURENS,
RICHD. HUTSON. WILLIAM HENRY DRAYTON, Thos. HEYWARD, Junr. JNO. MATHEWS,
On the part & behalf of the State of Georgia. JNO. WALTON,
EDWD. LANGWORTHY. 24th July, 1778. EDWD. TELFAIR,
TREATY OF PEACE-1783.
CORNWALLIS surrendered Oct. 19, 1781, and Feb. 27, 1782, Parliament voted against continuing the American War. Lord North's ministry went out and the new administration dispatched Richard Oswald to negotiate peace with Franklin at Paris. The negotiations extended from April till Nov. 30, 1782, when the provisional or preliminary articles of peace were signed. These articles were “to be inserted in and constitute the treaty of peace which should be concluded when Great Britain and France should have arranged terms of peace.
The definitive treaty was signed as below, Sept. 3, 1783.
Consult Bancroft's U. S., last ed., VI., 36; cen. ed., VI., 434; Bryant and Gay, IV., 89; Hildreth, III., 418; Fiske, “ Political Consequences of Cornwallis' Surrender,” in Atlantic Monthly; Jan., 1886; Curtis, in Harper's Mag., April and May, 1883; Treaties and Conventions (Sen. ex. Doc. No. 36, 43d Cong. 3d. Sess.), 1009.
DEFINITIVE TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND HIS BRITANNIC MAJESTY. CONCLUDED SEPTEMBER 3, 1783.
In the name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity.
It having pleased the Divine Providence to dispose