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shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the place of chusing Senators. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day. SEC. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide. Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member. Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal. Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. SEC. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treas. ury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place. No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office. SEC. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on .. Bills. Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it becomes a Law, be presented to the President of the United States;. If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that JHouse, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be deter

mined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of t Persons voting for and against the Bill shall il entered on the Journal of each House respe: tively. If any Bill shall not be returned b the President within ten Days (Sundays e cepted) after it shall have been presented to his the Same shall be a law, in like Manner as if h had signed it, unless the Congress by their A. journment prevent its return, in which Case shall not be a Law. Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to whic the Concurrence of the Senate and House C Representatives may be necessary (except on question of Adjournment) shall be presented the President of the United States; and befo the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be ré passed by two-thirds of the Senate and Hous of Representatives, according to the Rules an Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. SEC, 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts an Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for th: common Defence and general Welfare of th United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Ex cises shall be uniform throughout the Unite States; To borrow Money on the credit of the Unite States; To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations and among the several States, and with the In dian Tribes; To establish an uniform Rule of Naturaliza tion, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bank ruptcies throughout the United States; o coin Money, regulate the Value thereof and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard o Weights and $o ; To provide for the Punishment of counter feiting the Securities and current Coin of th United States; To establish Post Offices and post Roads; To promote the progress of Science and use ful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Au thors and Inventors the exclusive Right to the respective Writings and Discoveries; To constitute Tribunals inferior to the suprem Court; To define and punish Piracies and Felonie committed on the high Seas, and Offences again: the Law of Nations; To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Capture on Land and Water; To raise and support Armies, but no Appro riation of Money to that Use shall be for |. Term than two years; To provide and maintain a Navy; To make Rules for the Government and Regul lation of the land and naval Forces; To provide for calling forth the Militia : execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insur rections and repel Invasions; | To provide for organizing, arming, and dis ciplining, the Militia, and for #. such Part of them as may be employed in the Servici of the United States, reserving to the State; respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the bji. prescribed by Congress;


To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding en Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become he Seat of the Government of the #. States, ind to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of he State in which the Same shall i. for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, DockYards, and other needful Buildings;–And To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the fore!oing Powers, and all other Powers vested by his Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof. SEC. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall hink proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by he Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or Duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten jollars for each Person. The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus hall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of &ebellion or Invasion the public Safety may reJuire it. No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall assed. o Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be aid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken. No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exYorted from any State. No Preference shall be given by any Regulaion of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels Yound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, lear, or pay Duties in another. No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, 5ut in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law ; and a regular Statement and Account of he Receipts, and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time. No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no Person holding any Office yf Profit or Trust under them, shall, without he Consent of the Congress, accept of any pres: 2nt, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind * from any King, Prince, or foreign tate. SEc. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills »f Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Join a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law mpairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility. - §: State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely ne: cessary for executing it's inspection Laws; and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress. No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any

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Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of Delay.


SEC. 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be .." in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each ; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State have ing one Vote; A Quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.*] The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be: the same throughout the United States. No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States. In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability concur ; and he shall nominate, and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall

* This clause of the Constitution has been annulled. See twelfth article of the Amendments.

to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation, or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them. Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:— “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.” SEC. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in * of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment. He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present y and

appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers. and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session. SEC. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress lnformation of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; and he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and he shall Commission all the officers of the United States. SEC. 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be re. moved from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.


SEC. 1. The judicial Power of the Unite: States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shal hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

SEC 2. The judicial Power shall extend to al. cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Cor stitution, the Laws of the United States, ano Treaties made, or which shall be made, unde their Authority;-to all Cases affecting Ambas sadors, other public Ministers, and Consuls;–t. all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdic tion;–to Controversies to which the Unite. States shall be a Party;-to Controversies be tween two or more States;–between a State an Citizens of another State ;-between Citizens 0. different States, between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of differen” States, and between a State or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other pub. lic Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shal. have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

#. Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases o Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crime: shall have been committed ; but when not com mitted within any State, the Trial shall be as such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

SEC. 3. Treason against the United States, shal consist only in levying War against them, or is adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Trea son unless on the Testimony of two Witnesse to the same overt Act, or on Confession in ope Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare th Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder 0 Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or For feiture except during the Life of the Person at

tainted. ARTICLE IV.

SEC. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall by give: in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings o, other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe thi Manner in which such Acts, Records and Pro ceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereos SEC. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be en. titled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Jus. tice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be re. moved to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime. No Person held to Service or Labour in one

State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due. SEC. 3. N. States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress. The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in - this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State. SEC. 4. The United States shall guarantee to * every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them * against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Le

islature cannot be convened) against domestic

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Violence. ARTICLE V.

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o deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

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ARTICLE VI. All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification §: Office or public Trust under the United tates.


The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.


ART. 1. Congress shall-make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. ART. 2. A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. ART. 3. No Soldier shall, in time of peace be uartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. ART. 4. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. ART. 5. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person' be subject for the same offence to be twice put in joy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any Criminal Case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. ART.6. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have Compulsory process for obtaining Witnesses in his favour, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. ART. 7. In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy, shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. ART. 8. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines be imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. ART. 9. The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. ART, 10. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States *Toy or to the people.

RT. 11. The Judicial power of the United

States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State. ART. 12. The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distingt ballots the person voted for as Vice; President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;—The President of the Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;— The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this £.". shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as W. shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors apF.". and if no person have a majority, then rom the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office .# President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

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“SEC. 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. “SEC. 2. Congress shall have power to enforee this article by appropriate legislation.” And whereas it appears from official documents on file in this Department that the amendment to the Constitution of the United States, proposed as aforesaid, has been ratified, by the Legislatures of the States of Illinois, Rhode Island, Michigan, Maryland, New York, West Virginia, Maine, Kansas, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Ohio, Missouri, Nevada, Indiana, Louisiana, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Vermont, Tennessee, Arkansas, Connecticut, New Hampshire, South Carolina, Alabama, North Carolina, and Georgia—in all, twenty-seven States; And whereas the whole number of States in the United States is thirty-six, and whereas the before specially-named States, whose Legislatures; have ratified the said proposed amendment, constitute three-fourths of the whole number of States in the United States: Now, therefore, be it known that I, William H. Seward, Secretary of State of the United States, by virtue and in pursuance of the second section of the act of Congress approved the twentieth of April, eighteen hundred and eighteen, entitled “An act to provide for the po of the laws of the United States and or other purposes,” do hereby certify that the amendment aforesaid has become valid, to all intents and purposes, as a part of the Constitution of the United States. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the Department of State to be affixed. Done at the city of Washington this eighteenth day of December, in the year of our Lord [SEAL] one thousand eight hundred and sixtyfive, and of the Independence of the United States of America the ninetieth. WILLIAM H. SEwARD, Secretary of State.

[New Jersey, Oregon, California and Iowa ratified subsequently to the date of this certificate, as did Florida in the same form as South Carolina and Alabama.]

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