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States only six years. Every nation in Europe has been defeated at least once in this century and lost territory by war, the United States has never been defeated and never lost territory by war or in any other way. She has gained, mostly by purchase, far more than half of the territory over which her flag now floats. All the nations of Europe have had rebellions during this last hundred years, some many as eight or nine;-the United States has, indeed had one,-a stupendous rebellion, which perhaps could not have been avoided, but the result of which is to enlarge the domain of freedom and to demonstrate that the strongest of all governments is that which but expresses the will of the people.
Riots are comparatively unknown, revolutions are not attempted ; there is nothing to fight for when all imaginary improvements may be tested constitutionally so soon as a respectably large portion of the people desire the experiment. We do not deny that there are many evils among
us,—but we do deny that the form of govA Civil Service Reform ernment is responsible for them. They voeded.
are the evils of ignorance, of intemperance, of licentiousness, of a greed for wealth and honor,-all of which exist in all nations, whatever the form of government. Republicanism, resting on the choice of the people, tends to develop responsi
bility and self-control and ability to contend against these evils. Americans have been nearly over-flooded with immigrants who have been attracted to the plenty and license of the land. Many of the evils of assimilation are temporary. Free speech and party spirit, as when some liquids are purified by boiling, bring all the corruption to the surface. Those who only look at the outside are appalled at the appear
Some evils have so sweet a taste that it is hard to give them up-like our present system of ap pointing the incumbents of many civil offices, but a Civil Service Reform will yet prevail.
Education and art are not cultivated as rapidly and as thoroughly as their devotees desire, but where on the round earth to-day more than in America ? Religious teachers are sometimes discouraged, but where are they more respectfully listened to than here ? And can they not see that compulsory religion is not religion, compulsory morality is immorality? God himself seems to ask nothing higher and better than the impartial presentation of good and evil, and then let men choose and receive the consequences ! This is the quintessence of freedom! This is the central idea of Republicanism.
Let then the celebration of this centennial of the great republic deepen our faith in liberty, and intensify our devotion to the common welfare of man.
Julius Cæsar, at the head of conquering hosts car
ried the Roman eagle to far off lands, Cæsar, Cromwell, Napo. writing a glowing history of his own exWashington ploits, and returning, crossed the Rubicon, compared.
planted his victorious standards on their native soil, and debauched his country's liberty, and when the crown was offered him by his foolish flatterers would not decidedly resist the temptation, and justly fell, stabbed by the desperate defenders of their country's rights. Cromwell relieved his country of despotism, but dispersed a Parliament, made himself a perpetual Protector or despot, and sought to transmit his power to an imbecile son. Napoleon, in spite of the example of Washington, having astonished the world by supernatural military and executive genius, vainly endeavored to resist the envious combination of abler despotisms against his new empire, and justly fell, and ended his days in exile. But Washington alone resisted the seductive temptation of absolutism, appreciating the rights of a people, carried out the teaching of the highest authority: “He that loseth his life for my sake" for the sake of truth and right, shall find it.
He has found it. Highest on the pyramid of fame his name is chiselled, by his grateful countrymen, and confirmed by universal applause; and a century hence, yes, a thousand centuries hence, no name will be found above the name of Washington.
A century's experiment of a free government, conja firms the wisdom of the founders of the Republic, and sets at naught the predictions of its founders ; having emerged from every struggle with a record untarnished, and won the confidence and respect of the civilized world.
In growth, we may say unparalleled, its population at the organization of the government in 1789, was 3,929,827. By the census of 1870, it had increased to 38,547,229.
Our territorial area has increased since the nation's birth from thirteen original states, bordering on the Atlantic, embracing 815,615 square miles, until it bas spanned the Continent, forming a mighty Republic from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and now embraces thirty-eight states and ten territories, with an area of 3,678,392 square miles, and includes territory formerly belonging to the dominions of England, France, Spain, Sweden, Holland, and Russia.
Equally rapid strides have been made in extending our commercial relations at home and abroad. The first successful application of steam to navigation in 1807, has so multiplied that palatial steamers may be seen upon every important river and bay. The first steamer to make the trans-Atlantic voyage was in 1819, and they are now numbered by hundreds.
The commerce of the United States stands second among the nations of the world. Our imports in 1870 reached upwards of $315,000,000, and exports for the same year amounted to more than $254,000,000.
The first steam railway went into operation in 1827, and have since extended their lines until they span the continent from shore to shore with a total length of 72,623 miles. The electric telegraph was first introduced in 1844, and there are now 75,137 miles in use.
The resources of the country in agricultural pro ducts, and the mechanical arts, stimulated by the in ventive talent and genius of its people, have wonderfully developed.
In referring to the inventive genius of American Mr. Charles Reade, a writer of whom England may be justly proud, says: “Europe teems with the inaterial products of American genius. American patents print English newspapers, and sew Englishmen's shirts. A Briton goes to his work by Ameri. can clocks, and is warmed by American stoves. ... In a word, America is the leading nation in all matters of material invention and construction, and no other nation rivals or approaches her."
In 1836, Congress authorized the appointment of a Commissioner of Patents, which with one assistant was all the help necessary to meet the requirements of the Patent Office. Now a force of nearly 400 are employed, and issue nearly 20,000 patents annually, while the accumulation of models is so great as to