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JAMES BUCHANAN, Fifteenth President of the United States, was born in Franklin County, Pa., April 23d, 1791. His parents were from the North of Ireland. He was a studious youth, and graduated with honor at Dickinson Col lege, when but eighteen years of age. He studied law in the office of James Hopkins, of Lancaster, Pa., and was admitted in 1812. In his profession he had numerous and wealthy clients, and his practice was so extensive and remunerative, that at the age of forty he was able to retire with an ample fortune. At the age of twenty-three he was elected to the State Legislature of Pennsylvania. He vigorously sup ported the War of 1812-'14, and as a private soldier marched to the defense of Baltimore. In 1820, he was elected to the

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House of Representatives at Washington, where his knowl edge and eloquence soon gave him extensive celebrity. Here he remained ten years, and then declined re-election.

In 1831 President Jackson appointed him Minister PleniJotentiary to Russia. He accepted the honor, proceeded to St Petersburgh, and concluded the first commercial treaty between the two countries. In 1833 he returned, and was chosen to the U. S. Senate from Pennsylvania.

In 1845, when President Polk formed his Cabinet, Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of State, which important position he filled during the entire administration.

In 1853 President Pierce tendered him the appointment of Minister to England, which he accepted, managing our affairs at the Court of St. James with such discretion as to meet with high approval. He landed again in New York in 1856, amid great public applause. In 1857 he was selected by the Democrats at their Convention at Cincinnati, as the standard-bearer of the party for the Presidency, and was elected by a moderate majority, two other general tickets being defeated. Mr. Buchanan had been longer in public life than any of his predecessors in the Presidency, yet his administration was, perhaps, less satisfactory to all parties than that of any of our Presidents.

The discussion on the Slavery question, which then reached its crisis, was the absorbing interest of the times. Senator Douglas divided the Democracy, but thereby only hastened secession. Buchanan's public career closed in a storm of fearful severity. He sat appalled amid the treachery of high officials and the treason of entire States. He ruled unfor

tunately when a Jackson or a Napoleon was needed. He retired to private life at the close of his term, and died at Wheatland, near Lancaster, Pa., June 1st, 1868. He never married, and was styled the bachelor President.

JOHN C. BRECKENRIDGE, Vice-President, was born al Lexington, Ky., Jan. 21, 1821. A lawyer by profession. Elected to Congress 1851, and Vice-Pres. in 1856. Candi date for President in 1860. Elected to U. S. Senate 1861. Expelled Dec. 4, 1861. Became Confederate Major-General and Sec. of War at Richmond 1865. Died May 17, 1875.

CANDIDATES for President and Vice-Pres., 13тH ADм.

For President. | From. |
James Buchanan, Pa.
J. C. Fremont, Cal.
Millard Fillmore, N. Y.

For Vice-Pres. | From. | Politics.
J. C. Breckenridge, Ky. Democrat.
Wm. L. Dayton, N. J. Republican.
A. J. Donelson, Tenn. American.

POPULAR AND ELECTORAL VOTE, 13TH ADMINISTRATION.

Thirty-one States voting. Whole No. of Electors, 296.

For President.

James Buchanan 1,832,232 votes.
John C. Fremont 1,341,514 66
Millard Fillmore 874,707 66

Electoral votes 174.

109. 8.

For Vice-President.

J. C. Breckenridge 174 Electoral votes.

Wm. L. Dayton 109

66

A. J. Donelson

8

66

66

66

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Important Events of the 13th Administration. 1857 March 4. James Buchanan inaugurated President. March 6. The Dred Scott decision rendered by Chief Justice Taney. Dred Scott and wife were slaves, held by an army surgeon. By change of residence from a slave state to free territory, they claimed their freedom, which was denied by their master. The Supreme Court denied the claim, and they were held as slaves.

Financial panic, and great religious revivals. 1858 May 11. Minnesota admitted into the Union. Mount Vernon purchased by the ladies. 1859 Feb. 14. Oregon admitted into the Union. Oil wells first discovered at Titusville, Pa. June 26.

Commodore Tatnall of U. S. Navy, in retalliating for Chinese insult, said: "Blood is thicker than water."

July 4. Alexander H. Stephens advocates the formation of a Southern Confederacy.

Sept. Prince of Wales visits the U. S. ami grea popular demonstration.

Oct. 16. John Brown with an armed band make & raid into Va. with a view to liberating slaves. Nov. 6. Abraham Lincoln elected President. This is made a pretext for secession of the Southern States.

Dec. 3. President Buchanan denies the right of a State to secede and asserts the rights of the U. S. government to coerce a rebellious state.

1860 Dec. 20. South Carolina Legislature passed the ordinance of secession.

Cabinet officers, U. S. Senators, and Members of
Congress from the Southern States resign.

1861 Jan. Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia an Louisana secede from the Union.

1862 Jan. 29.

Jan. 21. Jefferson Davis resigned his seat in U.S.

Senate.

Kansas admitted into the Union.

Feb. 1. Texas secedes from the Union.

Feb. 4. "Southern Confederacy" formed at Mont

gomery.

Feb. 9. Jeff. Davis and A. H. Stevens elected
President and Vice-Pres. of the "Confederacy."
April 12. Bombardment of Fort Sumpter, first
shot of the Civil War.

April 15. The President called for 75,000 volun-
teers. N. Y. State authorizes the appropriation
of $3,000,000 for war purposes.

May 15. Queen Victoria proclaims neutrality.
Rebellion, important events of. See Contents.

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