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BLANKET RATES—Continued.

Important groups of destinations via any given line are frequently blanketed.

Id. (226).
Generally rates from Louisiana, Texas, and Arkansas points other than gulf ports,

are blanketed. 1915 Western Rate Advance Case, 497 (612).
It appears that the all-rail commodity rates are generally blanketed over the

peninsula. Steamer Lines on Chesapeake Bay, 692 (700).
BOAT LINES. See also WATER CARRIER.

Applications of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company and its subsidiaries to con-

tinue operation of steamer lines between Baltimore and the eastern shore
denied except as to those operating between Baltimore and Claiborne and
Love Point, respectively, which are necessary extensions of rail lines of their

directly owning carriers. Steamer Lines on Chesapeake Bay, 692.
History of steamer lines owned by Pennsylvania lines. Id. (697).
Continued operation of the Patuxent, Potomac, Rappahannock, and Piankatank

river lines not found to be in violation of section 5. Id. (701).
BONDS. See also STOCKS AND BONDS.

Carriers are guarantors of bonds of coal companies. Rates for Transportation of

of Anthracite Coal, 220 (284).
Table 18, showing average yields of bonds of railways and other industries:

1900-1914. 1915 Western Rate Advance Case, 497 (531).
Bonds may remain but slightly affected in price so long as net income of carriers

easily covers bond interest. Id. (533).
BOOK COST.

Returns on book cost of property discussed. 1915 Western Rate Advance Case,

497 (522).
BOTH DIRECTIONS.

Rates said to have been made unusually low to draw a movement of cement

westbound. Lehigh Portland Cement Co. v. B. &0. S. W. R. R. Co., 14 (21).
It is stated that eastbound l. c. 1. shipments can be handled without extra service

necessary on westbound traffic. Lighterage and Storage Regulations at New

York, 47 (63).
St. Louis is a deliberately favored point with respect to cement rates as is evi-

denced by the adjustment north bound as well as southbound. Cape Girardeau

Portland Cement Co. v. St. L. & S. F. R. R. Co., 109 (114).
BOUNDARY.

Ohio River the physical boundary between c. f. a. and southern territories.

Lehigh Portland Cement Co. v. B. & 0. S. W. R. R. Co., 14 (17).
BRANCH LINES.

A branch line crossing a competitive road at right angles to the course of traffic

must meet the rate of the intersected road and must usually maintain the
same rate at points intermediate to the junction point with its own line. 1915

Western Rate Advance Case, 497 (569).
BREACH OF CONTRACT. See CONTRACT.
BREAKING POINTS.

The Ohio River being the physical boundary between c. f. a. territory and south-

ern classification territory, its crossings became the breaking points for all
interterritorial rates. Lehigh Portland Cement Co. v. B. & 0. S. W. R. R. Co.,

14 (17).
BRIDGE TOLL. See also ABSORPTION.

A bridge arbitrary of 1 cent per 100 pounds per loaded car of cement is ample.

Cape Girardeau Portland Cement Co. v. St. L. & S. F. R. R. Co., 109 (121).
Rates to Memphis of lines west of the Mississippi River include a bridge toll.

Chattanooga Log Rates, 163 (166).

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BRIDGE TOLL-Continued.

Bridge charge taken into account in fixing divisions between carriers north and

south of the Ohio River. Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron Co. v. L. & N. R. R.

Co., 460 (466).
BRIDGES.

Merchants, Eads, and Thebes bridges discussed. Cape Girardeau Portland

Cement Co. v. St. L. & S. F. R. R. Co., 109 (120, 121).
At Louisville are practically controlled by northern lines, and those at Cincin-

nati and Evansville are owned by southern lines. Sloss-Sheffield Steel &

Iron Co. v. L. & N. R. R. Co., 460 (465).
BULKY ARTICLES. See LIGHTERAGE; MINIMUM CHARGE; STORAGE.
BUNKER COAL.

Rates proposed for coal for bunker use are made dependent upon the use to

which the coal is to be put and are therefore unlawful. Coal and Coke Rates

in the Southeast, 187 (202).
BURDEN OF PROOF.

Burden of justifying increased charges may be sustained by showing that rates

applicable upon cancellation or readjustment are proper charges for service

performed. Regulations as to Storage of Dairy Products, 469 (471).
BURDEN OF TRANSPORTATION.

It is not shown whether both intrastate and interstate live stock traffic bear

their just proportion of the transportation burden and question can not be

determined here. 1915 Western Rate Advance Case, 497 (589).
CAPITAL. See also FINANCIAL AID.

Borrowed by carriers not only for transportation needs but also to assist their

controlled coal companies. Rates for Transportation of Anthracite Coal,

220 (284).
CAPITAL STOCK. See also STOCKS AND BONDS.

Statement showing capital stock outstanding as of June 30 of 1904, 1908, and

1913; coal carriers. Appendix. Rates for Transportation of Anthracite Coal,

220 (336).
CAPITALIZATION. See STOCKS AND BONDS.
CAR.

A consignee of freight has no legal right to use a car as a warehouse or storage

plant. Milwaukee Produce & Fruit Exchange v. C. & N. W. Ry. Co., 33 (35).
CAR DETENTION.

Average time per trip of cars used in log traffic is probably not less than seven

days. Chattanooga Log Rates, 163 (167).
CAR FITTING. See DUNNAGE.
CAR-FLOAT SERVICE. See also LOADING AND UNLOADING.

At New York described. Lighterage and Storage Regulations at New York,

47 (50-51).
CARLOAD AND LESS THAN CARLOAD.

Rates on glass articles and glassware from Morgantown, W. Va., found unjustly

discriminatory and readjustment prescribed. Athens Glass Co. v. B. & 0.

R. R. Co., 22.
Normally the rates on high explosives in carloads should not exceed rates on arti-

cles taking first class, while 1. c. 1. rates should not exceed double first class.

Nitro Powder Co. v. West Shore R. R. Co., 77 (79).
Proposed application of less-than-carload rates upon less-than-carload shipments

and carload rates upon concentration carload lots from concentration points

justified. Regulations as to Storage of Dairy Products, 469 (474).
Cancellation of less-than-carload commodity rates on clean rice, many of which

are paper rates, justified. 1915 Western Rate Advance Case, 497 (616).
9479°-VOL 35—15- 48

CAR-MILE EARNINGS. See AVERAGES; EARNINGS.
CARRIER. See DUTY OF CARRIER.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMODITY.

Method of shipping, load per car, value, and liability to damage or loss of man-

grove bark, myrobalans, valonia, etc. National Asso. of Tanners v. L. V. R. R.

Co., 175 (177).
CHARTERS.

Authorized D., L. & W. R. R. Co. to hold 1,000 acres of coal lands, and D. & H.

Co., 5,200 acres. Rates for Transportation of Anthracite Coal, 220 (249, 252).
Corporate charters and contracts, as used by carriers, are merely devices whereby

the business of mining, transporting, and selling the coal production of each
carrier and its coal company are united under one management and directed

and controlled by one paramount power. Id. (255).
CHECKING BAGGAGE. See BAGGAGE.
CIRCUMSTANCES AND CONDITIONS.

When rate comparisons are offered in evidence in substantiation of a claim of

unreasonableness, they should be accompanied by such testimony as is possible
showing the transportation circumstances and conditions incident thereto.

Lehigh Portland Cement Co. v. B. & 0. S. W. R. R. Co., 14 (20).
In the absence of uniform circumstances and conditions uniform rates and prac-

tices may be discriminatory. Lighterage and Storage Regulations at New

York, 47 (53).
CLAIMS. See also Loss AND DAMAGE.

For damages said to average 10 per cent of earnings on drain tile, as compared

with general average of 2 per cent for all traffic. Drain Tile from Illinois

Points, 83 (84).
CLASS AND COMMODITY RATES.

While the existence of two classifications may explain the fact that class rates

are made by combination, there is no such reason or justification for commodity
rates being so stated since classification differences are not encountered.

Lehigh Portland Cement Co. v. B. &0. S. W. R. R. Co., 14 (17).
If rate on cotton piece goods in western trunk-line territory is too low, the remedy

is not to select points from or to which greater quantities are shipped and as to
them establish commodity rates higher than class rates. 1915 Western Rate

Advance Case, 497 (636).
Only 25 or 30 per cent of traffic of the eastern shore moves on class rates, and dif-

ferences between all-rail, rail-and-water, and all-water commodity rates are in
many cases somewhat greater than between the respective class rates. Steamer

Lines on Chesapeake Bay, 692 (699–700).
CLASS RATES.

Rates on high explosives not to exceed first class for carloads and double first

class for less than carloads, prescribed. Nitro Powder Co. v. West Shore R. R.

Co., 77 (79).
Rates on mangrove bark, myrobalans, and valonia from ports on Atlantic sea-

board to points in trunk line and central freight association territories not to
exceed sixth class, prescribed. National Asso. of Tanners v. L. V. R. R. Co.,

175.
Reasonable rates prescribed between Lebanon and Louisville, Springfield and

Louisville, and between Lebanon and Springfield, Ky., and Cincinnati, Ohio,

based on Louisville. Lebanon Commercial Club v. L. & N. R. R. Co., 204.
Local class rates in states named, except Kansas, have been reduced by legisla-

tive authority. Regulations as to Storage of Dairy Products, 469 (473).

CLASSIFICATION. See also JUDICIAL NOTICE.

While existence of two classifications may explain the fact that class rates are

made by combination, there is no such reason or justification for commodity
rates being so stated. Lehigh Portland Cement Co. v. B. &0. S. W. R. R. Co.,

14 (17).
No ratings for high explosives in official, and local rates in New England territory

are generally as high as rates from trunk-line territory. Nitro Powder Co. v.

West Shore R. R. Co., 77 (78).
Drain tile is rated class E in western. Drain Tile from Illinois Points, 83.
Elements which determine classification of building material bear a fixed relation

to those which determine classification of lumber; but evidence in this case is
indefinite and conflicting. Yellow Pine Sash, Door & Blind Mfrs. Asso. v.

S. Ry. Co., 150 (155).
Official and southern ratings on mangrove bark, myrobalans, valonia, and other

tanning materials, compared. The sixth-class rates so long maintained in
southern not shown to be less than reasonable. National Asso. of Tanners v.

L. V. R. R. Co., 175 (176, 178).
Western rates walnut lumber in carloads third class. Des Moines Saw Mill Co.

v. M. & St. L. R. R. Co., 182 (183).
Shipments of pieces of walnut properly are ratable as "walnut dimension lumber

pieces." Id. (185).
The classification basis for fertilizer rates is class E. 1915 Western Rate Advance

Case, 497 (602).
Broom corn is rated third class in western, second class in official, and fifth clas

in southern. Id. (617).
Cotton piece goods classified first class in western, fourth class in southern, 15 per

cent less than second class in official. Id. (633).
COASTWISE TRAFFIC.

Reduction of period of free storage from 10 to 5 days on coastwise freight not found

justified. Lighterage and Storage Regulations at New York, 47 (56).
CODE OF DEMURRAGE RULES. See RECONSIGNMENT.
COLLECTION AND DELIVERY SERVICE. See ALLOWANCES.
COMBINATION RATES. See also THROUGH AND LOCAL.

On cement from Cape Girardeau are clearly unjustly discriminatory. Cape

Girardeau Portland Cement Co. v. St. L. & S. F. R. R. Co., 109 (127).
River combinations form the general basis of rates to central freight association

territory. Lumber Rates from Wilson, Ark., to Cincinnati, Ohio, 179 (181).
Rates between Lebanon or Springfield and Cincinnati in excess of combinations

on Louisville found unreasonable. Lebanon Commercial Club v. L. & N. R. R.

Co., 204 (214).
COMBINATION TICKETS.

No carrier receiving the equivalent of its full local fare to the junction may, in

respect of combinations of tickets severally subject to the act, lawfully with-
hold provision for incidental services universally in demand. Rules and

Regulations Governing Checking of Baggage, 157 (160).
COMMERCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS.

Commission will not require a practice to be continued merely because of alleged

commercial necessity. Regulations as to Storage of Dairy Products, 469 (473).
COMMODITIES CLAUSE. See also ANTHRACITE COAL CARRIERS.

Relations of controlling carriers and coal companies have not undergone any

substantial changes since effective date of. Rates for Transportation of Anthra-
cite Coal, 220 (249).

COMMODITIES CLAUSE_Continued.
Relations of the following controlling carriers and coal companies discussed:

Central Railroad Co. of New Jersey. Id. (253).
Delaware & Hudson Co. Id. (252).
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Coal Co. Id. (250).
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. R. Co. Id. (250).
Hudson Coal Co. Id. (252).
Lehigh & Wilkes-Barre Coal Co. Id. (253).
Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co. Id. (253).
Lehigh Valley R. R. Co.

Id. (252).
Has not resulted in a bona fide separation of affairs of carriers from mining and

selling of anthracite coal. Rates for Transportation of Anthracite Coal, 220

(254)
The dual and inconsistent position of public carrier and private shipper that

would exist where carrier was miner, transporter, and seller now exists. Id.

(255).
COMMODITY RATES. See also CLASS AND COMMODITY RATES.

As regards commodity rates, there is no sufficient ground for refusing to establish

joint rates on transriver traffic. Lehigh Portland Cement Co. v. B. & 0. S.

W. R. R. Co., 14 (17).
Cancellation of commodity rates on drain tile to Wisconsin and Minnesota points

leaving in effect class E, not justified. Drain Tile from Illinois Points, 83.
COMMUNITY OF INTEREST. See CHARTERS.
COMMUTATION FARES.

Cancellation of certain interstate commutation fares by the Illinois Central and

Yazoo & Mississippi Valley railroads, where rarely used, justified. Southern

Commutation Fares, 36.
Where traffic is heavy enough to warrant publication of commutation fares, the

journeys are intrastate, and are rarely used for interstate trips. Id. (37).
COMPARATIVE RATES.

Comparisons with rates on brick, sand, cinders, gravel, coal, clay, and other low-

grade commodities indicate a higher level for cement rates. Lehigh Portland

Cement Co. v. B. &0. S. W.R.R. Co., 14 (19).
Rates on certain low-grade commodities are something higher than ice rates,

Ice Rates to Long Branch, 73 (75).
Rates on drain tile are the same or less than brick rates. Drain Tile from Illinois

Points, 83 (85).
Rates on common logs prescribed as maximum for low-grade cedar logs. Nebraska

Bridge Supply & Lumber Co. v. N., C. & St. L. Ry. 86; Same v. A. G. S. R. R.

Co., 90 (93).
Rates on cottonseed products, grain, live stock, and petroleum and its products,

compared. Oklahoma Cottonseed Crushers Asso. v. M., K. & T. Ry. Co., 94 (97).
Rates on corn and cottonseed cake and meal, compared. Id. (103).
Wooden building material in the white and lumber are closely related commodi-

ties materially, commercially, and with respect to their transportation. Yel-

low Pine Sash, Door & Blind Mfrs. Asso. v. S. Ry. Co., 150 (153).
Rates on building material should bear a uniform relation to lumber rates. Id.

(155).
Mangrove bark, myrobalans, and valonia should take equal rates, sixth class

being prescribed as maximum. National Asso. of Tanners v. L. V. R. R. Co.,

175 (176, 178).
Rating on pieces of walnut billed as'' walnut dimension lumber, pieces,"compared

with ratings on gunstocks. Des Moines Saw Mill Co. v. M. & St. L. R. R. Co.,

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