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THE WORLD OF THE SEA. * That time has passed when the sea was regarded by of the waters, present such a variety of forms that, man as a horrid, hostile, interminable waste. in the words of the author, “the landscape is Science has latterly revealed the laws of the great neither less interesting nor less diversified than and wide sea and described its inhabitants--things that of countries where the sun has induced a luxucreeping innumerable, both small and great beasts ; riant tropical vegetation.' After describing the and poets now sing its varied charms. Two Flora of the ocean, we come to the most humble thirds of the globe are covered with the sea—that of its inhabitants, and proceed from the lowest is to say, if the surface of our planet were divided grades of animal life up to the higher organizations, into 1,000 parts, 734 would be water. Of this the forms, habits, characteristics, and uses of which vast area, divided by geographers into five oceans, are succinctly indicated by pen and pencil. We M. Moquin Tandon has constituted himself his then approach the great sub-kingdom of the torian. He describes the huge continents, and Mollusca, which stretches its limits from the fish, plains, and deep valleys that lie beneath the sur on the one hand, to the polypes on the other, and face ; gives us an account of the plants and animals at each extremity glides almost imperceptibly into which pass their existence in this world of waters, the adjoining classes. The author, in several in
SEA-BIRD CATCHING. or spend their lives on its shores; and explains the teresting chapters, classifies and describes these curious and imposing phenomena connected with soft-bodied creatures, subdividing them into caphathe realms of ocean. This is a wide field, and full lous, those having a head, and acephalous, or those of difficulties to the investigator. But M. Tandon without a head. After treating the Annelida, that has taken a general survey of it, and communicates group of marine animals that possesses, perhaps, the his experiences in intelligible form. His work, most graceful forms and brilliant colours of any, not intended to be exhaustive, is an ample review he terminates his survey of the invertebrate kingof the wondrous world of waters that surrounds us. dom with the crustaceans. We then enter upon After a few general remarks on the life in the sea the highest of the divisions—the vertebrates, and and its characteristics, and a brief exposition of M. Tandon devotes sixteen chapters to the subject, the causes of the curious phenomenon known as apportioning them to fishes, sea-birds, and marine phosphorescence, we are introduced to the nume mammals. One of the most interesting divisions rous plants of the sea, which, existing in the midst of the work is that which describes the several
varieties of aquatic birds. Their manner of build
ing their nests, of laying their eggs, and of rearing * The World of the Sea. Translated and enlarged by
their young, combines to make them most interestthe Rev. H. Martyn Hart, M.A., from “Le Monde de la Mer," by Mons. Moquin Tandon. (Cassell, Petter, and
ing subjects for description ; and the author has Galpin.)
not neglected the opportunity. His chapter on
nests and eggs will be read, especially by young plentifully illustrated. Well-executed woodcuts,
ESOP'S FABLES. ILLUSTRATED BY ERNEST GRISET. The question as to the authorship of Æsop's claims to distinction. Nothing so quaint as these Fables is pleasantly discussed in the preface to this illustrations has appeared since the days of Grandmost amusing volume; and the conclusion at which ville, whose Æsop was till lately as well known in the editor arrives is that of the works of the famous English as in French. Ernest Griset possesses the Greek slave nothing is absolutely known, and that faculty of investing his animals with human exthe fables attributed to him were like the jokes of pression, without ever causing them to lose their own our own Joe Miller—the products of many minds identity, and of making them funny without being
at various periods of the world's history. But to ridiculous. This will be at once seen in the engrav-
treacherous. “Aha!” laughed Reynard, “you a
trap with a piece of meat. This is clearly an error;
for Æsop knew, if Mr. Rundell does not, that the
monkeys are not carnivorous. Other of Ernest
Griset's designs-especially those which illustrate (Cassell, Petter, and Galpin).
the Two Frogs, the Wolf and the Lamb, the Cat
and the Mice, the Fox and the Stork, the Wolf ceeded by the Poet's "Letters," including several and the Crane, the Boar and the Ass, the Lark and hitherto unpublished, arranged under appropriate her Young Ones, and the Sensible Ass-are mar. heads, and connected with brief biographical revels of comical ingenuity; though in the few large marks. Lastly comes an elaborate " Appendix,' designs in which the caricaturist has imitated the containing a store of memoranda from the conmanner of Gustave Doré, he is by no means so temporaries of the poet or from their children, happy. In this, indeed, he is not singular ; for “ with other matters of importance or of curiosity,' when an artist has a style of his own, he is unwise for which every lover of Burns will be thankful. A to attempt that of another; and M. Griset has chromo-lithographic portrait with autograph facenough of originality and graphic power to allow simile forms the frontispiece to the volume. him to rely on his unassisted genius. An instance Cassell's Household Guide. (London : Cassell, will be found at page 92, where, in the fable of
Petter, and Galpin.)—This Guide is intended to Mercury and the Woodman, Dore's peculiari
aid in almost every variety of domestic wants. ties in the treatment of trees and figures is almost The general management of the house, a system servilely copied. Imitation of excellence, how
of careful account-keeping, for want of which ever, is not peculiar to French artists. We all know how George Cruikshank's manner was pla
many a young couple has split on the rock of ad
versity; house furnishing, cooking, the manage. giarized by his brother Robert ; how the styles
ment of children, the garden, and domestic aniof Leech, Phiz, Harvey, and others have been fol.
mals, easy methods of performing simple repairs lowed by inferior artists; and how in the comic at home, and a variety of miscellaneous matters, papers the treatment and method of Doyle, Ten
that a page of this work would fail to enumerate, niel, and Proctor have been slavishly adopted by form the subjects comprised in this new Housedraughtsmen who may, or may not, possess the hold Guide. Among matters we are glad to see art of depicturing scenes, incidents, and persons noticed are those relating to Domestic Medicine in a fashion of their own. In art, as in litera.
and Domestic Surgery. Many accidents that ture, the test of originality must, now-a-days, be occur in the family, and which might result seri. sought in treatment rather than in novelty'; and ously if not at once attended to, are here dealt the man who has the courage to walk in a path of with in so simple a manner that materfamilias can his own, in preference to the footsteps of another, at once have recourse to ready remedies. The an. is certain to attain fame; though it may happen nexed cut illustrates the mode in which, besides that some by imitation get solid pudding, while written description, the subject has been treated. others by originality obtain only empty praise. A line as to the mechanical production of this volume may be added. The printing, paper, and binding of “ Æsop's Fables" are all that can be desired; and the work, though primarily intended for the perusal of children, is in every way deserving a place of honour among the books of the season. Life and Works of Robert Burns.
By P. Hately Waddell, Minister of the Gospel. Enriched with Portraits and numerous Illustrations in colour. Two volumes, 4to. (Glasgow : David Wilson.) Burns is here treated as a great classic. The several editions of his poems have been collated, notes critical and historical have been added, posthumous With the first number a coloured frontispiece is and minor pieces have been brought together, and presented, showing eight dishes prepared for the a vast amount of biographical, topographical, and table. The work, published in monthly parts, is philological facts have been appended, so that we to be abundantly illustrated in all its departments. may now conclude that very little is left to be here- Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress in Words of One after gleaned concerning the poet or his works. The Syllable. By Samuel Phillips Day. (Cassell. ) – volume ought to be eagerly welcomed by every For those who have not yet arrived at that stage countryman of Burns. It is just the sort of volume when they are able to master long and compound to find its way into the homes of the masses. A words, this edition of our most remarkable reli. quarto, printed in large type, with illustrations in gious classic may be of great use. The whole steel and chromo-lithographs of a most realistic de story of Christian's journey from this world to that scription, and includir.g a “Life” written in a which is to come is told in words of one syllable, spirit of the most intense admiration of the poet and the interest is not thereby lessened. Names and his genius, it will doubtless be received with of places and persons are, of course, retained, favour in all sorts of households froin Johno Groat's but with this exception no word of more than one to Berwick-on-Tweed, and be regarded as a family syllable is admitted in the whole allegory. friend. The editor, whose enthusiasm is unbounded, The Child's Bible: Being a Consecutive Arrangemust have taken great pains in his work. He seems ment of the Principal Portions of Holy Scripture, in to have made himself thoroughly acquainted with the IVords of the Authorised Version.
all the available existing materials before sitting wards of Two Hundred Original Illustrations. | down to his task; and his labours bear evidence (Cassell, Petter, and Galpin. ) --A want long felt,
not only of conscientious care in their collection, though, perhaps, not often expressed, has been but of considerable ability in their arrangement. adınirably supplied in this handsome volume. The In the “Life" he has confined himself to trace difficulty of selection, so frequently experienced by the development of so great a soul, and more parents and teachers, has been overcome, and we fully to illustrate the inner life and ultimate re- have here, in the exact words of the Authorized lation to mankind." The treatise is, in fact, a Version, the whole body of history as related in spiritual biography. The “Works” which follow the Old and New Testaments, with merely such have been clearly and ably distributed. First, we omissions as are not strictly necessary to a full and have the “Poems” of first and second editions, perfect understanding of the doctrines and teachthen those of the subsequent editions ; then, ings of Scripture. Great judgment has been exhithirdly, the posthumous and minor pieces of a mis- bited by the editor in the arrangement of the several cellaneous character-each section accompanied by passages selected, so that from the Creation of the notes critical and historical. This division is suc. World to the Apocalypse of St. John the Evangelist
the narrative is continuous and consecutive, with this excellent publication another volume has out that arbitrary division into books, chapters, and made its appearance. It is not only distinguished verses, which proves so trying to the minds of chil by the merits which characterized its predecessors, dren. As now arranged, it is astonishing, even to but exhibits improvement. The portraits, espethose who are thoroughly familiar with its lan- cially that of Guy Patin, are admirable for their guage, how beautifully simple and comprehensible effectiveness, and the literary contents are full of are the words in which the Bible is written. There interest. A paper, on the “Hemriad” of Voltaire, is absolutely nothing in this Child's Bible which a by Alfred D'Almbert, exhausts the subject, and child can fail to understand ; while, but for its title, would be well worth translating into English. there is no reason why the text as it stands should The illustrations of book covers produced when not be made an introduction to the regularly ad bookbinders were artists, and of the aimorial mitted version. Printed in large and beautifully bearings of well-known covers of books, which clear type, and illustrated with a great number of have now reached as far as Du Vache, are still graphic designs on wood, this Child's Bible may important features of the work, and the illustrabe truly pronounced a most valuable addition to tions of the satiric art of the middle ages and of the our Sunday library.
renaissance, as represented in the sculpture and Pictorial Scenes from the l'ilgrim's Progress.
carving, are continued. In the December number Drawn by Reignier Conder. (Hodder and Stough
are two chromo-lithegraphs, which in themselves ton.)— Than this work perhaps no more worthy tri
are worth the cost of the part. These are “St. bute to the value of John Bunyan's famous allegory
John the Evangelist” and Noah's Ark," and are has ever been paid. Other illustrators of the won
taken from a MS. commentary of the 12th cenderful story have endeavoured to represent the per
tury on the Apocalypse, belonging to the library sonal appearance of Christian, Great Heart, Giant
of Altamira. They are printed in gold and Pope, the Confessor, the Conqueror, Saint George,
colour to represent ihe criginal, and are splendid Saint Peter, and Evangelist ; but Mr. Conder has
specimens of the lithographer's art. “Le Biblioillustrated the tinker's dream in quite a different
phile Français ” ought to have a wide circulaticn fashion. Instead of making the several actors in
among lovers of books in England. the life-story the prominent figures in his pictures, The Westons of Riverdale: or, The Trials and he has supplied an imaginative background of land Triumphs of Timperance Frinciples. By E. C. scape, and thus given a reality to the scenes repre H. Allan, authcress of “Echoes of Heart. Whissented which they never before possessed. In
pers. (Manchester : John Heywood.)—The sixteen large quarto pages we have the Slough of
scope and character of this well-written and inteDespond, the Wicket Gate, the Delectable Moun.
resting story are made apparent by its very title. tains, the Country of Beulah, and other scenes and Many of the circumstances related of the trials and incidents of the allegory, with the extract to which misfortunes of the characters introduced are real; the scene refers printed separately on the opposite and the writer's object has been--she honestly leaf. This method of treatinent gives a pleasant
avows-to show the perils to which the happiness reality to the subjects. The employment of litho
of a whole family may be exposed by even what is graphy, instead of wood or steel engravings, has called a moderate drinker, since" she goes on also many advantages, not the least among which to say, "from many of our most respectable and is an intensity of light and shadow of which
honoured families, and many of our brightest, hapneither of the other modes of production is capable. piest firesides, have passed forth those who have The scale of the drawings, too, is such as to give become the outcasts of society-who have brought the artist full scope for the exercise of his facile
disgrace and ruin upon themselves, and dishonour pencil; and a happier result, in this particular upon their connections by an undue indulgence in direction, has seldom been attained. Mr. Conder
those drinks, the taste for which was first acquired has a style of his own—a style which sometimes
under the home roof and fostered by home in. reminds us of Turner, sometimes of Martin, and
fuences." sometimes—as in the instance of plate 8, the Lions -of the German artist, Moritz Retsch.
Sunbeam Stories. A Selection of the Tales by
the Author of " A Trap to Catch a Sunbeam." Madum How and Lady Why; or, First Lessons Fourth Series. With Illustrations. (London : in Earth-lore for Children. By the Rev. Charles Lockwood & Co.)- The author of “A Trap to Kingsley, M.A. With Numerous Illustrations. Catch a Sunbeam rejoices in a wide con(Bell and Daldy.)—Madam How and Lady Why stituency among juvenile readers; and the present are the titles employed by the Rev. C. Kingsley for volume, which consists of two stories, is not less two fairies, each of whom has her functions to perform attractive than any of the former series. The in the economy of the universe. Madam How in a principal story is “Minnie's Love;" the other, general sense may be taken to represent Nature, Married and Settled," being a much shorter who, if patiently and reverently studied, is ever narrative of domestic life. All the scenes are ready to reveal her secrets. Lady Why is the remarkable for their homeliness, and the pictures mistress of all things, and must not be confounded of conjugal felicity are so charming that we have with her servant. She it is whose secrets are no doubt many young persons will, after the penot to be discovered. Above and controlling all rusal of “Sunbeam Stories," decide in favour things, she sits on her throne, impenetrable as the of matrimony as opposed to
single blessed Sphinx. To Madam How, Mr. Kingsley in this volume introduces all those who wish for the privilege, and he lifts her veil and exhibits her at
Picture Natural History. (Cassell, Petter, and work in a variety of ways. To speak without
Galpin.)— The old game of “Birds, Beasts, and metaphor, his book gives a popular account of some
Fishes” may be played with the six hundred and of the marvels of nature. There are twelve chapters,
more pictures in this useful octavo, with the ad. and in them we have dissertations, in Mr. Kings
ditional advantage to the young folk of a clear ley's peculiar style, on botany, geology, natural
and understandable text in which every cut is
described in easy words. The book is divided history, &c., designed and suited for all boys and girls of intelligence.
into three sections—Zoology, including quadru
peds, birds, fishes, reptiles, and insects; Fossils Le Bibliophile Français. (Paris and London : and Corals; and Botany—the latter, so far as Bachelin-Deflorenne. )--Since our last notice of concerns the engravings, being the best.
MR. TENNYSON'S NEW POEM.
Readers of “Merlin and Vivien” and “GuineIn this poem the Poet-Laureate resumes an early
vere” know how the tale progresses : how the king, and long.cherished notion, and brings the “Idylls
too happy in his love, won fame and greatness, of the King” to a conclusion. The several poems
and became the conqueror in all his wars. In the are, “The Coming of Arthur",” « Geraint and Holy Grail” we find Arthur mourning the death Enid, "Merlin and Vivien,” “Lancelot and of Sir Percivale, “whom Arthur and his knight. Elaine," · The Holy Grail", “Pelleas and Et
hood called the Pure," a vision of whom is seen Guinevere," and "The Passing of Ar by many, and among others by a nun :thur*;" those to which an asterisk is appended
" For on a day she sent to speak with me, forming the volume just how in course of issue.
And when she came to speak, behold her eyes “The Passing of Arthur," though last in order of Peyond my knowing of them, beautiful,
publication, was first in order of writing a re Beyond all knowing of them, wonderful, modelling of the “Mont d'Arthur ;” and is the
Beautiful in the light of holiness.
And 'O my brother Perivale,' she said, whole series be read consecutively, we have the "Sweet brother, I have seen the Holy Grail : poet's notion of the adventures of the mythic King For waked at dead of night, I heard a sound of the Britons.
As of a silver horn o'er the hills
Blown, as I thought, “ It is not Arthur's use The story of Arthur, though told in several
To hunt by moonlight ;" and the slender sound ways by the ancient chroniclers and bards, as well As from a distance beyond distance grew as by later poets, is perhaps hardly so well known by
Coming upon me--O never harp nor horn,
Nor aughi we blow with breath, or touch with hand, modern readers as it might be ; and even admirers Was like that music as it came ; and then of Mr. Tennyson may be at some loss to follow Stream'd thro' my cell a cold and silver beam, him without a prose explanation, which they will
And down the long beam stole the Holy Grail, certainly not find in any modern History of Eng.
Rose-red with beatings in it, as if alive,
Till all the white walls of my cell were dyed land. The story, then, goes thus :- Arthur, King With rosy colours leaping in the wall ; of the Britons, is said to have been a son of Uther And then the music faded, and the Grail Pendragon, by Igerna, wise of Gorlois, Duke of
Pass'd, and the beam decayed, and from the walls Cornwall. This lady was the greatest beauty of
The rosy quiverings died into the night.
So now the Holy Thing is here again her time, and the scandal went-for there were Among us, brother, fast thou too and pray, scandals even in those early days—that she loved And tell thy brother knights to fast and pray, Pendragon before her lawful lord. Gorloïs dying
That so perchance the vision may be scen
By thee and those, and all the world be hcald." before the birth of Arthur, his queen married Pendragon- the magic of Merlin being brought The Poet-Laureate follows the history of Arthur, in (says Buchanan) to cover the lady's shame, and
as told by Geoffrey of Monmouth and others of the enable Arthur to ascend the throne :
chroniclers, through the several Idylls, till we “But she, a stainless wife to Gorloïs,
come to his death in battle :So loathed the bright dishonour of his love, That Gorlois and King Uther went to war:
“ Then spake King Arthur to Sir Bedivere : And overthrown was Gorlois and slain.
• The sequel of to-day unsolders all Then Uther in his wrath and heat besieged
The goodliest fellowship of famous knights Ygerne within Tintagil, where her men,
Whereof this world holds record. Seeing the mighty swarm about their walls, · Left her and fled, and Uther entered in,
The old order changeth, yielding place to new,
And God fulfils himself in many ways
Lest our good custom should corrupt the world.
If thou should'st never see my face again, Meaning and wailing for a heir to rule
Pray for my soul. More things are wrought by prayer After him, lest the realm should go to wrack.
Than this world dreams of. And that same night, the night of the new year,
I am going a long way By reason of her bitterness and grief
Where falls not hail or rain or any snow, That vext his mother, all before his time
Nor can winds blow loudly; but it lies, Was Arthur born, and all as soon as born
Deep meadow'd, happy, fair with orchard lawns, Delivered at a secret postern-gate
And bowery hollows crown'd with summer sea,
Where I will heal me of my grievous wound.""
And then the barge that bore King Arthur out
into the land of darkness passed slowly down the But sought to rule for his own self and hand,
stream; and Sir Bevidere sawAnd many hated Uther for the sake Of Gorlois, Wherefore Merlin took the child
“ Or thought he saw, the speck that bore the king And gave him to Sir Anton, an old knight
Down that long water opening on the deep, And ancient friend of Uther; and his wife
Somewhere far off, pass on and on, and go Nursed the young prince and reared him with her own; From less to less and vanish into light, And no man knew,
And the new sun rose bringing the new year!" When Arthur ascended the throne he was im
It will be seen from the extracts we have made mediately involved in a terrible war with the
that there is no lack of the old power ; no fading Saxons; but, by prodigies of valour, he and his
of the charm that has won for the verse of Tennyknights defeated them, and then he sought and
son a world-wide fame ; no sign of weakness—but won Guinevere for a bride :
a promise of still greater things to come. “ Then at the marriage feast came in from Rome-
The "other poems” in the volume consist of The slowly fading mistress of the worldGreat lords who claim'd the tribute as of yore.
reprints (including “Lucretius”) which the LauBut Arthur spake . Behold, for these have sworn
reate has of late contributed to the magazines ; To fight my wars, and worship me their king ;
among these, one will be read with the greatest The old order changeth, yieldeth place to new;
curiosity. It is the “Northern Farmer : New And we that fight for our fair father Christ, Seeing that
Style,” and forms a capital pendant to the former grown too weak and old To drive the heathen from your Roman wall,
poem. The humour, descriptive felicities, and No tribute will we pay :' So those great lords
characteristic individualization which were the seaDrew back in wrath, and Arthur strove with Rome.
tures most admired in that, are all preserved in ** And Arthur and his knighthood for a space
this, in a new aspect, in which “proputty, proWere all one will, and thro' that strength the king
putty, proputty is the burden and end. SixtyDrew in the petty princedoms under him, Fought, and in twelve battles overcame
four pages of the volume are occupied with the The heathen hordes, and made a realm and reign'd." Miscellaneous Poems."