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people, i. e., to that people which thou hast it may be here called by its other name, given to him. Or, 4. Bring him in, to wit, Massah; and well may the same names be as a prince and governor, as thou hast pro- given to those two places, because the ocmised, Gen. xlix., to his people, i. e., to thy casion of them was in a great measure one people of Israel, now to be reckoned as his and the same. Though this place may be people, because of their subjection to him. otherwise rendered, whom thou didst try in Or rather, 5. Bring him in to his people, to trying, or with trial, i. e., whom thou didst that people which thou hast promised and exactly and thoroughly try (so Bp. Patrick]. given to him, i. e., to that portion of land 9 I have not seen him, i. e., I have no which thou hast allotted to him, settle him respect unto them, for so knowledge is oft in his possession; the people or inhabitants used, as Job ix. 21; Prov. xii. 10, 11; being here put for the land inhabited by 1 Thess. v. 12. The sense is, who followed them, as the Israelites are told they should God and his command fully, and executed possess the nations or people of Canaan, the judgment enjoined by God without any Deut. xi. 23 ; xii. 2, i.e., their land, as it is respect of persons, Exod. xxxii. 26, 27 explained, Deut. xvii. 14; xxx. 18; for the (so Patrick, Rosen., &c.]. This seems people they were not to possess, but to dis- better than to refer it either to their not possess, and to root out. Let his hands be mourning for their next kindred, for that sufficient for him : this tribe shall be so was allowed to all but the high priest in case numerous, and potent, and valiant, that it of the death of father or mother, and that shall suffice to defend itself without any aid, was only a ceremonial rite, and no matter of either from foreign nations or from other great commendation; or to their impartiality tribes; as appeared when this tribe alone in executing the judgments committed to was able to grapple with nine or ten of the them, Deut. xvii. 9, of which they had as other tribes.
yet given no considerable proof. Kept thy 8 Thy Thummim and thy Trim be with thy covenant, i. e., when the rest broke their holy one; the Thirnim and the Prim, covenant with God by that foul sin of which are thine, O Lord, by special in- idolatry with the calf, that tribe kept themstitution and consecration ; by which he selves more pure from that infection, and understands the ephod, in which they were adhered to God and his worship and service, put, Exod. xxviii. 30, by a synecdoche, and as appears from Exod. xxxii. 26, 28. Comthe high priesthood, to which they were ap- pare Mal. ii. 6, 7. propriated, by a metonymy; and withal the 11 Ilis substance, i. e., his outward estate gifts and graces signified by the Urim and [so Patrick, Rosen.], as Deut. viji. 18, Thummim, and necessary for the discharge because he hath no inheritance of his own, of that high office, shall be with thy holy and therefore wholly depends upon thy one, i.e., with that Levite, that priest, blessing. Or, his host or army, as the word which thou hast consecrated to thyself, and is used Ezek. xxxvii. 10. The priests that which is holy in a more peculiar manner attended upon God's service in the taberthan all the people were, i.e., the priesthood, nacle or temple are oft compared to an host shall be confined to and continued in Aaron's or army in regard of their exquisite order family. Thom thou diilst prore: this seems and courses and constant watches there.
of anticipation; although See Numb. iv. 3. thou didst try him, and rebuke him, and Bp. Patrick.-7. This is the blessing of shut him out of Canaan for his miscarriage Juul.] As much as to say, Judah shall be about fetching water out of the rock, yet remarkably blessed. For these words [“ this thou didst not therefore take away the is the blessing") are used of none of the priesthood from him. Al Massah (so Ken, rest of the tribes, either of Reuben, which Horsley, Rosen., Ged., Booth.] ; not at that went before, or the others that follow after. Mussah mentioned Exod. xvii., which is also Here is no mention made of Simeon (who called Meribuh, where neither Moses nor; way next to Reuben), because that tribe was Aaron are reproved, nor is Aaron se much included in Judah, with whom their possesas named, but at that other Jeribah, Vumb. sions were mixed (Josh. xix. 1), and thereXX., where this is expressed, which as it is fore they went together to make expeditions called by one of the names of that place, (Judy. i. 3). Judalı also is here put before Exod. xvii., to wit, Meribah, Numb, xx., so Levi, because it was to be the royal tribe,
added by way
according to the prophecy of Jacob; whichj and he stood in the trial;” that is, approved Moses was assured God would fulfil, and himself perfect or upright, as Onkelos extherefore prays as follows : “And he said, presses it. This procured that tribe a Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah." Grant blessing from the Lord (Exod. xxxii. 26, his petition when he calls for help against 29), and brought them into special grace his enemies. So Onkelos paraphrases it, and favour with him, as the word we trans“ Hear his prayer when he goes forth to late holy one signifies. For it is not kadosh, war."
but chasid. 8 Let thy Thummim and thy Urim be with Thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah.] thy holy one.] Continue in this tribe the Though God did severely chide and reprove high dignity of consulting with thee, and Moses and Aaron (who were the heads of receiving directions from thee, by the high- this tribe), when they were tried at the priest, concerning the public safety. Or, as waters of strife (Numb. xx. 12, 13), yet some take it (because thummim is here set they did not forfeit their office by the before urim, which is not in any other offence they then committed ; and, thereplace), make them upright and faithful, as fore, Moses prays it might still continue in well as understanding and knowing in the Aaron's posterity. discharge of their duty. For though by 9 For they have observed thy word.] See holy one be principally meant the high- Exod. xxxii. 28, 29. Abarbinel, and others, priest, who was in a peculiar manner make this to be the reason of what follows. anointed to be separated to the service of 10 They shall teach Jacob thy judgments, God, especially in this part of it, to ap- and Israel thy law.] Because they were so proach him with urim and thummim (which upright, as to take no notice of their dearest gave Aaron the name of the saint of the relations in judgment; therefore, they were Lori, Ps. cvi. 16), yet it comprehends all entrusted with this office of teaching the the rest of the priests and Levites in con- people the statutes of God, that is, deciding junction with him; for they were all sepa- all controversies which arose about anything rated unto the Lord, having signalized them in the law. So the Jews expound it; and it selves (as we speak) by their early zeal for is agreeable to what we read in the seventhe Lord, when their brethren apostatized teenth chapter of this book (ver. 9, 10), and to idolatry. Of which Moses takes notice many other places, as Mr. Selden shows in in the next verse, “Who said unto his the place forenamed, p. 372, &c., and our father, &c., I have not seen him," &c., Mr. Thorndike, in his Religious Assemblies, regarded, that is, no relation when they ch. 2, where he observes, the teaching here executed the commands of God against the mentioned consisted in declaring the meanworshippers of the golden calf. See our ing and obligation of the law in matters learned Dr. Spencer, De Leg. Hebr., lib. iii., doubtful; as is apparent from Lev. x. 8–11. cap. 7, dissert. 7, where he treats also of For though others might be members of their these words, as they may be applied to our courts of judgment, yet they consisted Lord Christ, the true holy one of God; who chiefly of priests and Levites. As for teachis, indeed, a priest for ever, holy, harmless, ing the people in their religious assemblies, undefiled, separate from sinners, &c. (Heb. that was not so much the office of the priests vii. 26.)
and Levites as of the prophets. For though Whom thou didst prove at Massah (so the prophets, and the disciples of the proRosen.]. Or, “ whom thou hast thoroughly phets, were commonly priests and Levites proved.” For the words in the Hebrew are, (who, being most free from the care of " Whom in proving thou didst prove;" the estates and inheritances, and by their office, ancient interpreters not taking Massah for in his ceremonial service, came nearest to the name of a place (as we do) but for trying God of all other men, were most likely to or proving. And so, indeed, the words in be endued with an extraordinary degree of the Hebrew seem to import; the particle knowledge, and of the fear of God), yet it [beth] before Massah being different from is certain, that the charge of teaching the that before Meribah (which is al], though people in their assemblies belonged as well we translate them both alike by the word (1. to those prophets who were not priests and And thus the Jerusalem Targum para- Levites as to those that were (see him, p. 25). phrases, " Whom thou didst prove, or try, and this was one reason, as Maimonides
observes, why the tribe of Levi might have his relations or his disciples, but such only no inheritance in the land, that, being free as do the will of God: for this seems the from the trouble of ploughing and sowing, meaning of these two verses, which in our &c., they might wholly attend to the study of present version are unintelligible, and stand the law, and be able to teach Israel God's thus : “8 And of Levi he said, Let thy jud nents (More Nevochim, par. iii., Thummim and thy Urim be with thy holy
one, whom thou didst prove at Massah, and 11 Bless, Lord, his substance.] The word with whom thou didst strive at the waters of we here translate substance, is translated Meribah; 9 Who said unto his father, and wealth, viii. 17, 18, which consisted most in to his mother, I have not seen him, neither cattle (they having no land to till), which did he acknowledge his brethren, nor know he prays God to increase, that they might his own children : for they have observed have sufficient sustenance for themselves thy word, and kept thy covenant.” It must and their family.
now be carefully observed, that he, who was ken.–8—10 The prediction of Messiah proved at Massah, and was tempted at by Moses does by no means end with him Meribah, is here called thy Holy One; and (in ver. 5) as an universal King; because the that this Holy One (whom St. Paul affirms same person seems clearly meant in ver. 7, to have been Christ) must be also he, who bring him unto his people, i.e., bring unto his said unto, or spake of, his relations what people, in thy good time, him, the king, the here follows. And what here follows is Shiloh, of the tribe of Judah.*
And let wonderfully confirmed by the event. For what is here mentioned, in ver. 7, as to this we read—“While Jesus talked to the peodescendant from Judah-and in ver. 11, as ple; behold his mother and his brethren to this superior of Levi-be compared with stood without, desiring to speak with him. Psalm cx.
For this extraordinary person Then one said unto him, Behold, thy was also to be a priest; to whom even the mother and thy brethren stand without, high priest, in the tribe of Levi, was to desiring to speak with thee. But he said, surrender
his Urim and Thummim. For, Who is my mother ? and who are my brethis Holy One of God, who was tempted thren? And he stretched forth his hand at Massah and Meribah, is affirmed to be toward his disciples, and said, Behold my Christ : see 1 Cor. x. 9. But verses 9 and mother, and my brethren. For whosoever 10 here still more clearly describe the shall do the will of my father, which is in Messiah, as acknowledging none to be either heaven, the same is my brother, and sister,
and mother.”—Matt. xii. 46–50 : add Mark * The following are some of Houbigant's per-'iu. 32 ; Luke ii. 48; viii. 21: and also Mal. tinent remarks: -“In ver. 7-In Christum unum hæc aptari possunt, • Adduc eum ad populum
i. 11 ; and iii. 3 ; with Heb. xiii. 15. The In ver. 8- Non fuit is status tribûs following version is now submitted to the Levi, nec ea indoles, ut filii parentes suos non learned reader: agnoscerent, &c. Hæ, neque minima, dif- 8 And of Levi he said : ficultates attentum lectorem tanquam manu ducunt,
Thy Thummim and thy Urim be to the et fere cogunt sic sentire, in hac de Levi bene.
man, thy Iloly One; dictione opponi sacerdotium Levi sacerdotio Mes
Whom thou didst prove at Massah, siæ futuro; sic dicere igitur Mosen: • Thumim tuum, et tuum Urim, viri sancti tui est ; quem tu
And with whom thou didst strive at the tentâsti:' i.e., perfectio illa et doctrina,
waters of Meribah. pre se ferunt tui sacerdotes, erit propria sancti 9 Who said of his father and his mother, I ejus; quem Dominus non dabit videre corrup
regard not: tionem-quem tu tentâsti, eundem de quo Paulus,
And who does not acknowledge, as his neque tentemus Christum-qui dicturus est patri et matri, non novi; idem qui sic aiebat, Quae
brethren; est mater mea, et qui fratres ? qui facit volun
And who does not own, as his children; tatem patris mei, hie meus est frater, et soror, et But those, who observe thy word, and mater.' In eam sententiam recte dicitur, • Filios keep thy covenant : suos non novit, nisi eos qui custodient verbum 10 Those, who teach Jacob thy judgments; tuum.' Post 's addimus on, sine quâ particulâ
And Israel thy laws: oratio pugnantia loquitur: loquitur enim de illis, quos sanctus agnoscet ut suos, qui evangelii legem
Those, who put incense before thee, promulgaturi sunt, et sacrificiun Deo acceptum And a perfect oblation upon thine altar. oblaturi."
Bp. Horsley. -7 And bring him.] Dr. Ken
nicott imagines an emphatical reference of They shall place incense at thy nostrils, the pronoun him [bring him) to Christ. And holocausts upon thy altar.
Bring Him unto his people, i.e., bring 1 Bless, O Jehovah, his persevering virtue, unto his people, in Thy good time, Him, And be propitious to the work of his the King, the Shiloh of the tribe of Judah. hands. - Kennicott's Posth.
Smite the loins of them that rise against Passages, I believe, may be produced, in him, which the mention of the Messiah is first And of them that hate him, that they introduced by a pronoun, carrying an em
rise no more. phasis like that of the Greek and Latin 9 To him who saith of his father, &c. See pronoun, ékelvos, or iste, when they demon- Matt. xii. 46–50; Mark iii. 32; Luke strate some very remarkable personage not ii. 48, and viii. 21. mentioned before. But then this emphatical [But saith] Let them observe, &c. Houreference of the pronoun must be made bigant would insert cx after '), and he evident, by a construction of the sentence, connects this with what precedes, thus; which shall exclude the reference of it to "ille filios suos non alios cognoscet, quam any person or thing expressly named. In eos qui verbum tuum custodient.” But the this the pronominal suflix of the verb emendation is quite unnecessary. The force in 1982 naturally rehearses Judah, men- of us here is imperative or hortatory, and tioned in the preceding line.
might be rendered in Latin by scilicet, or But there will be no necessity for this петре. A full stop should be placed at ', uunatural reference of the pronominal suflix, at the end of the preceding line; and 1987, or for any mystic exposition of the proper at the beginning of the verse, is to be undername of the tribe, by which the tribe itself, stood again at the beginning of this verse, as the declared subject of the blessing, must before '2. be intended here, when the second verse is 10 They shall teach. They who shall delivered from the obscurity with which the have observed God's word, and kept his Masoretic points have covered it. There covenant, and shall accordingly be acknowthe Messiah is mentioned under an appella- lcdged by Christ as his brethren and his tion that most properly belongs to him, sons, they shall teuch, &c., they shall be which the Masorites have turned into a pre-employed by him in the propagation of his position.
religion, and called even to the priest's office, 7 Hear, () Jehovah, the voice of Judah, 11 Iis perserering virtue. See Cocceius,
and l’arkhurst, 507. thou
Dr. A. Clarke.-7. And this is the blessthe mighty one (so Ezek. xxxi. 11] ing of Juulah.] Though the word blessing of his people ;
is not in the text, yet it may be implied Great for himself shall be his power, from ver. 1; but probably the ord he And thou shalt be his helper against spake, are those which should be supplied : his enemies.
And this he spake of Judah, Lord, hear the Verses 8-11.
roice of Judah ; that is, says the Targum, 8 And unto Levi he said,
receive his prayer when he goes out to Thy Thummim and thy Urim belong to battle, and let him be brought back in the Man, thy lloly One,
safity to his own people. Whom thou didst prove at Massalı, Thy holy one.] Aaron primarily, who was And with whom thou didst contend at anoinied the high-priest of God, and whose the waters of Veribah.
office was the most holy that man could be 9 To him who saith of his father and his inrested with. Therefore Aaron was called
mother, I have never seen him, God's holy one, and the more especially so Who owneth not his brethren,
as he was the type of the most holy and And his sons he acknowledgeth not, blessed Jesus, from whom the Crim--all [But saith] Let them observe thy word, light and wisdom, and Thummim-all excil
And let them keep thy covenant. Ince, completion, and perfection, are de10 They shall teach thy judgments into rived. Jacob,
Il'hom thou didst prove, &c.] God conAnd thy law unto Israel.
tended with Aaron as well as with Moses at
ואל עמו הביאנו אל עמו bring t } hot unto him תביאנו And י
the waters of Meribah, and excluded him | Thummim and Urim remain with thy pious from the promised land because he did not ONE; whom thou provedst at Massa; whom sanctify the Lord before the people. thou strovedst with at the waters of Meriba!
From the words of St. Paul, 1 Cor. x. 8- 9 Who said of his father and mother: “I 12, it is evident that these words, at least in heed them not:" who regarded not his own a secondary sense, belong to Christ. He is brothers: who acknowledged not his own the Holy One who was tempted by them at sons: but observed thy commands, and kept Massah, who suffered their manners in the thy covenant. 10 They shall teach Jacob wilderness, who slew 23,000 of the most thy judgments, and Israel thy law: they incorrigible transgressors, and who brought shall place incense before thee, and lay them into the promised land by his deputy, holocausts upon thine altar. 11 Bless, O Joshua, whose name and that of Jesus have Lord, their valour, and favour their enterthe same signification.
prises : smite, through the loins, those who 9 Who said unto his father, &c.] There rise up against them, and hate them ; so are several difficulties in this and the follow- that they may rise no more. ing verses. Some think they are spoken of Booth. the tribe of Levi; others, of all the tribes; 7 And he said (so Ged.] this of Judah, others, of the Messiah, &c.; but several of Hear, O Jehovah, the voice of Judah, the interpretations founded on these suppo- And bring him back safe to his people; sitions are too recondite, and should not be Let his own hand be sufficient for him, resorted to till a plain literal sense is made And be thou his help against his enemies. out. I suppose the whole to be primarily 8 And of Levi he said, spoken of Aaron and the tribe of Levi. Let thy Thummim and Urim be with Let us examine the words in this way, 1170 thy pious one said unto his father, &c.. The law had Whom thou didst prove at Massah, strictly enjoined that if the father, mother, And [Sam.] strovest with at the waters brother, or child of the high-priest should of Meribah; die, he must not mourn for them, but act as 9 Who said of his father and mother, if they were not his kindred; see Leviticus I regard them not; xxi. 11, 12 Neither must Aaron mourn Who acknowledged not
his for his sons Nadal) and Abilu, &c., though brethren; not only their death, but the circumstances of Who had no respect to his own children; it, wore the most afflicting that could pos- For he observed thy word and kept thy sibly affect a parent's heart. Besides, the high-priest was forbidden, on pain of death, 10 They shall teach Jacob thy judgments, to go out from the door of the tabernacle, And make known thy law to Israel : Lev. X. 247, for God would have them They shall place incense before thee, more to regard their function (as good Mr. And lay holocausts upon thine altar. Ainsworth observes) and duty in his service, 11 Bless, Jehovah, their substance; than any natural affection whatever. And And favour the works of their hands; herein Christ was figured, who, when he Smite the loins of their opponents, was told that his mother and brethren stood Of such as hate them, that they rise up without, and wished to speak with him, paid : “Who is my mother, and who are my Rose/1.-7 Audi, o Jora! rocem Jude, brethren? whosoerer shall do the will of my i.e., auxilium ei præsta cum ad debellandos father who is in heaven, the same is my hostes egreditur, ut Aben-Esra exponit ; brother, and sister, and mother." (Matt. antcibat enim Juda ceteras tribus in expexii. 16-30.) It is likely, also, that loses ditionibus bellicis; vid. ad Gen. xlix. 8. may refer here to the fact of the Levites, Et ad populun suum ducas eum, i. e., salvum according to the command of Moses, killing et incolumem cum reducas e bello ad suos. every man his brother, friend, neighbour, Saadias recte addit: e prælio suo. Sed and even son, who had sime d in worship- lloff'mannus hoc votum spectare existimat ping the golden calf. Exod. xxxii. 26; and miseram tribus Judie conditionem ætate in this way the Chaldce paraphrast under- Jojachini, “qua rex Hierosolymis expugstands the words.
matus cum magna populi parte, decem milGoodles.--8 Of Levi he said, Let thy libus scilicet, omnibus principibus et militi