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this custom was so ancient as Moses. Or, blessing to them all, before he begins to 2. To the place where the people waited speak in particular to each tribe : for that is when the law was delivered, which was at meant by “the Lord came from Sinai; the foot of the mount. Shull receive of thy where he appeared in a most particular words; the people, easily understood from manner, and from thence promulgated his the foregoing words, did or will receive or law with the greatest solemnity (Exod. xx.). submit to thy instructions and commands. Ile came with ten thousands of saints.] Or, This may respect either, 1. The people's as our Mr. Mede thinks it shouid be transpromise when they heard the law, that they lated, “with his holy ten thousands," or would hear and do all that was commanded, “ myriads;" that is, attended with an inDeut. v. 27. Or, 2. The people's duty to do numerable company of angels, who waited

3. The people's privilege, that they were on him at the giving of the law. See admitted to receive so great a privilege as the Psalm lxviii. 7; Dan. vii. 10, of which words and laws of God were.

Enoch, perhaps, prophesied in part, Jude 4 Moses commanded us a law.] Moses 14, 15. And from hence it may be thought, speaks this of himself in the third person, that notion of the Jewish doctors, followed which is very usual in the IIebrew language. by St. Stephen and St. Paul, that the law The law is called their inheritance, partly was given by angels, had its beginning because the obligation of it was hereditary, (Mede, book ii., p. 437); that is, they atpassing from parents to their children, and tended upon God as his ministers when he partly because this was the best part of all himself gave the law. their inheritance and possessions, the greatest Went a fiery law for them.] For the law of all those gifts and favours which God be- of Vioses was given out of the midst of fire, stowed


and therefore called a fire of law, as the 5 Anil he was king in Jeshuru.] Moses' words are in the Hebrew (Exod. xix. 16, 18; [Jarchi, Rosen., Jsc, i.C., Godl; see below] Deut. iv. 11, 12 ; v. 22—21). The cabalists was their king, not in title, but in reality, (as Reuchlin observes) fancy that God being under God their supreme and icon- wrote the law in a globe of fire, and sent, it trollable governor and lawgiver: though the to them. But the Jerusalem Targum is word oft signifies only a prince or chief more sober, which thus expounds it, " He ruler, as Judg. xix. 1; Jer. xix. 3 ; xlvi. 25. stretched his right hand out of the midst of In Joshurun, i. e., in Israel, so called Deut. tames of fire, and gave the law unto his Xxxii. 13. When the heads of the people people.” And Onkelos still better, “The and the tribes of Israel were gathered 10-law written with his right hand he gave us gether: when the princes and people met out of the midst of fire." Or, as Campeg. together for the management of public Vitringa would have this latter part of the affairs, Moses was owned by them as their verse translated, “On his right hand a fire, king and lawgiver, and he directed and an out of the fire a law for them.” The ruled them as their superior. This he saith meaning being, that God came to Mount to show that the people approved and con- 'Sinai with that fire; for, in Seripture, to be sented to the authority and law of Moses. on the right hand of any one, is to accompany

Bp. Patrick.-1 The man of God. Or, him (lib. ii. Observ. Sacr., cap. 1). " the prophet of the Lord,' as Onkelos: By the conclusion of this verse it is aptranslates it : for prophets are called men of parent, that the former part of it belongs God in the holy books (1 Sam. in. (4-8; 'catirely to God's merey unto the children of 1 Kings xiii. 1; 1 Tim. vi. 11 ; 2 Tim. iii. 17; Israel, upou whom he bestowed his law, in 2 Pet. i. 21), because, in the exercise of their most illustrious tokens of his presence. sacred function, they did not deliver their Which makes it higlily probable, that his own sense, nor the sense of other men, but the “rising up from Seir upon them, and shining mind and will of God who spake by them. from Mount Puran," belongs to the same

2 The Lord came from Sinai.] In the matter; that is, the cloud wherein he defost place, be endeavours to make them scended on Sinai, with a vast host of angels, sensible of what God had done already for extended itself so far, as to cover the neighthem; and the chief of all of his benefits bouring mountains of Seir and Paran. being the revelation of his mind and will to Though the meaning may be, as I have them, he commemorates that as a common shown, that he continued his presence with

ואתה מריבת קדש מימינו אש אור למו : 4 אף חבב עמים

וכל קדושיו ברך : 5 והם תכו לרגליו

וישאו מדברותיו : 6 תורה צוה לנו

מורשה קהלת יעקוב : ו ויהי בישרון מלך בהתאסף ראשי עם יחד שבטי ישראל :

upon them.

them after they went from Sinai, through all their journeys in the wilderness of Seir and

: Paran, till they came to the place where they now were.

4 3 And they sat down at thy feet.] The

: first word (which we translate sat down) being nowhere else found but here and Isa. i. 5, where it plainly hath another sense, hath occasioned various interpretations of this sentence. But most agree in this of Sol Jarchi, that as scholars sat at the feet of their master round about him, while he taught them their lesson, so the people encompassed the mount where God was, and heard his law, which he thence delivered. 1 And this is the blessing, wherewith But it is a question, whether there was such Moses, the man of God, blessed the children a custom of scholars in those days; and the of Israel, before his death. And he said pople did not sit, but stood at the foot of 2 JEHOVAH came from Sinai, the mount (Esod. xx. 18). Therefore On- And he arose upon them from Seir ; kelos understands this of their sitting down, 3 lle shone forth from mount Paran, or pitching their tents, where the glorious And he came from Meribah-Kadesh : cloud that led them rented (Numb. x. 12, 33). From his right hand a fire shone forth

Every one shall receive of thy words.] This still is commonly referred to the people's 4 Truly, he loved the people, receiving the law. But Onkelos thinks it And he blessed all his saints : hath respect to their journey's “at the com- 5 For they fell down at his feet, mandment of the Lord" (Numb. x. 1:3). And they received of his words. l'or so lie interprets it, “ They went forward 6 lle commanded us a law, according to thy word." And so the Jeru- The inheritance of the congregation of salem Targum expounds these and the fore- Jacob. going words; Behold, they were led, and 7 And he became king in Jeshurun; came to the foot of his cloud, and went When the heads of the people were asforward and posted, according to the com- sembled, mand of his word." It takes in also the

Together with the tribes of Israel. other sense of the word tucchu (as it signifies!

The general nature of this solemn intro. smiting in Isa. i. 5) in this manner, " Though duction is to shew the foundation, which he inflicted many chastisements upon them, Voses had for blessing his brethren ; namely, yet they did not cease, nor desist from the because God had frequently manifested liis doctrine of the law."

glory in their favour. And the several parts 5 and he was king in Jeskurun.] Or, “for of this introduction are disposed in the folhe was king," that is, under God, the lowing order—The manifestation of the supreme ruler and governor of Israel; and Divine glory on Sinai, as it was prior in therefore, in his name, and by his authority, time and more magnificent in splendour, is required them to observe these laws.

properly mentioned first-- That God maniKen.-1-5 These verses being remarkably tested his glory at Seir, is evident from umintelligible, the following correction and Judg. 1.1: Lord, when thou wentest out translation are offered, with difirence, to' of Soir, when thou marchedst out of the the learned.

fiches of Edom; the earth trembled, and the

heavens ciropped,” &c. The next place is )

Paran; where “the glory of the Lord ap

w before : 797.9.773 (Numb. xiv. 10). And we read (Numb.

38. 1) that, towards the end of the forty 2

Sears, they came to Kadesh, which we learni

from ver. 13 was called Meribah, on account 3 of their contentious opposition to the deter

ו וזאת הברכה אשר ברך משה c : 11 . d.fore : all the children of Israelין איש האלהים את בני ישראל לפני

? יהוה מסיני בא

וזרח משעיר למו : 3 הופיע מהר פארן

minations of God in their favour ; and there signify; the regular word being D'UTI, and the glory of the Lord again appeared, as we it occurs in the third line following. are informed in ver. 6. These, then, says Farther: if u77 could properly be transMoses, were the places, from whence God lated saints; then, according to the rules of manifested his glory, in a fiery appearance ; language, the relative pronoun, next folthe more illustriously to proclaim his special lowing, could have no other antecedent : providence over, and care of, Israel. For and hence it will follow, that the fiery law this is the inference he makes from all those (generally supposed to be expressed in the glorious appearances, “Truly he loved the next words) was given to these saints-he people, and he blessed all his saints," i.c., came with ten thousands of saints (i. e., all those, whom he had chose unto himself angels) “ from his right hand went a fiery to be, not only a peculiar people, but also an law” for them. Besides; the word saints holy nation.

That, in order to make them very seldom, if ever, signifies angels ; for such, God had displayed his glory on mount the prophecy of Enoch, taken literally, isSinai; where they had fallen prostrate at his Behold, the Lord cometh with his holy feet with the humblest adoration, and vowed myriads : and in Zech. xiv. 5, the Lord my the most sincere obedience. For, that God God shall come, and all 977, his saints had there commanded them the law, which (10t 73, with thee, but probably 102, conwas to be the possession and inheritance of formably to all the ancient versions) with all the children of Jacob. And, to crown him; where the word saints has frequently the whole, God had not only blessed them' been applied to “the spirits of just men as their lawgiver, but had also vouchsafed to made perfect.” If the preposition d be be their king; bonours, which had both thought absolutely necessary before noros, been conferred at that most solemn assembly; ' we may conclude it has been omitted, as it when the chiefs and all their several tribes frequently is elsewhere; and where it was were assembled together. Let us proceed not so likely to be omitted as here, the noun now to the observations, which offer them- beginning with the very same letter : thus selves in favour of the preceding altera - we have no frequently for na:

see also tions.

page 1.57 of this Dissertation. 1. The words 077 72273 cannot regularly 2. , signify with ten thousands of saints; because fire of law for them. The word 27 is the general senses of ? are als and absque Chaldee ; and is not found in any book writ (as in the three instances just before it in the before the captivity, but in this place : and same verse) and because up is not saints but here it is used very obscurely, because it holiness. But Moses seems in this, as in follows D'Y; for certainly a fire of law (if we each of the preceding lines, to have giren examine the ideas closely) is a phrase not the name of a place; and 277 is the constant very intelligible. But farther: the blessing name for kadesh, otherwise called Jeribah- of the law is gratefully acknowledged in Kadesh : and indeed the word is in this very ver. 1, where the law is expressed by its place rendered by the LXX, Kaồns. In the proper word n; and therefore we may eiglith verse of this chapter it is called 1273, presume it was not intended here in rer. 2, Meribah; but, in the fifty-first verse of the and expressed by the Chald. word 27-a former, we have eT7072, licribun-Kadesh :' worl, which is not here acknowledged by the and so in Ezek. xlvii. 19, 47 m2, but in Greek and Syr. versions. And that 07 was chi. xlviii. 28, 77 7973-exactly the same not originally the word here, may be farther as in the instance just quoted from the presumed, because one of the Sam. VISS., chapter preceding, and as in the instance No.jl, reads 7; and in another, No. 50, before us, excepting the change of one letter. the run is placed over the word, as if omitted. The three preceding lines then containing These several reasons concurring against each the name of a place, and these two words the present reading, let us see what prospect being (with the change of a single letter) the there may be of a rational emendation; and name of a fourth place, from whence also the perhaps the true sense of this difficult place Divine glory was manifested in the wilderness: may be best illustrated by its parallel place, it seems preferable to consider these borils as in the sublime and justly-celebrated ode of implying this place, rather than to translate Tabakhuk--T, saints, which it does not properly


from his right hand a , מיינינו אש דת למו .2

3 אליה מתימן יבוא

וקדוש מהר פארן כסה שמים הודו

ותהלתו מלאה הארץ: 4 ונגה כאור תהיה

קרנים מידו לו ושם חביון עזה :

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which) אש to agree witlh אור or אורה tword


being the very same, and the second being 3 God came from Teman,

the Chald. word for us, we have the third And the Holy One from Mount Paran;

word ( His glory covered the heavens,

is sometimes of the masculine and sometimes And the earth was full of his praise.

of the feminine gender), and this word fills 4 And his brightness was as the sun; up the line, instead of the present irregular The splendours (issuing forth) from his word n7, or as it has been sometimes writ hand,

And indeed this various reading in the For there was the manifestation of his Sam. MSS. strongly confirms this correction; power.

for, whence can thei in 017 be derived, but Before this passage be applied, it may be from the middle of the original word 78, proper to offer a few observations upon it. which has been corrupted in its other two As 77, in Job xxxi. 26, signifies the sun letters? One of the other letters (9) is very (which, being the principal source of light similar to, and therefore may easily have through this system, may properly be called been mistaken for n: and (which is exlight, or the light, kat' etoxnu), that ren- tremely observable) the sense with this verb) dering seems to improve the sense here. 14 perfectly coincides with the words of As 017 is derived from 77, splendere, radios Ilabakkuk before cited; there it is-—"the splendoris emittere, it is much better ren- splendour's (issuing forth) from his hand;" dered here splendours than horns. And as and here—“ the fire shone forth upon them the hand, and right hand, and arm, are from his right hand." It having been just expressions frequently applied to God, upon I presumed, that the 1 in 11 is the middle any signal display of the Divine power, letter of 19, we may remark, that this verb perhaps the hand of God cannot so properly has the ' in the preter tense; as appears be said to hide and conceal, as to exert and from Buxt. Thesaur., pag. 208, where we manifest his power and majesty; and that read-78 “ Cholem per totum præteritum the verl), from whence the noun 77277 is retinet." derived, had this idea of showing forth, is 3. The next line, that requires illustration, evident from several places in the Samaritan is 773 07753, omnes smcti ejus in manu Version; as Gen. xli. 25, what God is about thâ; and certainly if ever a line wanted to do '2177 he hath discovered (or, made illustration, we have such a one now before known) to Pharaoh.

Moses, peaking of Jehovah, is here In this illustrious passage then, which is supposed to say—“Truly he loved the peoparallel, or at least remarkably similar, to'ple, all his saints are in thy hand !" But that of Moses, we see the brightness or whose saints ? And in whose hand? Acsplendour is poetically represented as stream-'cording to the Vulgate the line should be ing from the hand of God; that awful hand, 172 1074), all his saints are in his hand ; which is mighty in operation, and has so and the Chaldee paraphrase gives the same often manifested the Divine power to a

This indeed somewhat mends the wondering world. Three, therefore, of the matter; but yet the Syr. version seems to four words here seem to be determined; for, have preserved the truer reading, which isas in Ilabakkuk the brightness streams from the hand of God, so here the fire yio sccsopo pesadoo proceeds from, or kindles at, the right hand of Jehovah.

Et omnibus sanctis suis benedixit.

This reading of To instead of 77') is a very From his right hand a them. small variation, as to the letters; but it

It only remains then to consider here, makes a great improvement in the sense of what was most probably the word, which the line, which is now made perfectly to

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וכל קדשיו ברך


מימינו אש.

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agree with the context--"Truly he loved the manded Moses and you? And if such people, and he blessed all his saints.” This language would be absolutely absurd, no reading is confirmed by the Sam. version, friend to the character of Moses will, I supwhich has 773; which cannot signify in pose, insist upon its having dropped from manu tua, but seems to be to with the him on this solemn occasion. But farther: addition of x to express the K’ametz, and a if Moses could have been the person here 7 for a 7. The addition of " before the first spoken of (as well as the person here speakword so has the authority, not only of the ing) he must be also the person intended in Syr. version, but also of the Sam. text.

the next

verse, as king of Jeshurun or 4. The words To's and 7027" should Israel. But this is a title, which he never asprobably be 93275 and 10979; because it sumed, or rather disclaimed; see Deut. seems necessary to the sense, that the pro- xvii. 14; and indeed God himself was the noun here suffixed should be of the third only king of Israel before Saul : see 1 Sam. person. There can be no doubt, but the viji. 7, &c. authors of the Greek version read the latter "Tis very probable then, that this word word 101737), as they have rendered it ato has been inserted by mistake, on account of Tov doywv autov: and the Vulgate has the its remarkable likeness to the very next pronoun in the third person, in both in- word-703 or 1099 and you or 709:3; for stances ; reading--pedibus ejus, and doctrina other instances may be produced, where a illius. The variation seems to have been letter having been negligently omitted or introduced by some ignorant transcriber, added, transcribers have afterwards inserted who altered these two words, to make them both the proper and improper word, that agree with 772, which had been before cor- they might be sure of having the true read

(See page 117.) The ing in one of them. Wherefore, as the context is uniformly in the third person- transcriber of MS. 1 (2 Kings xv. 17) findJehovah came--he arose--he shone- he loved ing some copies fuad 1709, Ozihu and others -he Ulessed: consequently the sense here 1777, Orriku, has inserted both; and should be they sut down (not at thy, but) at Camb. Ms. I bas 13, Vanth and 158, his feet, and received of his words. The first imoth, in Ezek. xlv. 2; and lastly, as in of these nous, though singular in the the printed text of Isaiah xii. 2, are inserted printed Hebrew, is plural not only in the 7', dich and 777', Jehovah; so here may Sam. text, but in lleb, MSS. 1, 5, 11, 12, have been inserted 7093, Vioshe, and 17073, 11, 63 ; in ('amb. 2 ; and in Erfurt 1, 2, 3, 4. Morshe.-- hennicott's Dissertation on 1 Chron.

5. That the verb " should be *", will yi., page 123, dc. be soon evident; because it follows a very kowicott's Posthumous Remarks.--Deut. plural, refers likewise to time past, and has xxxiii. 14-5. This introduction to the final the same plural nominative case. Accord- benediction by Moses is generally considered ingly we find, that in the Sam. Pentateuch the as relating only to the Israelites. But the word is we?, which undoubtedly was at learned Father Houbigant seems justly to first W"; not only because the ', which is suppose, that it relates also to the rest of preserved in the Hebrew, is necessary, but mankind, is not excluded from the Divine because the word in the Sam. version is regard; but who were all to be favoured, in program, et acceperunt. The Syri, Ari, and future times, with the revelation of God's Chald. versions have this verb in the plural will, as certainly as Israel had been already. number, with the conjunction preceding it. If then these last words of Moses were inThe omission of 1 both at the beginning and tensed to c«lebrate God's universal love to end of this word is just such another cor- men, in Christ and his (iospel; the true transruption, as has been remarkeel, page 167; lation of the 3d and ith verses may be thiswhere to is writ instead of "7:37.

? Jehovah came from Sinai; 6. That Moses should in this bis final And he arose from Seir upon them ; blessing) speak of himself by name, in the lle done forth from mount Paran; third person, is very improbable : and, as And he came with ten thousands of saints; the pronoun 15, nobis, occurs in the amo From his right hand (went) a fiery luw line, it seems impossible. For could loses for thu. say - Moses commanded us, i.C., Moses' 3 Truly he loveth (mg) the nations, commanded me and you, i. c., Moses com- And all that are holy he will bless :

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