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ed, such offender or offenders, on conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned not less than two, nor exceeding ten years. And if any person shall take any letter, or packet, not containing any article of value, or evidence thereof, out of a post office, or shall open any letter, or packet, which shall have been in a post office, or in custody of a mail carrier, before it shall have been delivered to the person to whom it is directed, with a design to obstruct the correspondence, to pry into another's business or secrets; or shall secrete, embezzle, or destroy, any such mail, letter, or packet, such offender, upon conviction, shall pay, for every such offence, a sum not exceeding five hundred dollars, and be imprisoned not exceeding twelve months.(1)

2604. If any person shall rip, cut, tear, burn, or otherwise injure, any valise, portmanteau, or other bag, used, or designed to be used, by any person acting under the authority of the postmaster-general, or any person in whom his powers are vested, in a conveyance of any mail, letter, packet, or newspaper, or pamphlet, or shall draw or break any staple, or loosen any part of any lock, chain, or strap, attached to, or belonging to any such valise, portmanteau, or bag, with an intent to rob, or steal any mail, letter, packet, newspaper, or pamphlet, or to render either of the same insecure, every such offender, upon conviction, shall, for every such of. fence, pay a sum not less than one hundred dollars, nor exceeding five hundred dollars, or be imprisoned not less than one year, nor exceeding three years, at the discretion of the court before whom such conviction is had.(2)

2605. Every person who, from and after the passage of this act, shall procure, and advise, or assist, in the doing or perpetration of any of the acts or crimes by this act forbidden, shall be subject to the same penalties and punishments as the persons are subject to, who shall actually do or perpetrate any of the said acts or crimes according to the provisions of this act.(3)

2606. Every person who shall be imprisoned by a judgment of court, under and by virtue of the twenty-first, twenty-second, twenty-third, or twenty-fourth sections of this act, shall be kept at hard labour during the period of such imprisonment.(4)

2607. All pecuniary penalties and forfeitures, incurred under this act, shall be one half for the use of the person or persons informing and prosecuting for the same, and the other half to the use of the United States, and shall be paid over to the postmaster.general, and accounted for by him as other moneys of the United States.(5)

2608. If any person shall buy, receive, or conceal, or aid in buying, receiving, or concealing, any article mentioned in the twenty-first section of this act, knowing the same to have been stolen or embezzled from the mail of the United States, or out of any post-office, or from any person having the custody of the said mail, or the letters sent or to be sent therein; or if any person shall be accessary after the fact to any robbery of the carrier of the mail of the United States, or other person entrusted therewith, of such mail, or of part thereof, every person, so offending, shall, on conviction thereof, pay a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars, and be imprisoned and confined to hard labour for any time not exceeding ten years. And such person or persons, so offending, may be tried and convicted without the principal offender being first tried, provided such principal offender has fled from justice, or cannot be found to be put upon his trial.(6)

See articles 443, 453.

(1) Act 3d March, 1825, sec. 22.
(2) Ibid. sec. 23.
(3) Ibid. sec. 24.

(4) Ibid. sec. 25.
(5) Ibid. sec. 33.
(6) Act 3d March, 1825 sec. 45.

SECTION IV.

Of Offences relating to Public Documents.

Counterfeiting, and uttering coun- tent, check on treasury, &c. terfeit public security, &c.—how punishment of

2613 punished

2609 Forging, &c. letter of attorney, Stealing, altering, or falsifying &c. to transfer stock of United

writ,&c.-falsely acknowledging States, or bank of United States, recognizance, &c.-punishment or to receive annuity, &c.-punfor 2610 ishment for

2614 Forging or uttering forged trea- Counterfeiting, &c. sea letter, Mesury notes, &c.

diterranean passport, &c.—how Forging, &c. any writing to obtain punished.--counterfeiting, &c.

money from United States, &c. 2612 certificate of registry or enrolCounterfeiting, &c. certificate of ment, &c. of vessel, permit

, public stock, &c.-letters pa- debenture-how punished

2615

2611

ART. 2609. If any person shall falsely make, alter, forge, or counterfeit, or cause or procure to be falsely made, altered, forged, or counterfeited, or willingly act or assist in the false making, altering, forging, or counterfeiting any certificate, indent, or other public security of the United States, or utter, put off, or offer, or cause to be uttered, put off, or offered in payment or for sale any such false, forged, altered or counterfeited certificate, indent, or other public security, with intention to defraud any person, knowing the same to be false, altered, forged, or counterfeited, and shall thereof be convicted, such person shall suffer death.(1)

2610. If any person shall feloniously steal, take away, alter, falsify, or otherwise avoid any record, writ, process, or other proceedings, in any of the courts of the United States, by means whereof any judgment shall be reversed, made void, or not take effect, or if any person shall acknowledge or procure to be acknowledged in any of the courts aforesaid, any recogni. zance, bail or judgment, in the name or names of any other person or personis not privy or consenting to the same, every such person or persons on conviction thereof, shall be fined not exceeding five thousand dollars, or be imprisoned not exceeding seven years, and whipped not exceeding thirty-nine stripes. This act does not extend to the acknowledgment of any judgment or judgments by any attorney or attorneys, duly admitted for any person or persons against whom any such judgment or judgments shall be had or given(2)

2611. If any person shall falsely make, forge, counterfeit, or cause, or procure to be falsely made, forged, or counterfeited, or willingly aid or as. sist in falsely making, forging, or counterfeiting, any note in imitation of, or purporting to be, a treasury note, or shall falsely alter, or cause or procure to be falsely altered, or willingly aid or assist in falsely altering any treasury note, or shall pass, utter, or publish, or attempt to pass, utter, or publish, as true, any false, forged or counterfeited note, purporting to be a treasury note, knowing the same to be falsely forged or counterfeited, or shall pass, utter, or publish, or attempt to pass, utter, or publish, as true, any falsely altered treasury note, knowing the same to be falsely altered, such person shall be deemed guilty of felony, and being thereof convicted by due course of law, shall be sentenced to be imprisoned and kept 10 hard

(1) Act 30th April, 1790, sec. 14.

(2) Ibid. sec. 15.

Jabour for a period not less than three years, nor more than ten years, and be fined in a sum not exceeding five thousand dollars. (1)*

If any person shall, with intent to injure or defraud the United States, or any person or corporation, falsely make, forge, or counterfeit, or cause or procure to be falsely made, forged, or counterfeited, or willingly aid or assist in falsely making, forging, or counterfeiting, any note, in imitation of or purporting to be a treasury note, or shall falsely alter, or cause or procure to be falsely altered, or wilfully aid or assist in falsely altering, any treasury note, issued by virtue of this act, or shall pass, utter, or publish, or attempt to pass, utter, or publish, as true, any false, forged, or counterfeited note, purporting to be a treasury note as aforesaid, knowing the same to be falsely made, forged or counterfeited ; or shall pass, utter, or publish, or attempt to pass, utter or publish, as true, any falsely altered treasury note, issued as aforesaid, knowing the same to be falsely altered ; every such person shall be deemed and adjudged guilty of felony, and being thereof convicted by due course of law, shall be sentenced to be imprisoned for a period not less than three years, nor more than ten years, or imprisoned and kept to hard labour for a period not less than three years, nor more than ten years, and, in either case, be fined in a sum not exceeding five thousand dollars-(2)

2612. If any person or persons shall falsely make, alter, forge, or counterfeit ; or cause or procure to be falsely made, altered, forged, or counterfeited; or willingly aid or assist in the false making, altering, forging, or counterfeiting, any deed, power of attorney, order, certificate, receipt, or other writing, for the purpose of obtaining or receiving, or of enabling any other person or persons, either directly or indirectly, to obtain or receive from the United States, or any of their officers or agents, any sum or sums of money ; or shall utter or publish as true, or cause to be uttered or published as trùe, any such false, forged, altered, or counterfeited, deed, power of attorney, order, certificate, receipt, or other writing as aforesaid, with intent to defraud the United States, knowing the same to be false, altered, forged, or counterfeited, or shall transmit to, or present at, or cause or 'procure to be transmitted to, or presented at, any office or offices of the government of the United States, any deed, power of attorney, order, certificate, receipts, or other writing, in support of, or in relation to, any account or claim, with intent to defraud the United States, knowing the same to be false, altered, forged, or counterfeited, every such person shall be deemed and adjudged guilty of felony; and being thereof duly convicted, shall be sentenced to be imprisoned and kept at hard labour for a period not less than one year, nor more than ten years ; or shall be imprisoned not exceeding five years, and fined not exceeding one thousand dollars.(3)

If any person or persons shall knowingly have in his, her, or their possession, any false, altered, forged, or counterfeited deed, power of attorney, order, certificate, receipt, or other writing, for the purpose of enabling any person or persons, either directly or indirectly, to obtain or receive from the United States or any of its officers or agents, any sum or sums of money, knowing the same to be false, altered, forged, or counterfeited as aforesaid, with intent to defraud the United States, every such person upon being thereof duly convicted, shall be fined and imprisoned at the discretion of the

(1) Act 30th June, 1812, sec. 10. (3) Act 3d March, 1823, sec. 1. (2) Act 26th Dec. 1814, sec. 6.-And

see note.

• Provisions similar to the above are enacted by acts of 25th February, 1816, March 4th, 1814, and December 26th, 1814.

court, according to the nature and aggravation of the offence: Provided, nevertheless, That nothing herein contained shall be construed to deprive the courts of the several states of jurisdiction, under the laws thereof, over offences declared punishable by this law.(1)

2613. If any person or persons shall falsely make, forge, or counterfeit, or cause or procure to be falsely made, forged, or counterfeited, or willingly aid or assist in falsely making, forging, or counterfeiting any paper, writing, or instrument, in imitation of, or purporting to be, an indent, certificate of the public stock, or debt, treasury note, or other public security of the United States, or any letters patent issued or granted by the president of the United States, or any bill, check, or draft for money drawn by or on the trea. surer of the United States, or by or on any other public officer or agent

of the United States, duly authorized to make, draw, accept, or pay the same on behalf and for account of the United States; or if any person or persons shall pass, utter, or publish, or attempt to pass, útter, or publish, as true, any such false, forged, or counterfeited paper, writing, or instrument

, knowing the same to be false, forged, or counterseited, with intent to defraud the United States, or any body politic or corporate, or any other person or persons whatsoever ; or if any person or persons shall falsely alter any indent, certificate of the public stock, or debt, treasury note, or other public security of the United States, or any letters patent issued or granted by the president of the United States, or any bill, check, or draft for money drawn by or on the treasurer of the United States, or any other public officer or agent of the United States, duly authorized to make, draw, accept, or pay such bill, check, or draft, or if any person or persons shall pass, utter, or publish, or attempt to pass, utter or publish, as true, and unaltered, any such falsely altered indent, certificate, treasury note, or other public security, letters patent, or bill, check, or draft, knowing the same to be falsely altered, with intent to defraud the United States, or any body politic or corporate, or any person whatsoever ; every such person so offending, shall be deem. ed guilty of felony, and shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, and by imprisonment and confinement to hard labour, not exceeding ten years, according to the aggravation of the offence.(2)

2614. If any person or persons shall falsely make, forge, or counterfeit, or cause or procure to be falsely made, forged, or counterfeited, or willingly aid or assist in falsely making, forging, or counterfeiting any paper, writing, or instrument, in imitation of or purporting to be any letter of attorney, or other authority or instrument, to assign, transfer, sell, or convey any share or sum in the public stock or debt of the United States, or in the capital stock of the president, directors, and company of the bank of the United States, or to receive any annuity or annuities, dividend or dividends, due or to become due to any such stock or debt; or to receive any pension, prize money, wages or other debt or sum of money due, or to become due from the United States ; or shall forge or counterfeit

, or cause or procure to be forged or counterfeited, or willingly aid or assist in forging or counterfeiting the name or names of any of the holders or proprietors of any such public stock or debt, or of any person entitled to any such annuity, dividend, pension, prize money, wages, or other debt or sum of money as aforesaid, in or to any such pretended letter of attorney, authority, or instrument;

or shall, knowingly and fraudulently, demand, or endeavour to have or obtain such share or sum in such public stock or debt, or capital stock of the said bank, or to have any part thereof transferred, assigned, or sold, or conveyed, or

(1) Act 3d March, 1823, sec. 2.

(2) Act 3d March, 1825, sec. 17.

such annuity, dividend, pension, prize money, wages, or other debt or sum of money, or any part thereof, to be received or paid, by virtue of

any

such false, forged, or counterfeited letter of attorney, authority, or instrument; or shall falsely and deceitfully personate any true or real proprietor or holder of such share or sum in such public stock or debt, or capital stock of the said bank, or any person entitled to such annuity, dividend, pension, prize money, wages, or other debt or sum of money, as aforesaid, and thereby transferring or endeavouring to transfer such public stock or debt, or capital stock of the said bank, or receiving, or endeavouring to receive the money of such true or lawful holder or proprietor thereof, or the money of such person or persons, really and truly entitled to receive such annuity, dividend, pension, prize money, wages, or other debt, or sum of money, as if such offender were the true and lawful owner thereof, and entitled thereto; every person so offending, shall be deemed guilty of felony, and shall, on conviction there. of, be punished by fine, not exceeding five thousand dollars, and by impri. sonment and confinement to hard labour, not exceeding ten years, according to the aggravation of the offence.(1)

2615. If any person shall knowingly make, utter or publish, any false sea letter, Mediterranean passport, or certificate of registry, or shall knowingly avail himself of any such Mediterranean passport, sea letter or certificate of registry, he shall forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding five thousand dollars, to be recovered by action of debt, in the name of the United States, in any court of competent jurisdiction: and if an officer of the United States, he shall for ever thereafter be rendered incapable of holding any office of trust or profit under the authority of the United States.(2)

If any person or persons shall falsely make, forge, or counterfeit, or cause or procure to be falsely made, forged, or counterfeited, or willingly aid or assist in falsely making, forging, or counterfeiting any instrument in imitation of, or purporting to be; an abstract or official copy, or certificate of the recording, registry, or enrolment of any vessel, in the office of any collector of the customs of the United States, or a license to any vessel for carrying on the coasting trade, or fishery or fisheries of the United States, or a cer.. tificate of ownership, pass, passport, sea letter, or clearance, granted for any vessel under the authority of the United States, or a permit, debenture, or other official document, granted by any collector or other officer of the customs, by virtue of his or their office; or shall falsely alter any abstract, official copy, or certificate of any recording, registering, or enroling of any vessel in the office of any collector of the customs of the United States, or any license to any vessel for carrying on the coasting trade or fisheries of the United States, or any certificate of ownership, pass, passport, sea letter, or clearance granted for any vessel under the authority of the United States, or any permit, debenture, or other official document granted by any collector or other officer of the customs, by virtue of his or their office; or shall pass, utter, or publish, or attempt to pass, utter, or publish, as true, any such false, forged, or counterfeited instrument, or any such falsely altered abstract, official copy, certificate, license, pass, passport, sea letter, clearance, permit, debenture, or other official document, as aforesaid, knowing the same to be false, forged or counterfeited, or falsely altered, with an intent to defraud the United States, or any other body politic or corporate, or person whatsoever ; every person so offending, shall be deemed guilty of felony, and shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by fine, not exceeding one thousand dollars, and by imprisonment and confinement to hard labour, not exceeding three years.() (1) Act 3d March, 1825, sec. 18.

, .

(3) Act 3d March, 1825, sec. 19.

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