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prints from stone, zinc, aluminum, or other material, on cardboard or other material, exceeding twenty one-thousandths of one inch in thickness, six cents per pound; lithographic cigar labels, flaps, and bands, lettered or blank, printed from stone, zinc, aluminum, or other material, if printed in less than eight colors (bronze printing to be counted as two colors), but not including labels, flaps, and bands printed in whole or in part in metal leaf, twenty cents per pound. Labels, flaps, and bands, if printed entirely in bronze printing, fifteen cents per pound; labels, Haps, and bands printed in eight or more colors, but not including labels, flaps, and bands printed in whole or in part in metal leaf, thirty cents per pound; labels, flaps, and bands printed in whole or in part in metal leaf, fifty cents per pound. Books of paper or other material for children's use, containing illuminated lithographic prints, not exceeding in weight twenty-four ounces each, and all booklets and fashion magazines or periodicals printed in whole or in part by lithographic process or decorated by hand, eight cents per pound.
We ask that section 400 be amended to read as follows--this is the proposed amendment to paragraph 400:
Lithographic prints, from stone, zine, aluminum, or other material, bound or unbound, not elsewhere specified, and any article made up in chief value of lithographic prints.
These are additions to that particular part of the paragraph. The object of this is to take any ambiguity out of the law.
The CHAIRMAN. I think the word " and " should be used in place of the word “or,” as the court might interpret that to involve all those items.
Mr. MEYERCORD. It reads: and any article made up in chief value of lithographic prints.
The CHAIRMAN, I mean in the first clause “ or other material' should read " and other material." You read it, “ lithographic prints,
” from stone, zinc, aluminum, or other material.” The court might construe that to involve all of those items before collecting any duty.
Mr. MEYERCORD. I thank you for the suggestion, Mr. Chairman. The schedule is:
Rate of duty
(cents per pound). On paper or other material not exceeding 1000 inch in thickness.
30 If embossed or die cut
33 If both embossed and die cut.
36 Exceeding 1000 inch and not exceeding 1387 inch in thickness.
20 If embossed or die cut-
22 If both embossed and die cut..
24 On cardboard or other material exceeding rīgo inch in thickness
12 If embossed or die cut
13 If both embossed and die cut.
14 It then goes on with the former schedule. “Lithographic cigar labels" we have changed to read “lithographic labels, flaps, and bands, lettered or blank, printed from stone, zinc, aluminum, or other material."
We have eliminated the word “cigar” and have made it read “ lithographic labels,” the reason for that being that perfume labels, under the same general heading, receive 2 or 3 per cent protection under the Dingley law. On account of the fact that they are very small and high classed and in many respects identical to the cigar labels, we eliminate the word "cigar" and make it read:
Lithographic labels, flaps, and bands, lettered or blank, printed from stone, zinc, aluminum, or other material.
The schedule itself reads:
Rate of duty
(per pound). Labels and flaps, if printed in less than 8 colors (bronze printing to be counted as three colors), but not including metal leaf printing
$0.30 Bands printed in less than 8 colors (bronze printing to be counted as three colors), but not including metal leaf printing
.60 Labels and flaps printed in 8 or more colors (bronze printing to be counted as three colors), but not including metal leaf printing -
:40 Bands printed in 8 or more colors (bronze printing to be counted as three colors), but not including metal leaf printing--
.80 Labels and flaps printed in whole or in part in metal leaf and not over five additional printings_
.50 Labels and flaps printed in whole or in lart in metal leaf and over five additional printings
. 75 Bands printed in whole or in part in metal leaf and not over five additional printings
1. 00 Band printed in whole or in part in metal leaf and over five additional printings
1. 50 For any embossed label, flap, or band add..
. 10 The CHAIRMAN. That is doubling the duty, generally? Mr. MEYERCORD. That will be explained later, Mr. Chairman.
The CHAIRMAN. I ask you if that is not a fact, that it is doubling the duty?
Mr. NEYERCORD. In some instances and not in others.
The CHAIRMAN. I hope you will explain what effect that would have on the industries which use these things.
Mr. MEYERCORD. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. We understand about that. That is not a new subject.
Mr. MEYERCORD :
Simplex is the single sheet. Duplex is the double sheet in the form it is printed [exhibiting sample].
Decalcomania transfers backed with metal leaf, 70 cents per pound.
If any article in schedule is manufactured of lithographic prints of different thicknesses, the major portion in size shall control the rate.
The object of that is, sometimes there are two types of lithographs pasted together one is thin stock and the other thick stock-and they come within different divisions of the schedule on account of the unit of thickness. We take the major portion in size as the dividing line as to which class it shall come under. The object of that is to prevent any ambiguity in the schedule or in the classification.
A further recommendation which we make reads:
We recommend that paragraph 398 be amended to exclude all papers printed by lithographic process, so that all lithographic products will fall within the purview of paragraph 400 as amended herein.
There have been numerous court decisions and great confusion as to paragraph 400. It is probably one of the most confusing paragraphs to interpret in the entire Dingley tariff act. We seek to eliminate that confusion and bring every item of lithography under the purview of paragraph 400.
The CHAIRMAN. How much would that increase the duty ?
Mr. MEYERCORD. That would be about a stand-off, in some cases lowering and in some cases raising the duty. You might cite instances where paragraph 400 will even apparently double the duty, will put some items at a very small ad valorem and other items at a prohibitive rate; but the general intent is to clarify the air in the sense of seeking to adhere to practically a uniform standard of protection.
The CHAIRMAN. Why not bring those items in under paragraph 398 ?
Mr. MEYERCORD. Simply because there are provisions here that cover them in paragraph 400, under eight one-thousandths of an inch in thickness. In other words, the surface-coated paper lithographic prints represent a sheet form of product that comes in intended to be used on the outside of candy boxes and the like, and the same process of manufacture would be used for a print that would come under that part of the paragraph reading, “ not exceeding eight one-thousandths of 1 inch in thickness.” It is the same principle and there is no sense in having that come under a new schedule entirely.
Mr. BOUTELL. We had here the other day, when the tea schedule was under discussion, some exhibits of very elaborate packages in which the tea was imported, some of them being very elaborately engraved and lithographed, which were admitted free, as they claimed. Does this amendment cover the use of those packages?
Mr. MEYERCORD. That, I should say, would come under the distinctly administrative section, it being the wrapper that contains the tea shipped to this country.
The CHAIRMAN. It turns out that was an entire mistake and that that is amply provided for.
Mr. MEYERCORD. This industry is somewhat more than 100 years old; originated in Germany and from there has spread to all countries of the world. It has assumed a very considerable magnitude and, like most industries carried on in this country (but to a greater extent than most others), the workmen have prospered, receiving large remuneration for their services, thereby becoming self-respecting, thrifty citizens.
The present tariff is a most inequitable one. It is most crudely devised, not properly divided into classes of work, making it very difficult for the government officers to determine as to what class the work belongs, and on many classes of importation affords absolutely no protection at all.
From almost all of the States of Europe, particularly from the German Empire, imports come, the reason for this being that the lithographers in Germany receive less wages than those of other States of Europe.
We should have revision because wages paid in the lithographic industry in the German Empire are, stated broadly, at the rate of 1 mark (say 24 cents) to $1 paid here.
In Germany a lithographic artist is paid 32 to 36 marks ($8 to $9) per week; a man of like ability in this country is paid from $30 to $35 In Germany a steam-press printer is paid from 20 to 32 marks ($5 to $8) per week, and from $20 to $35 per week in this country.
In Germany feeders (female labor) are paid from $3 to $4 per week, while the minimum in this country (male labor) is $10.50 per week on the smallest press and running up to $17 per week on the largest press.
A like proportion holds good in every branch of the industry.
The industry in Germany is fostered by states or municipalities. Schools of art and drawing are established and maintained at the cost of the state or municipality, thereby placing more efficient workmen in the trade than is possible at present in this country.
The unions connected with the lithographic industry in this country have established a minimum weekly wage for artists, engravers, transferers, provers, and printers of $20 per week. The employers' organization have accepted this as their own, and there is no member of an employers' association in the United States at the present time paying less than the minimum scale of wages; on the contrary, they are paying very much larger wages.
In the printing department the employers are paying a minimum rate on Nos. 1, 2, and 3 stone presses of $20 per week; Nos. 3 and 4!, $22 per week; Nos. 5 and 54, $25 per week; one-color rotary, $25 per week; two-color rotary, $27 per week; three color rotary, $30 per week, while the wages paid are generally much higher than the minimum rate.
Transferers and provers are paid very much higher wages than the minimum adopted by the union, few in the larger cities working for less than $25 per week, and from that up to $40 per week.
The minimum for stone artists is $20 per week, but the great majority of artists are paid above $25 per week, their wages running up to $60 per week, while sketch artists are paid from $25 to $100 per week, or more.
The workmen in other branches of the industry are paid, as stated above, at least four times as much as is paid in Germany. This is particularly noticeable in the employınent of female labor. It can be stated that there are few, if any, work girls in this country in our industry paid less than the minimum wage of $5 per week, the great majority being paid much higher wages, while the wages paid in Germany for like labor is from $1 to $1.50 per week.
A bulletin recently issued by the United States Census Bureau shows that the average weekly wage paid to all tho-e engaged in the lithographic industry, whether skilled or unskilled, amounts to $16.45 per week, there being only one vocation (that of lapidary) which is paid higher.
Because the manufacturers of lithographie prints in Germany sell goods in this country below the market price for the same goods in Germany, and in some cases bill goods to their own branch offices in this country at less than the market price there.
If you would like to have me qualify that statement I can show you how it is done.
A common practice being that the cost for the designing and drawing on stone is not included, but this portion of the cost is calculated upon the price for the European market; the value of such work in in many cases greater than the cost of printing and paper and is not included in the exporters' invoice. - These practices re-uilt in making the figures of our Treasury Department very inaccurate and unreliable as to what the present specific duty on lithographic prints produces in ad valorem equivalent. The computations made by the Treasury Department are based on the values given on the foreign exporters' invoices, which, as above stated, are not the trye value of the goods abroad.
Importations of lithographic prints (exclusive of those articles, very large in number, which were classified as manufactures of paper ") amounted in the year 1899 to $799,475; in the year 1907 to $3,968,542; in 1908, the last fiscal year ending in July, to $1,911,102. There were several million dollars additional to that not included under paragraph 100. Approximately $7,000,000 worth of paper was imported in the last twelve months.
You will notice that we do not give the importations prior to 1899, and regret that we can not do so, which is due to the fact that all articles in the paper schedule, including lithographs, parchment papers, etc., were combined in one item in previous reports of the Treasury Department. These importations were not segregated until the end of the fiscal year 1899.
Based on the figures furnished by the Treasury Department, the specific duty transferred to an ad valorem rate (computed on the erroneous values given in the invoices) amounted to 0.1923 per cent.
To illustrate: In certain articles, such as cigar bands, the European manufacturers have taken the largest part of the market out of our hands, and a number of American manufacturers have been obliged to import the articles instead of doing the work in this country, owing to the lower cost of production abroad.
We give figures showing what the percentage of wages, paper, materials, etc., is to entire cost of production, as also the duty we have to pay under the present tariff law.
The yearly value of the produet of the industry in the United States is not less than $25,000,000.
Computed on the official statistics of importations published by the Treasury Department for the fiscal year 1907 the specific and ad valorem duties were equal to 0.1923 per cent. The wages in the United States equaling 11 per cent of the cost of production stated at $17,500,000 would amount to $7,175,000, while the wages paid in Germany woull amount to $1,703,750, showing increased wages paid in the United States of $5,381,250 on a production at cost of $17.500.000, which shows that the specific rate in the present tariff laws, which only produced 0.1923 per cent ad valorem, does not protect the workingman in the United States,