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period. This is not very many and suggests that the electorate is reasonably satisfied with the attempts of the legislature to deal with economic matters, or alternatively believes that the regular occasions for electing legislators provide an ample check. The electorate refused to sustain the legislature on only four occasions. Many diverse subjects were considered by the voters such as the construction of a toll bridge over the Chesapeake Bay, parking meters, trading stamps, regulation of commercial fishing, providing a uniform standard time, brakemen on trains, and a milk marketing board. The voters supported two measures regulating trade unions. It is interesting to note that in general the electorate voted against measures which were likely to affect them in a direct way financially. Thus the legislature was not susstained over the construction of a toll bridge nor over the legalising of parking meters. North Dakota again held the most referenda. The voters supported the North Dakota legislature on all but two occasions, the disagreements relating to parking meters and trading stamps.

The Social category is not very important. There were only three issues in this field. This may reflect a growing acceptance on the part of Americans of the need to provide welfare services. Maryland's issue was the most controversial. This would authorize the imprisonment of a parent for failure to comply with a decree to support an illegitimate child. In this case it was felt that the individual should be held responsible for his liabilities. Thus the voters supported the proposal. In Oregon the voters supported the Needy Aged Persons Public Assistance Act. Voters in Washington rejected an act relating to accident and health insurance; it was not possible to find out the reasons for this rejection.

The use of the petition referendum for measures which have moral overtones is rare. The referendum was used only four times in regard to such issues. The electorate was against gaming and against extending licensing hours for hotels, restaurants and retail stores. In Montana and Washington there were referenda against slot machines, sales-boards, card-rooms and bingo. Maryland voted for the amendment of laws concerning discrimination in certain public accommodation, and to prohibit any person receiving remuneration for participating in racial demonstrations. It is not possible without closer knowledge of Maryland's internal politics to know the practical impact of this act, but Maryland is of course a border state having a large Negro minority. In 1966 Maine held a referendum over the Sunday sale of liquor. This measure was a re-enactment of the existing law except that there was an added provision allowing licensed hotels, restaurants and retail stores to sell liquor on Sundays between noon and 9 p.m. The electorate voted against this, thus preventing an extension in the hours for selling liquor.

What conclusions emerge from this analysis of the petition referendum? There is little evidence that the electorate inhibits the legislature in its performance of its representative function. Fifty-nine issues are shared between these ten states which sent examples of issues over twenty-three years. This is relatively few per state. Generally speaking, voters turned down increases in taxation as well as extensions in the power of government. Social welfare

legislation and laws affecting the general functioning of the economy were supported by the voters, except on those occasions when the measures would cost them money. There was very little interest in moral issues. North Dakota and Oregon used the referendum the most, a possible explanation being that there are fewer restrictions on the use of the referendum in these states than elsewhere.

Issues Referred by the Legislatures

Some political scientists have suggested that the legislative referendum is a device by legislatures to evade their responsibilities in regard to controversial issues by "passing the buck". I could not find any evidence to prove this point. From the data collected thirteen states conduct legislative referenda. They are: Colorado, Georgia, Maine, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Vermont, Washington and Wisconsin. Examples of issues were supplied by Colorado, New Jersey, Oklahoma and Wisconsin. While this response makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions, there are, nevertheless, only 14 issues in four states over 23 years, and this does not suggest that "buck passing" is a frequent legislative predilection.

In the machinery of government category there were two issues. Both of these were for Oklahoma and both were defeated. One was that Oklahoma should make a recommendation to the President of the United States that the United States delegates to the United Nations should support amendments to the United Nations Charter which would convert the U.N. into a world federated government able to prevent war. Secondly an issue concerning the increased term of county officers was rejected. In the fiscal category there were four measures, three of which were rejected. As with the petition referenda proposals for higher taxation were opposed by the electorate, as was a bond proposal. No bills were referred in the social field. There were three economic issues and all were accepted. Two of these were for daylight saving time in Colorado and Wisconsin. The most referred category was the moral one. Three of these referenda concerned licensing or betting or games of chance, and in all these instances the legislature was sustained. Another concerned a Sunday closing law which was accepted. The only moral issue to be rejected was a proposal in Colorado that capital punishment be abolished. Colorado and New Jersey were the states which referred laws in this category, and this suggests that possibly in these two states there was a fairly strong Protectionist element.

The totals for the states were as follows:

Colorado 4

New Jersey 4
Oklahoma 4
Wisconsin 2

Issues Referred on a Compulsory Basis

I have divided the compulsory referendum issues into two categories: (1) constitutional amendments and (2) other compulsory referenda. I have done

this because there were an overwhelmingly large number of constitutional amendments, and if these were considered together with other compulsory referenda issues any conclusions drawn would be distorted by this imbalance. Constitutional Amendments: The American state referendum is used for constitutional amendments more than for any other purpose. During the 23-year period under review a total of 336 such amendments were dealt with. This occurred in the following states: Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Maine, Missouri, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Vermont and Washington. Several implications are suggested by this large number of issues. First, the constitutions of American states are living ones; they are frequently amended to meet changing needs. These constitutions are typically detailed and require the frequent amendment of relatively routine provisions. Secondly, American voters have to cope with an enormous burden. Over 23 years the voters of 14 states have voted on 336 constitutional amendments. This amounts to 24 issues per state between 1945 and 1968, or one issue per state per year.

There were 197 amendments proposed in this category, and in 135 cases the legislature was upheld. This might suggest the noncontroversial nature of these proposals or, alternatively, their complexity and the electorate's consequent inability to vote "no".

Thirty-seven of the proposed Machinery of Government amendments dealt with the extension of local government powers. These took the form of either extending the powers of a particular unit of local government or of increasing the power of officials by granting them a longer term. On fourteen occasions the electorate voted for the extension of powers but on twenty-two occasions they did not. Thirty-five amendments dealt with salaries; these were designed either to allow the legislature to fix its own salaries or expenses, or alternatively to fix a limit on salaries or compensation. In 14 such cases decisions were taken by the electorate against any improvement in salaries, expenses or compensation of public officials.

Twelve amendments aimed at extending the suffrage. In Maine, for example, restrictions on paupers were withdrawn. In 11 of the 12 cases the voters accepted suffrage extensions. A further six amendments provided for reappointment and redistricting; unlike those considered under the petition referendum, these were accepted. The terms of state elected officials and the length of the legislative session were dealt with in 21 amendments. Eleven of these aimed at increasing the term of officials and the legislature, and eight of these were passed. Ten amendments were aimed at limiting terms, and six of these were accepted. One could say that the tendency was to increase terms of office and the length of legislative sessions, but with some limits on succession in offices. Other amendments were concerned with methods of amending state constitutions, reorganising the judiciary, and providing for the continuation of government in time of national emergency.

Generally, the electorate has tended to resist major extensions of the powers of government at both the state and local levels. Voters have sought to safeguard their voting rights. Redistricting is becoming increasingly important as a referendum issue, but the electorate has taken no clear cut

stand in this matter, so one can say that the entrenched factions in the legislatures are maintaining themselves.

In the Fiscal category 96 amendments were referred, and the legislature were upheld 73 times. Many of these referenda were concrned with increasing the types of these taxes that local government units could collect and increasing the sums of money they could borrow. This is because local government units are very dependent on aid received from the state government. Sixteen amendments provided for increasing the tax levy or the amount of indebtedness permitted for educational purposes. Fourteen times these were accepted. Two interesting amendments were found in Oklahoma in 1946 and 1948. The proceeds of new levies on property were to be used to provide separate schools for white and Negro children. Both were accepted.

Eleven amendments provided for pensions or exemptions from taxation for various groups of people. Eight of these were passed, but it should be noted that although the voters were willing to agree to tax exemptions for veterans and widows, as in New Jersey in 1953, they were very reluctant to provide for pensions when they were to be paid for by means of bonds (Maine, 1946) or by taxes on tobacco (Oklahoma, 1952). Other referenda were concerned with increased taxation for road improvements and capital improvements, and these sometimes were accepted. Fifteen amendments concerned with what should be taxed. On eight occasions the proposals were accepted. Five of these referenda dealt with the exemption of personal property for taxation purposes. Illinois provides an instructive case in point. Consistent attempts in that state over the past 23 years to enlarge its tax base have failed.

The electorate is not always adverse to higher taxation or indebtedness if it is for a service for which it approves, as it does of education. On the other hand, it is less inclined to provide for pensions, and consistently rejects taxation on personal property.

There are 31 examples of amendments in the Social field. These fall into two main groupings-pensions and education. Amendments in this category provide for the setting up of machinery, for authority to provide pensions for authorizing educational authorities to do their jobs, and for authorizing appointments. There were two other amendments in the Social field. One dealt with housing in Wisconsin in 1959, and it was accepted. The other, in Oklahoma in 1959, provided for insuring workmen who might be involved in fatal injuries; this was rejected. Four of the amendments concerning pensions were agreed to by the electorate, and three were refused. Education was again very important with 20 amendments and 13 of them were approved. Several related to the establishment of schools by towns and districts, some with the appointment of regents to Boards of Universities, and others with the transportation of children to schools.

The General Economic category was relatively unimportant with seven amendments. These varied from amendments regulating corporations, and amendments dealing with port developments, aeronautical policy and the liability of bank stockholders. There were so few of these that it is not

possible to draw any satisfactory conclusions.

Five amendments fell within the scope of the Moral category. It was again the smallest grouping. Two dealt with gaming and two with racial discrimination. In Oklahoma in 1966 an amendment was upheld repealing the requirement that separate school accommodation be provided for white and Negro children. In 1959 Oklahoma repealed a prohibition ordinance. The following states had the most amendments:

Machinery of Government

Ohio 31; 23 accepted.
Wisconsin 28; 18 accepted.
Oklahoma 23; 14 accepted.
Fiscal and Financial
Maine 14; 11 accepted.
Oklahoma 13; 10 accepted.
Social legislation
Missouri 5; 3 accepted.
Oklahoma 5; 1 accepted.

General Economic

Oklahoma 3; 1 accepted.

Oklahoma 2; 2 accepted.

Oklahoma had the most constitutional amendments with 46.

Issues other than Constitutional Amendments: Twelve states conduct compulsory referenda in matters other than constitutional amendments. These are Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Montana, North Carolina, New Mexico, Washington and Wisconsin. I was provided with examples from Kentucky, Maine, New Jersey, Washington and Wisconsin. These fell into two groups-Machinery of Government and Fiscal.

The Machinery of Government issues concerned the extension of the franchise in Wisconsin, and they were accepted.

The second category is concerned entirely with bonds. Forty-seven bond questions dealt with social welfare matters, and of these 42 were approved. Twenty of these bond referenda were held in Maine. An analysis of these referenda suggests that there is a greater willingness on the part of the electorate to vote for bonds rather than increase taxation. There may be some feeling that the cost will be borne be the next generation. Thirteen bond referenda dealt with education. Others were designed to finance health, pension, housing and recreational programmes, as well as the preservation of the countryside.

Twenty-five bonds provided finance for transport purposes, and 15 of these were approved. Most of them provided for roads but others were for bridges, ferries and airports. Maine predominated with 18, seven of which were rejected. Transport does not appear to win public support as readily as education. Several bonds provided for capital improvements, chiefly for state buildings. Most of these were accepted.

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