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FIGURE 15.--Principal meridians and

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BOUNDARY LINES OF THE STATES

MAINE

p. 75.)

Northwestwards untill one hundred and twenty myles bee ended

59 being accompted from the mouth of Sagadahocke and from the period of one hundred and twenty myles aforesaid to crosse over Lande to the one hundred and twenty myles end formerly reckoned upp into the Lande from Pascataway Harbor through Newichewanocke River and also the Northe halfe of the Isles of Shoales togeather with the Isles of Capawock and Nawtican neere Cape Cod as alsoe all the Islands and lletts lyeinge within five leagues of the Mayne all alonge the aforesaide Coasts betweene the aforesaid River of Pascataway and

which falls in the middle of the St. Francis River, is Sagadahocke with all the Creekes Havens and Harbors thereunto

lat 47°27'35.8'' N., long 69°13'30.4" W. belonginge and the Revercon and Revercons Remaynder and Remaynders of all and singular the said Landes Rivers and Premises. Al

The western boundary was for a long time a source which said Part Purpart or Porcon of the Mayne Lande and all and of contention between Maine and New Hampshire. In every the Premisses herein before named Wee Doe for us our heires 1731 commissioners from New Hampshire and from and successors create and incorporate into One Province or Countie.

Massachusetts, who had been appointed to fix the And Wee Doe name ordeyne and appoynt that the porcon of the

boundary, met but were unable to agree. New HampMayne Lande and Premises aforesaid shall forever hereafter bee called and named The Province or Countie of Mayne.

shire appealed to the King, who ordered that a settleIn 1664 Charles II granted certain islands on the ment should be made by commissioners from the neighcoast and a large territory west of the Connecticut River boring Provinces. The board met at Hampton in 1737. (see New York, p. 74, for the boundaries) to the Duke of The commissioners fixed on substantially the present York, who had the preceding year purchased a part boundary, wording their report as follows (New Hampof the present State of Maine from the heirs of the Earl

shire Hist. Soc., 1827, v. 2, p. 274-278): of Stirling; the 1663 purchase was for a time called

Beginning at the entrance of Pascataqua Harbor, and so to pass up Pemaquid.

the same to the River Newhichawack, and thro' the same into the

furtherest head thereof, and hence run north 2 degrees west till 120 In 1674 Charles II made a new grant to the Duke of

miles were finished, from the mouth of Pascataqua Harbor, or until it York in substantially the same terms as that of 1664, meets with His Majesty's other governments. includnig as before a part of Maine. (See New York, This boundary was confirmed by the King, April 9,

1740. In the year 1677 Ferdinando Gorges, a grandson of In 1827, difficulties having again risen about the Sir Ferdinando Gorges, sold and gave a deed of the boundary between Maine and New Hampshire, comProvince of Maine to John Ushur, a merchant of Boston, missioners were appointed from each State to determine for £1,250. In the same year Ushur gave a deed of the it. The line agreed to by the commissioners in their same territory to the governor and company of Massa- report, dated November 13, 1828, is described in "Rechusetts Bay, who had received a grant from the coun- solves of the Ninth Legislature" (1828–29) of Maine (p. cil of Plymouth in 1628, confirmed by the King in 1629. 39–43) as follows:

Pemaquid and its dependencies, forming Cornwall The Report of the Commissioners appointed by his Majesty's order County, under the jurisdiction of New York, were an- in Council of February 22nd, 1735, and confirmed by his order of nexed to the New England government by a royal order

the 9th of April, 1740, having established,

"That the dividing line shall pass up through the mouth of Piscataqua dated September 18, 1686. (Maine Hist. Soc., 1857, v. 5,

Harbor, and up the middle of the river of Newichwannock, part of

which is now called the Salmon falls, and through the middle of the The charter of Massachusetts Bay of 1629 having same to the farthest head thereof, &c.," and "that the dividing line been canceled in 1684, William and Mary in 1691

shall part the Isle Sholes, and run through the middle of the

Harbor, between the Islands to the sea on the southerly side," &c. granted a new one incorporating the Provinces of Maine

We have not deemed it necessary to commence our survey until we and Acadia, or Nova Scotia, and the colonies of Massa- arrived north, at the head of Salmon falls river; which was determined chusetts Bay and Plymouth into one royal Province by by Bryant, at his survey in 1740, to be at the outlet of Eastpond, the name of the Province of the Massachusetts Bay in between the towns of Wakefield and Shapleigh. From that point we New England. The right of government over the district

have surveyed and marked the line as follows, viz: We commenced

at the Bryant rock, known as such by tradition, which is a rock in the of Maine thus acquired was exercised by Massachu

middle of Salmon falls river, at the outlet of Eastpond, about six feet setts until 1819, when measures were taken to admit

in length, three feet in breadth, three feet in depth, and two feet Maine as an independent State;59 Congress, by act ap- under the surface of the water, as the dam was at the time of the proved March 3, 1820 (3 Stat. L. 544), effective March survey, to wit, October 1, 1827; said stone bears south 71° west, three 15, 1820, admitted Maine to the Union.

rods and eight links from a large rock on the eastern bank, marked

'1827," and bears also from a rock near the mill dam (marked "H"') The north and east boundaries were fixed by the

north 19° 30' west, and distant 12 rods and 21 links. At this point United States and Great Britain. (See p. 12, 13, 17, 18.) The the variation of the needle was ascertained to be nine degrees west. geographic position of the extreme north point of Maine, From the above stone the line is north 7°41' east, 178 rods to East.

pond, and crossing the pond 311 rods in width, to a stone Monument 59 See Massachusetts Legislature Acts of June 19, 1819, and Feb. 25, 1820.

which we erected up on the bank, about three and an half feet high The notes of this survey may be found in the New Hampshire Legislathe rivers running south. The total distance, as meas

P. 4.)

60

ured, from this tree to Salmon River Falls was 112 miles

233 rods. BOUNDARIES OF THE

The Legislature of Maine approved the commissionUNITED STATES AND THE SEVERAL STATES

ers' report February 28, 1829, and the same action was taken by the Legislature of New Hampshire July 1, 1829.

Between 1828 and 1858 considerable parts of the above the surface of the ground, marked N on the west side and M almost unbroken forests through which the line of on the east side, which description applies to all the stone monuments

1827–28 was run were cleared. Forest fires swept many hereinafter mentioned, unless they are otherwise particularly de

large tracts of this territory, and as a consequence the scribed: thence the same course, 225 rods, to Fox ridge and to a stone monument, which is placed upon the north side of the road that

marks of the 1827-28 survey for distance of nearly 80 leads from Wakefield to Shapleigh; thence 200 rods to Balch's pond- miles—most of which were blazed trees, only seven across the pond, 1034/2 rods—across a peninsula 36 rods—across a stone posts having been set in this distancewere cove 51 rods and 17 links, across a second peninsula, 48 rods; across

obliterated, so that there remained scarcely a vestige a second cove, 27 rods 10 links; thence 370 rods to the road leading from Newfield to Wakefield and a stone monument, erected on the

of the original line. The adjoining lands having become north side of the same, near Campernell's house; thence north 6°10'

valuable and litigation being imminent, the legislatures east, 590 rods, to the line of Parsonfield, to a stone monument with

of the two States in 1858 provided for another survey additional mark "1828." At this point the variation of the needle was from Fryeburg to the Canada line, which was made in found to be 9°15' west. Thence same course 511 rods, crossing the

the same year. The line as then surveyed is as follows: end of Province pond to a stone monument on the Parsonfield road,

The point commenced at is an iron post situated on the line run in near the house of James Andrews, also with additional mark "1828;"

accordance with the "Treaty of Washington, of August 9, 1842," as thence north 8°38' east, 208 rods to the old corner-stone of Ellingham,

the boundary between the United States and the province of Canada, about two feet above the ground, and not marked; thence north

at the corners of the States of Maine and New Hampshire. 8°55' east, 277 rods, to a large round stone about three feet diameter

A large flat stone was placed on the southern face of the monument, and two feet high, marked N and M, by the road upon Towle's Hill;

and marked "1858–N.H., Me.," on either side of a line cut in said thence north 7°55' east, 631 rods to a stone monument, on the road

stone bearing the direction of the State's line, viz, south, eight degrees leading from Parsonfield to Effingham. At this point the variation of

west. From this point the line is south eight degrees west, seventeen the needle was found to be 9°30' west; thence north 5°02' east, 734

rods seven links to a large yellow birch stub, the northern terminus rods to a pine stump, upon a small island in Ossipee river at the foot

of the former survey. of the falls; thence north 10° east, 30 rods, to a stone monument on

The iron post above referred to is called the Crown the north side of the new road from Porter to EHingham; thence the

558 rods, to the top of Bald Mountain; thence same same course,

Monument and is mark 475 of the International Boundcourse, 316 rods, to the top of Bickford Mountain; thence same course ary Survey of 1915. In geographic position is lat 45° 193 rods, to a stone monument on the north side of the road leading 18'20.0", long 71°05'04.4". The line was then run south from Porter to Eaton. At this point the variation of the needle was

to an old monument 60 rods north of Kimballs Pond.60 found to be 9°45' west; thence north 8°5' east, 744 rods, to Cragged

In 1874 the boundary line between Maine and New Mountain; thence same course, 67 rods, to the corner of Eaton; thence same course, 787/2 rods, to the corner of Conway; thence same course,

Hampshire was resurveyed (Hitchcock, 1874, p. 173), 61042 rods to a stone monument on the south side of the road leading

and in 1927 the legislatures of the two States authorized from Brownfield to Conway centre; thence north go east, 871 rods, a retracement and remarking of the line from Salmon to a stone monument on the south side of the road leading from Falls northward to the Canadian line (Maine Public Fryeburg village to Conway—at this point the variation of the needle

Laws of 1927, chap. 21; New Hampshire Public Laws was found to be 10° west; thence same course, 4 rods, to a stone monument on the north side of the same road; thence north 8° 15'

of 1927, chap. 114). east, 102 rods, to Saco river; thence same course 18 rods, across said This survey was made by A. T. Fowler of the U.S. river; thence same course 644 rods to a stone monument on the road Geological Survey. It commenced in 1927 and was leading to Fryeburg village, on the north side of the river. This

completed in 1929. The line was cleared throughout its monument is marked as before described and is about eight feet high

entire course and was marked by bronze tablets set above the ground; thence same course 142 rods to Ballard's Mill Pond;

either in stone posts or in ledges. A total of 122 tablets thence same course 61 rods six links across said pond; thence same course 344 rods to a stone monument on the east side of Chatham

were set and numbered serially from the south end. road; thence same course 690 rods to Kimball's Pond; thence same

Connections were made to triangulation stations where course 166 rods across said pond; thence same course 60 rods to a

practical. stone monument on the meadow. From Kimballs Pond the line was extended north

NEW HAMPSHIRE ward for about 77 miles on a general course which has

The first charter of Virginia, granted in 1606 (see since been found to bear about 2° west of true north.

p. 92), included the territory of the present State of New The last mark on the line was a large yellow-birch Hampshire, as did the charter of New England, granted tree on the divide between the St. Lawrence River and

tive Jour. for 1859, p. 764–767.

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