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APPENDIX

HURRICANE, STORM, AND SMALL-CRAFT WARNING SIGNALS

(U. S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau) Hurricane, or whole-gale warning.—Two square flags, red with black centers, one above the other, indicate the approach of a tropical hurricane, or of one of the extremely severe and dangerous storms which occasionally occur.

Warning.-Two red pennants indicate that a storm is expected.

Small-craft warning.-A red pennant indicates that moderately strong winds that will interfere with the safe operation of small craft are expected.

RESUSCITATION OF THE APPARENTLY DROWNED

When a person has been rendered unconscious by fumigation gas, by electric shock, drowning, or any other cause, and breathing ceases or becomes very shallow, artificial respiration should be begun at once. Proceed as follows:

1. Lay the patient on his belly, one arm extended directly overhead, the other arm bent at elbow, and with the face turned outward and resting on hand or forearm, so that the nose and mouth are free for breathing

2. Kneel straddling the patient's thighs with your knees placed at such a distance below his hip bones as will allow you to reach his waist easily. Place the palms of the hands on the small of his back with fingers resting on his ribs, the little finger just touching the lowest rib, with the thumb and fingers in a natural position, and the tips of the fingers just out of sight.

3. With arms held straight, swing forward slowly, so that the weight of your body is gradually brought to bear upon the patient. Your shoulder should be directly over the heel of your hand at the end of the forward swing. Do not bend your elbows. This operation should take about 2 seconds.

4. Now immediately swing backward so as to remove the pressure completely.

5. After 2 seconds swing forward again. Thus repeat deliberately 12 to 15 times a minute the double movement of compression and release, and complete respiration in 4 or 5 seconds.

6. Continue artificial respiration without interruption until natural breathing is restored, 4 hours or longer if necessary, or until a physician declares the patient is dead.

7. As soon as this artificial respiration has been started, and hile it is being continued, an assistant should loosen any tight clothing about the patient's neck, chest, or waist. Keep the patient warm. Do not give any liquids whatever by mouth until the patient is fully conscious.

8. To avoid strain on the heart when the patient revives, he should be kept lying down and not allowed to stand or sit up. If the doctor has not arrived by the time the patient has revived, the patient should be given some stimulant, such as 1 teaspoonful of aromatic spirits of ammonia in a small glass of water or a hot drink of coffee or tea, etc. The patient should be kept warm.

9. Resuscitation should be carried on at the nearest possible point to the place where the patient received his injuries. He should not be moved from this point until he is breathing normally, of his own volition, and then moved only in a lying position. Should it be necessary, due to extreme weather conditions, etc., to move the patient before he is breathing normally, resuscitation should be carried on during the time that he is being moved.

10. A brief return of natural respiration is not a certain indication for stopping the resuscitation. Not infrequently the patient, after a temporary recovery of respiration, stops breathing again. The patient must be watched, and, if natural breathing stops, artificial respiration should be resumed at once.

11. In carrying out resuscitation, it may be necessary to change the operator. This change must be made without losing the rhythm of respiration. By this procedure, no confusion results at the time of change of operator, and a regular rhythm is kept up. The treatment must not be given up until at least 4 hours of steady, unremitting resuscitation have been tried, unless, of course, the patient commences to breathe strongly and naturally of his own volition.

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INDEX

7, 39

24, 35

Page

Page
Aids to navigation marking Headlight-

5
floating-plant moorings...
46 Helmsmen orders.

27
Anchorage areas, anchor lights High seas divided from inland
required.
16 waters.

49
Anchor lights

16 Hudson River, lights for barges
Atlantic Coast, lines inland wa-

and canal boats.

40
ters defining --

50 Hurricane, storm, and small-
Barge lights.

7, 39
craft warning signals.-

61
Barges, towing-
48 Inland rules.

1
Bell for fog signals.--
18, 30 International rules...

1
Board of supervising inspectors_ 7, 12, 31 Lake Champlain, lights for barges
Boundary lines for inland wa-

and canal boats..

40
ters.
48 Lights..

3, 38
Bunching of tows.
48 Lights, anchor.

16
Buoys or markings placed for Lights, approved.

58
guidance of floating plant.... 46 | Lights as signals-

7
Cable laying vessel, lights and Lights, carrying unauthorized
shapes required.
6, 44 lights prohibited.

48
Canal boat lights..

7, 39 Lights for:
Coast and Geodetic Survey ves-

Barges.-
sels...
47 Cable-laying vessel.

6
Course and speed of vessel with

Canal boats

7, 39
right of way

24 Coast and Geodetic Survey
Crossing ahead.

vessels.

47
Cross signals--

33 Dredges

7, 43, 44
Danger signals.
22, 33, 35 Ferryboats..

7, 38
Definitions.
3, 18, 26, 33, 29 Fishing vessels.

11
Departure from rules

36 Motorboats and certain
Diagrams showing passing situ-

motor vessels.

29, 57, 61
ations

37 Naval vessels and revenue
Distress signals.

cutters,

17, 26
Dredges---
7, 44, 45 Open boats

8
Drowned, resuscitation of the.- 61 Overtaken vessel.

15
Drum substituted for bell on

Pilot vessels.

10
board Turkish vessels
18 Rafts..

12, 46
Ferryboat lights.
7, 38 Rowing boat.

8
First aid for the apparently

Sailing vessels

7, 30
drowned..
61 Scows.

39
Fishing vessels, lights and sig-

Towing vessels towing a sub-
nals.

11, 14, 15 merged object--
Fishing vessels, right of way--- 25 Vessels aground.

16
Flags. (See Signals).

Vessels engaged in laying
Flare-up light as signals.- 14, 15, 17

pipe..

44
Floating plants.

45, 48

Vessels engaged in trawling- 13
Foghorn.--
18 Vessels in tow.

7
Fog signals

15, 17, 36 Vessels made fast alongside a
Fog bell for motorboats and cer-

wreck, etc..

44
tain motor vessels. -

59

Vessels moored or anchored
General prudential rule.

25

in fairway or channel.--- 45
General rule for inland waters.- 49 Vessels not under command. 6
Gong substituted for bell

Lights, penalty

57, 58
small vessels.
18 Lights, running -

58
Gulf Coast, lines defining inland Lights, time for.

38
waters.

51 Lights to be displayed on pipe
Gulf Intracoastal waterway ex-

lines.

45
empted.
40 Lights, unauthorized use of

47
Harbor, river, and inland rules.- 2 Maps showing lines defining in-
Hawsers for towing seagoing

land waters..

53
barges.
48 Marine parades or regattas..

56

27

43

on

15

or

18, 33

8, 36

Page

Page Motorboat Act of April 25, 1940. 29 Signals for—Continued. Motorboat classes. 29 Danger.

22, 33 Motorboat defined 29 Dredges..

44, 45 Motorboat lights. 8 Engines going astern.

26 Motorboat whistles.

58

Hurricane, storm and small Narrow channel, keeping to right. 25, 36 craft.

61 Naval lights

17 Passing

21, 23, 26, 33 Navigation lights for motorboats

Steam vessel under sail by and certain motor vessels ---- 57, 59 day

17 Negligent operation of motor

Vessel engaged in laying boats and motor vessels...

31
pipe

44 Nondescript vessels, lights re

Vessel in distress.

27 quired

7, 38 Vessels leaving docks or Orders to helmsmen.

27
berths

22, 34 Overtaken vessel, lights required.

Vessels nearing bend Overtaking vessels.

24, 34

curve in channel.-- 22, 34 Oyster dredging vessel.

14 Vessel overtaking another Pacific coast, lines defining in

vessel.

34 land waters..

52 Vessels, working on wrecks Passing signals

21, 45

and obstructions, etc.---- 43 Penalty for failure to render Signals to be displayed by towing

assistance to vessel in distress. 28 vessel towing submerged obPilot rules not required for motor

ject---

43 boats.

30 Signals to stop at regattas or maPilot vessel lights.. 10 rine parades

56 Pipe lines, lights to be displayed. 45 Siren signals. Portable lights

8, 29 Situations of vessels passing each Posting of rules

other.--

21, 34 Prudential rule.-

25 Sound signals.

17, 26, 34 Rafts, lights for 12, 46 Special lights.

6, 38 Range lights---4, 29, 38 Special signals

17, 34 Regattas or marine parades -- 56 Speed in fogRecognition signals.

19, 36 17 Steam vessel defined..

3 Reporting violations. Resuscitation of the apparently

48 Steam vessels, determining risk
of collision-

21 drowned..

61 Right-of-way of fishing vessels... 25

Steam vessels, passing signals.-- 21, 33 Risk of collision...

20, 36

Steam vessel to keep out of way River, harbor, and inland rules - 2

of sailing vessel..

24 Rowing boat lights-

8

Steam vessel under sail by day, Rules made by local authority - 1

signal required.-

17 Rules to prevent collisions.

Steering and sailing rules.. Rules for lights for certain vessels

Storm signals

61 navigating harbors, rivers, and Territory of Hawaii, lines defininland waters... 38 ing inland waters..

52 Sailing vessel defined. 3 Towing lights--

5 Sailing vessel lights. 7 Tows of seagoing barges_

48 Sailing vessels, determining risk Trawling vessel lights.

13 of collision.

20 Unauthorized use of lights proSailing vessel to have right of

hibited..

47 way. 35 “Under way" defined.

3 Scows, lights for. 39 Vessels aground, lights for.--

16 Seagoing barges..

48 Vessels in distress, penalty for Shapes. (See Signals).

failure to render assistance... 28 Signals by special lights.

7 Signals during fog-

Vessels moored or anchored and

17, 36 Rafts or other craft not pro

engaged in laying pipe, etc.,
vided for...

19
lights and signals-----

44 Sailing vessels.

18, 19

Vessels to slacken speed or stop
Small vessels.

19
in case of danger.

24 Vessel at anchor.

19

Vessels passing floating plant.. 45 Vessel not under way

19 Weather Bureau signals for hurVessel under way-

18 ricane, storm, and small craftVessels towing or towed.. 19 Whistles or other sound-producSignals for:

ing devices for motorboats and Coast and Geodetic Survey

certain motor vessels--- 30, 58, 59 vessels

47 | Whistle signals.------ 18, 21, 33, 47, 58

20

61

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