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The Quarries

The quarries are of white marble, with black cloudings. They are worked by the Columbia Marble Company and are the most important in the State. Great blocks of the beautiful stone lay all about, six feet square, weighing eight or ten tons apiece. No explosives are used, only drills and wedges. They can raise a block of marble weighing 200 tons by simply driving iron wedges with a hammer into a line of drill holes. The Palace Hotel was built of this stone; also the interior of

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Built in 1854. It is still in good condition and regular use. The principal is County Superintendent G. P. Morgan.

the Capitol at Sacramento. The new court house at Santa Rosa is being finished with it now. The manager told me a peculiar fact about transportation. It costs him $5.50 per ton to ship his marble from the quarry to San Franciscowhile he can ship marble from England or from Italy to San Francisco for $2.50!

Have your class compare these distances on the map and then reflect on the two freight rates. 'Twill show most strikingly the advantages of water-transportation; and lead to the lesson that it is cheapest because it is less wasteful of

the nation's resources, because it consumes less iron, wood, coal, oil-perishable resources, that need to be saved for the future.

Columbia

Not a gem of the ocean but a little town from which the quarries were named. Although a quiet little village now, hidden amid green hills, it was once a city, a city of 15,000 or 20,000 people-back in the days of gold! It is surrounded by a wide plain; and the plain looks like a vast grave yard. Everywhere, as far as eye can see, the landscape is sown with marble monuments of varying shapes and heights, all firmly fixed in the earth. By moonlight, 'tis positively

uncanny.

It happened in this wise: the country is all underlain by marble. The marble is soluble, and underneath its thick blanket of soil for a million years or so the percolating waters dissolved it out in strange hollows and protuberances, fantastic forms of every shape. Along came the gold miner, who scraped up and washed away every bit of the surface soil, leaving the bare skeleton of rock exposed to the elements. This skeleton is a weird grave yard when viewed by the light of the moon.

Pretty Near Right, Too

On the train the other day I came across P. B. Westerman, principal of the Oakdale High School in Stanislaus County. Westerman is a blunt, honest fellow, with a good natured face beaming like the full moon. Said he: "We keep our high school going till 4 o'clock in the afternoon. I think that is the wiser plan. It is better for the young people to have their work period broken by recesses. They can study better at the school than at home. Their materials, paper, ink, pencils, pens, books of reference, maps and all that are at the school, not at home. When they have engaged in scholastic things from 9 till 4, that is enough! Their minds should be free from school the rest of the twenty-four hours. Moreover, it is a nuisance to the home to have the children around, stewing and fretting over the things that were better done at the school house. Few homes have a separate room

my mothing at a". It reminds one of Benami FrankMosetot a letter of Rovenenation of a Person Yot by Imagpainted With," written in Pars 10 years art

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EDUCATIONAL BILLS THAT HAVE BEEN APPROVED BY THE GOVERNOR

By Job Wood, Jr.

Since the last issue of the "Journal" the following educational bills have been approved by the Governor and will in Idue time become laws:

Senate Bill No. 505. By Senator Estudillo. Approved April 17, 1909 Section 1. Section seventeen hundred and seventy-one of the Political Code of California is hereby amended to read as follows: 1771. County boards of education have power:

1. To adopt rules and regulations, not inconsistent with the laws of this state, for their own government.

2. To prescribe and enforce rules for the examination of teachers, to examine applicants for elementary school certificates and special certificates, and to establish a standard of proficiency which will entitle the person examined to a certificate.

3. To grant, in accordance with sections seventeen hundred and seventy-two and seventeen hundred and seventy-five of this code, the following certificates, renewable at the option of the board:

a. Secondary school certificates, authorizing the holders to teach in any secondary school in the county, or in any elementary school in the county.

b. Elementary school certificates, authorizing the holders to teach in any elementary school in the county.

c. Kindergarten-primary certificates, authorizing the holders to teach in the kindergarten class of any elementary school in the county. d. Special certificates, authorizing the holders to teach in the schools of the county such special branch or branches of learning and in such grades as are named in such certificates.

4. To grant, in accordance with subdivision four of section seventeen hundred and seventy-five of this code, permanent certificates of the grade and kind designated therein. Every certificate that is not a permanent certificate shall be valid for six years; provided, that when any certificate shall be granted on a recommendation that has been given for a limited period only, such certificate shall not be valid for a longer period than that specified in the recommendation. All certificates must be issued upon the blank forms prepared by the superintendent of public instruction, and must have the impress of the seal of the board.

5. To adopt a list of books and apparatus for district school libraries and books for supplementary use in elementary schools in their respective counties and cities and counties, as required by section seventeen hundred and twelve of the Political Code; provided, that no pupil shall be required to purchase said supplemental books, and pupils must be expressly notified by teachers that it is not required or desirable that such books for such supplemental use be purchased by pupils or parents. When supplemental books are purchased they must be paid for by the school district. Except in cities having a city board of education, to prescribe and enforce in the

for study. In the general living room the pupil cannot really study. He is interrupted by callers, conversation, work, music until he forgets how to apply his mind steadily."

"It is saner and safer to have regular recesses, stay till four o'clock, and then be free of all school work till next morning at nine. That is what we think at Oakdale, anyhow," concluded Westerman.

Something New in Institute Programs

The programs prepared by Miss Julia Jones of Mariposa for her county institute were the daintiest and handsomest I have seen this year. They were clearly and beautifully printed on pure white cardboard, with an outside page blank. These outside pages were decorated by exquisite water color paintings done by hand. One of the teachers was the artist who did the work. You may guess that these programs were used with jealous care during the session, so that they would still be in good condition to carry home as souvenirs. Mine had a handsome butterfly, done in green, orange and black; -an appropriate symbol, since Mariposa is the Spanish word for butterfly.

From the South

F. W. Conrad, City Superintendent at San Bernardino, has written a Handbook for Pupils and Teachers, which is printed in cloth by his Board of Education and supplied gratis to his schools. It is a brief and pointed treatise for drill in language and the correction of common errors in speech. It is forcible and vigorous and could be used with good effect by any teacher.

Makes One Feel Good

I have a little letter from a little teacher that I saw at work last year away out in the wilds of one of the most lonesome and inaccessible regions in all this State; thus:

"I found I could not well finish my school in time for the beginning of the University, so kept on teaching there ten months in all. I had an opportunity to try all the winter

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