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earnest plea to all to keep our streams pure and sweet and should be read and heeded by everyone.

There is perhaps no other one thing that does as much harm, when looked at from the view point of public health, as the pollution of the waters of our State. Nor is the damage all to health, commercial interests are involved as well. It is easy to dispose of sewage, garbage and other waste material by throwing it into a nearby stream or lake and we often hear the argument that streams are nature's sewers.

This is not a fact, for in nature there is no such thing as a sewer or sewage. The waste is returned to the earth in small quantities well distributed over the surface and does no harm. The sun and air having a chance to apply their destructive action on these waste matters and change them to material for the food of plants.

As mankind congregate in cities they cannot individually distribute their waste and the community has to do it as an unit and sewers and garbage collection is the result. This waste is composed of the most filthy material and is a deadly poison. Its only place is the soil which will properly destroy it and utilize it for our good.

In the streams it settles in the beds, defiles the banks' and poisons the water. Typhoid fever, cholera and other diseases. are carried in this way and yearly thousands die from this pollution of the streams.

The law of the States forbids it and while it is only a misdemeanor, punishable by fine or imprisonment, it is really murder if another dies from our violation of the law.

What is more horrible when we lie down to drink out of an apparently pure mountain stream, than to think we may be drinking from a cess pool; that possibly just around the bend or behind the first clump of trees there is established over the stream a toilet for the accommodation of people.

Is it any wonder that many coming home after a summer vacation in the mountains have typhoid fever? This is how it is spread in very many cases.

Teach the children that the streams are sacred and must not be defiled. They are one of God's greatest gifts and their pollution shows lack of our appreciation. It is a sacrilege to pray to him to deliver you from evil when you are constantly thwarting His efforts to do so.

Think not that your defilement is too small to be of harm. Yours may be the worst element of death and possibly the grave already holds the victim of your carelessness and the broken family circle condemns you as its cause.

High School Secret Organizations and the

Board of Education of Berkeley.

Published to Illustrate a Successful Way to Deal with a Serious Problem.

On October 13, 1908, the Board of Education of Berkeley adopted the following resolution and placed a copy in the hands of every high school pupil:

"Whereas, and because of the standing of our local school, the University of California has extended to it the privilege of exempting from the university entrance examinations such of its graduates as its principal recommends; and whereas the Board of Education of Berkeley has withheld all privileges of the school other than attendance upon classes and graduation and other than this privilege of entering the university without examination, from all high school students who are member of any secret society or club, whether bearing the name of the local school or whether the organization in question is comprised largely of students of the local school though not bearing the school name; be it resolved that in addition to the privileges now withheld by the Board from members of such organizations that this further privilege of being recommended to the university for admission without examination be also withheld and that the Board hereby requests the principal of the high school not to issue the recommendation required to any student who joins such an organization after date and to any student who remains a member of such an organization after November 24, 1908."

On November 13th all members of secret organizations in the high school were called together and addressed by the City Superintendent of Schools as follows:

"Inasmuch as Mr. James has stated that there is some confusion among you relative to the recent ruling of the Board concerning secret organizations and inasmuch as the Board of Education has asked me to interpret and administer this ruling, I am here to speak briefly of the same. I do not want to coerce you in the least, but to lay before you as clearly as I can the Board's attitude in the matter in order that you may determine your action with intelligence.

The Board of Education of Berkeley is opposed to the existence of secret organizations in the high school believing such to be detrimental to the welfare of the individual members of such organizations and to the school as a whole, and among others for the following general reasons:

1. They tend to destroy the unity and harmony of the School. Where the student body should be a unit standing squarely back of every measure looking toward the betterment of the school morals and where it should strongly support every school activity-literary or athletic-secret organizations divide the student body into groups. Instead of interesting itself in the general activities which it refuses to share with its fellows and which diverts the interest and attention of its members from those measures which all should support. In short these organizations tend to keep their members from doing the things they would otherwise do if they were loyal members of a united school.

2. They set up standards which are different from, if not opposed to the standards set up by the school authorities and by the world at large. In general these societies are organized on a social basis and oftentimes the young man who cannot dance well, smoke well and dress well is not wanted. Among young people a proper attention to activities of a social nature is highly desirable and is encouraged by school authorities. But the cultivation of social amenities must never be elevated into an end,— it must be kept properly subordinated to the real and serious work of the school. Success out in the world-the world for which we are trying to prepare you for an effective entrance, is not determined by any such artificial standards as you set up in your organizations. In America, at any rate, Success does not stand. by your side and ask, "Who is your father?" How much money have you?" "How well do you dance?" It asks only, “Are you honest?" "Are you on the level?" Can you look your man squarely in the eye?" "Have you paid the price in terms of your own effort?" And in this examination which the Old World gives, the son of the hod-carrier oftentimes makes a higher record than does the son of the millionaire.

3. They tend to break down respect for properly constituted authority. If there is any one lesson which our American young people need to learn more than any other it is this, that there is such a thing as properly constituted authority and that it must be respected. Freedom, in its true meaning, is a positive and not a negative term. It refers not so much to the things we give up and get rid of as to the things we tie to. Little Orloff, a Russian boy in one of the schools under my supervision in Los Angeles, voiced too well our popular conception of freedom. He had been in this country just long enough to pick up a little of our language but a great deal of our spirit. He did not behave properly and his teacher said to him, "Orloff, what is the matter with you, why don't you obey me?" He replied in his broken English which I shall not try to imitate,-"Teacher, in Russia I obey,

America is the land of freedom so in America, I do not obey." Yet the world is permeated by law. The chemist in his laboratory is trying to discover the laws which determine chemical action; the physicist is trying to determine the laws operating among physical phenomena; likewise the biologist, the horticulturist, the scientific farmer, the sociologist and the physician,-all these men are devoting their time, their money, indeed, in instances, their lives to the problem of determining the laws and principles which operate in their respective fields. And why?-in order that Man may be free for it is the truth which sets one free and knowledge of truth implies the knowledge of limitations.

A thing is not right because I believe it; a deed of mine is not proper because I perform it; my wish should not be granted because I wish it. Indeed, at every step of the way I must continually square my life, my thoughts, my actions by standards which lie outside myself, and which have been set up by the society in which I live. How can you have an honest man if as a boy in the home and in the school he is not honest? How can men and women be dependable and worthy of trust if they have not practiced these virtues as children? How can we expect our future men and women to become citizens who respect law and order and who are willing to subordinate their own personal ends to the common good, if as young men and young women here in this high school you do not conform to these ideals?

Secret organizations among high school young people tend to create an undercurrent of antagonism to this proper authority; they tend to create in you a spirit of indifference to consequences, and when they have grown old and strong they frequently come to be a source of much annoyance and at times of actual danger in the government of a school.

Again, secret organizations in the high school are undemocratic and if our public schools are to stand for anything at all they must stand for equality of opportunity and the nonrecognition of rank, and class and caste. Then too, they are unnecessary. They fill no real need as college fraternities may do. You live at home; you are not yet ready to choose a life which lies outside your home life.

There are certain privileges which the Board of Education, acting in its capacity as holder of a trust, has in its power to extend to or withhold from students of this school. Within certain limitations prescribed by law, it may withhold either entrance to or graduation from the school; it may withhold the privilege of participating in the various activities of the school; again it may withhold the privilege of exempting the graduates of the school from the entrance examinations of the university.

With the exception of the privilege of attending classes and graduating, the Board has decided that after November 24th, it will withdraw those privileges which I have enumerated from all who by that time have not satisfied the Board with respect to their withdrawal from secret organizations. It is not impossible that at a later time, if necessary, the Board will withdraw from such even the privileges of attendance upon classes and graduation though this action will not be taken at this time.

It seems clear that the technical wording of the Board's resolution in the matter can scarcely be conformed to by you for I am informed that you have no provision in the constitutions of your organizations which permits the individual to "resign." You can, however, show to the Board your desire to conform to the spirit of the resolution and likewise your good faith in the matter by surrendering your charters and becoming inactive as local organizations. In lieu of your inability to resign as individuals, I am convinced that the Board will accept such action. However, the Board will not be satisfied if you stop short or doing all that you can do toward severing your connection with the organizations of which you are members.

One word further, I do not want a single one of you to take any action in this matter unless you take it in good faith. Any attempt at evasion, or deception; or any attempt to secure the privileges referred to, through subterfuge will be met by immediate dismissal for we have no place in this school for dishonest people. If you do not desire to conform to this ruling and thereby avail yourselves of these privileges in an above board manner, well and good. We may not think much of your judgment but we will respect your honesty.

I repeat what I said at the beginning of my talk; I do not wish in any manner whatsoever to coerce or influence you. My only object in appearing before you is to interpret to you as clearly as I can, the Board's attitude in this matter to the end that your decision may be an intelligent one."

When it came to interpreting and apply the ruling of the Board it was found that the sixteen secret organizations in the school fell into two groups comprising; (1) organizations in which the active membership was largely within the school; and (2) organizations in which only a minority of the active members were students enrolled in the school.

As to the first group the following form properly filled out was required:

"It being impossible for members of the

Fraternity (Sorority) as individuals to resign from the National organization to which we belong, and wishing to comply with the rul

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