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The following statement shows the oscillations of the national debt of the kingdom from 1748:

Annual Principal.

Charge. At the end of the Spanish War, 1748.

£75,812,132

£3,165,766 Decrease during eigbt years' peace..

1,237,107

412,199 At the commencement of the Seven Years' War, 1756.

74,575,025

2,753.566 Increase during the war..

58,141,024

2,279,167 At the Peace of Paris, 1763..

132,716,049

5,032,733 Decrease during twelve years' peace

5,873,238

3:2,214 At the commencement of the American War, 177.).

126,812,811

4,703,519 Increase during the war.

116,220,334

-4,837,737 At the end of the American War, 1784.

243,063, 145

9,514,256 Decrease during the peace..

3,399,724

109,077 At the commencement of the French War, 1792.

239,663,421

9,432,179 Increase during the war..

297,989,587

10,836,372 At the Peace of Amiens, 1802.

537,653,008

20,268,551 Increase during war with Napoleon..

3:23,386,041

12,377,067 At the Peace of Paris, 1815.

861,039,049

32,645,618 Decrease during forty years..

91,956,500

4,930,415 At commencement of Crimean War, 1854

769,082,549

27,715,203 Increase during the war.

39,026,173

834,836 Debt in 1857..

808,108,722

28,550,039 Decrease since the Crimean War.

151,109,781

3,550,039 Debt on March 31, 1895.

656,998,941

25,000,000 Debt on March 31, 1896

648,474,143

25,000,000 Debt on March 31, 1897.

640,773,679

25,000,000 Debt on March 31, 1898.

34,435,704

25,000,000

Agriculture.

The statement following shows the acreage in cereals and green crops in Great Britain and Ireland respectively:

GREAT BRITAIN.
Wheat, Barley. Oats. Beans. Peas. Potatoes. Turnips.
Year.
Acres.
Acres.

Acres. Acres. Acres. Acres. Acres. 3,630,300 2,287,987 2,596,384 559,044 310,547 520, 430 2,133,336 1894.

1,927,962 2,095,771 3,253, 401 244,180 243,043 504,454 1,956,573 1995

1,417,483 2,166,279 3,296,063 242,665 209,024 541.217 1,915,9012

1.693,957 2,104,764 3,095,488 251,076 196,561 563,741 1,883,118 NG

1.887,805 2,035, 249 3,034,999 228,912 190,656 504,914 1,833,145

IRELAND.

188,711 49,342 36,529 37,919 46.880

212,230
164,780
171,785
173,396
170 634

1,480,186
1,254,813
1,216,370
1,193, 604
1,175, 487

9,646
2,784
2,354
1,771
1,377

1,756

401 498 318 440

892,421 717,120 710,383 705,652 677,765

333.487 311,294 313,248 308,494 308,942

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LIVE STOCK IN 1897.

United England.

Wales, Scotland. Ireland. Kingdom.* Horses.

1,168,763

153,282
204,379

534,133 2,069,852 Cattle.

4,567, 834

709, 120 1,223,543 4,463,935 11,004,034 Sheep...

15,721,213 3,195,359 7,423,868 4,157,581 30,567,061 Pigs.

1,990,534

216,447

135,321 1,327,226 3,682,819 The following facts are taken from Mulhall :

Since 1846 there has been a decline in acreage of nearly two millions, but this has been compensated by the increased pastoral industry. Below are shown the figures : Year. Grain. Green Crops. Pasture.

Total. 1846.

11,600,000
10,330,000
22,940,000

44,870,000 1895.

8,870,000
11,180,000
27,830,000

47,880,000 The average production of crops and meat for the three years 1893-4-5 was: Wheat, 1,240,000 tons; barley, 1,820,000 tons; oats, etc., 4,460,000 tons; potatoes, 6,100,000 tons; turnips, 30,300,000 tons; hay, 12,300,000 tons: meat, 1,100,000 tons.

Notwithstanding that the price of grain has fallen 40 per cent. since 1846, the gross value of farm products then was £218,000,000, as against $230,000,000, the average value for 1893-4-5. The following figures will show the relation between labor and production and the influence of machinery thereon: Year.

Hands.

Product, £'s. £'s Per Hand. 1846.

3,519,000
218,000,000

62 1895..

2,527,000
230,000,000

91 From these figures it may be deduced that two men now produce in quantity what five did then. The fluctuations of agricultural capital are shown below in millions pounds sterling:

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IMPORTS, EXPORTS, CONSUMPTION, AND STOCK OF COTTON. The following shows the quantities of each description of cotton for 1897, in thousands of pounds, and the corresponding totals of previous years: 1897.

Import.

Export. Consumption. Stock Dec. 31. American.

1,420,5:30

138,989
1,331,19

356,285 Brazilian.

17,300
1,004
15,286

3,017 Egyptian..

298,817
70,690)
234.636

53,876 Peru, West Indian, etc.

8,951
3,163

7.247

4,816 East Indian, etc.

41,479
25,078
24,212

2,924 Total, 1897

1,787,077
238,924
1,612,023

420,918 Total, 1896.

1,806,087

191,090
1,644,661

587,027 Total, 1895.

1,815,074

209,211
1,631,953

616,690 Total, 1894

1,831,546

244,396
1,613,373

612,781 Total, 1893.

1,498,062

235,580
1,482,664

666,005 AVERAGE PRICE OF COTTON.

d.

d.

434.

Ellison & Co., of Liverpool, give the following estimate of the average price of cotton at that port for a series of years:

1897. 1896. 1895. 1894. 1893. 1892. 1891. 1890. 1889. 1888.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

d.
d.

d. Import..... 4 5-16

4 3-16 454 53-16 4 13-16 55-16 5 13-16 5 11-16 5 17-32 Export.. 47-16 4 11-16 4 3-16 4 5-16 51-16 4 11-16 4 15-16 5 5-16 548 476 Consumpt'n.. 4 5-16 434 474 458 5 3 16 4 13-16 5 5-16 5 15-16 534

5 19-32 WOOL. Helmuth, Swartze & Co., London, give the following statements of the supply, export, and consumption of wool in the United Kingdom: Domestic Imports of Wool,

Left for Clip. Alpaca, and

Total

Home Con-
Estimated
Mohair.

Total.

Exports. sumption.
Year.

Lbs.
Lbs.
Lbs.
Lbs.

Lbs. 1893.

151,000,000 696,000,000 847,000,000 362,000,000 485,000,000 1894.

142,000,000 723,000,000 865,000,000 354,000,000 507,000,000 1895,

135,000,000 801,000,000 936.000.000 426,000,000 510,000,000 1898.

136,000,000 736,000,000 872,000,000 352,000,000 5:20.000.000 1897

139,000,000 767,000,000 906,000,000 411,000,000 495,000,000

FLAX, HEMP, AND JUTE.
The imports of these articles into the United Kingdom were as follows:
-Quantity

Value
Flax- Dressed, undressed, and Tons. Tons. Tons.


£

€ Tow or Codilla of

1897.
1896. 1895.

1897.
1896.

1895. From Russia..

73,379

77,874 1,998,482 1,821,523 2 154,275 Germany

947
1,443 1,687

23,937
44,434

47.404 Holland.

2,660
2,754 5,301 131,918

140,386

189.695 Belgium. 20,715 22,270 16,484 1,024,206 1,078,219

849,856 Other countries..

1,101
1,505 1.276

24,641
32,754

30,610 Total...

98.802 95, 199 102,622 3,203,184 3,117,316 3,270,840 Hemp-Dressed, undressed, and

Tow or Codilla of From Russia..

7,416 11,071 12,540 177,507 273,159 316,325 Germany 8.485 9,322 10,354 201,845 2:27,397

48,714 Italy 15,975 11.02. 10,914 419,154 329,999

355,580
British East Indies
6,77 5,369 4,999

94,614
89,891

78.031
Philippine Islands..
44,5,8 39,319 47,957 759,111 731.633

891,266 Other countries..

6,575 15,411 11,187 111,228 289,557 197.721 Total........

89,906 91,717 97,951 1,763,459 1,951,486 2,087,367 Jute.....

3:36,919 310.619 392,0:25 4,142,610 4,167,992 4,358,038 Total of flax, hemp, and jute. 526,627 5:27,565 592,598 9,109,253 9,236,794 9,716,543

67,227

Fisheries.

The quantity and value of fish, excluding shell fish, landed on the coast of the United Kingdom for the year 1897 were as follows: England and Wales, 397,260 tons, value £5,508,494 : Scotland, 250,087 tons, value £1,627,622 ; Ireland, 40,916 tons, value £283,944; total United Kingdom, 688,283 tons, value 57,480,060; including shell fish, £7,907,569.

Imports and Exports.

The merchandise imports and exports of Great Britain have been as follows for a series of years :

-Exports

Total
Foreign
British

Total Imports and
Year.

Imports. and Colonial. Produce. Exports. Exports. 1890.

£120,691,997 £64,721,533 £263,530,585 £328,252,118 £748,944,115 1891.

435,441,264 61,878,568 247,235, 150 309,113,718 744,554,982 1892.

423,793,882 64,423,767 227, 138,270 291,640,166 715, 434,048 1893..

404,688,178 58,878,552 218,259,718 277,138,270 681,826,448 1894

408,344,810 57,780,230 216,005,637 273,785,867 682,130,677 1895.

416,689,658 59,704,161 226, 128,246 285,832, 407 702,522,065 1896.

441,808,904 56,233,663 240,145,551 296,379,214 738,188,118 1897

451,238,683 59,833,677 234,350,003 294,183,680 745, 422,383

CLASSES OF ARTICLES FOR TWELVE MONTHS ENDED DECEMBER 31.

Imports from foreign countries and British possessions (in thousands of pounds):

1897.

1896. Animals, living (for food).

£11,380 £10,438 (A.) Articles of food and drink, duty free.

151,550 147.000 (B.) Articles of food and drink, dutiable.

26,791 25,568 Tobacco, dutiable..

4,072

4,352 Metals..

21.265 20,492 Chemicals, dyestuffs, and tanning substances.

6,006

6,776 Oils...

7,641

8,459 Raw materials for textile manufactures

70,263 74,757 Raw materials for sundry industries and manufactures.

52,085

47,241 Manufactured articles

85,038

81,379 (A.) Miscellaneous articles.

14,139

14,330 (B.) Parcel post.

1,004

1,012 Total value...

£451,38 £441.808

1895. £8.966 140,242 25,058

3,353 18,656 6,558 8,111 70,769 44,024 75,601 14,367

978

£416,689

£793 11,062 18,298

101,377

Exports of British and Irish produce and manufactures (in thousands of pounds): Animals, living..

£1,133

£941 Articles of food and drink

12,138 11.684 Raw materials.

20,140

17.687 Articles manufactured and partly manufactured, viz. : (A.) Yarns and textile fabrics..

96,618 105,3:29 (B.) Metals and articles manufactured therefrom (except machinery)...

31,487 33,549 (C.) Machinery and mill work

16,282

17,014 (D.) Apparel and articles of personal use.

9,878

10,474 (E.) Chemicals, and chemical and medicinal preparations.

8.674

8,242 (F.) All other articles, either manufactured or partly manufactured...

32,939 33,552 (G.) Parcel post.

2,057

1,669 Total value...

£234,350 £240,145

28,886 15,150 9,307 8,288

31,387

1,337

£225,

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38.97

DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH FOREIGN TRADE.

-Imports From

-Exports To

In Thousands of £'s.

In Thousands of £'s.

1897. 1896.

1895. 1894. 1897. 1896. 1895.

£2,275 £22,642 £24,737 £23,599 £7,543 £7,230 £7,004
9,846 9,527 8,784 8,330

3,568 3,163 3,021
4,989 4,322 3.832

3,657 2,251 1,995 1,896
10,970

10,687 9,799 9,544 3,088 2,858 9,700
26,230
27,567 26,993 28,874 24,605

20,581
28,982 19,255 28,420 27,606 8,857 8,350 7,374
2.227
19,255 17,545 17,052 8,231 7,824

7,325
53,260 49,974

47,471 43,450 13,824 14,258 13,870
2,646 2,604 2,492 2,390 1,417 15

1,461

13,118 11,984 11,315 10,547 3,247 3,46 3,638

3,324

3,168 3,133 3,129 5,609 5,150 5,546

1,282 1,256

1.22

1,386

1,549 1,508 1,716

1.634 1,241 1,241 1,288

835

850

806

6,212 5,330 5,751
4,900 6,557 5,044

5,348
9,295

9,632 9,524 9,285 4,435 3,780 3,348

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* The total of raw and refined sugars.

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