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the mere proposal. So in the small ceived an anonymous complaint Etonian the sense of personal upon the subject, of which (as dignity revolts against the præ- being anonymous) they very propostor's cane, while he feels no loss perly took no direct notice; but it of independence in the domiciliary seems pretty clear that the evil, to visits of the master; while the whatever extent it may have exlittle Rugbeian takes his licking isted, is rapidly becoming a thing cheerfully, but stoutly locks his of the past. The late head of the study door in the tallest præpos- school admits that there were “two tor's face, and denounces even the cases, very bad ones," during his visit of an inquisitive master as an own time, and the energetic way in intrusion on his domestic privacy. which they were punished by the Even Royal Commissioners decline process of Lynch law known as “a to dogmatise upon the points of public whopping”-shows at least honour in these respective systems, that the practice was foreign to the and wisely make no attempt to cut tone and feeling of the school. out public school boys all of one
“It was considered one of the most pattern. And we must content
serious offences which a boy could comourselves with quoting Pindar, as mit: a meeting was called, and the of. the old historian does, to the effect fender was publicly caned by the head that “custom is sovereign over all” of the school, the senior monitors being -public schools included.
present as well as the whole school, sumAs to bullying, which in bygone moned in the fourth-form room, and then times used to make many a boy's
the offender was publicly 'whopped,' life miserable for his first two or
or before a monitors' meeting in the
school library." three years at a public school, it is as little to be found now at Rugby In the matter of fagging, there is as at Eton. Dr Temple says but one possible complaint which “There is very little of it at Rugby
can be made at Rugby; that there is The public opinion of the school is ex.
too little of it. It has become so very ceedingly sound upon two points; it nearly nominal, that it seems to is very sound upon truth, and it is have lost, with the abuses, almost very sound upon bullying ; I am quite all the advantages of the system. sure of the body of the school on those Dusting a præpostor's study, maktwo points; it would not only resist ing his toast, and attending his call bullying, but it would resist it indig for half an hour at supper, seems
to be almost less than is required And this statement is fully borne even at Eton. The old system of out by the younger witnesses. “keeping goal ” at the “big-side"
Neither is there much to com- football, by which a small boy was plain of in this respect at Harrow. compelled to stand shivering in the The head-master says in his evi- cold for some two hours of almost dence—“ We do not regard bully- every winter half-holiday, without ing as one of the great dangers being allowed to amuse himself or which we have practically to appre- keep himself warm by taking any hend ;” and Mr Harris states that share in the game, was, as Dr “a case of bullying is of very rare Temple very justly calls it, “opoccurrence indeed.” Lord Claren- pressive" in the extreme, and he don indeed remarks that “there deserves every credit for having have been some very notorious abolished it; but when we are told cases of bullying at Harrow," and that the fagging-out at cricket has that “there was a notion that it very nearly disappeared, and that was carried on there to a consider- although a Sixth-Form boy has the able extent;'* and the Commis- power of employing fags to field sioners during their sittings re- for him, it is a power which is now
* Harrow Evidence, 919, 1571.
“ very rarely exercised," we are by functionaries whom Provost Goodno means inclined to share the sa- ford of Eton (and we cordially tisfaction with which the informa- agree with him) would wish to see tion will no doubt be received in banished by authority from every some quarters. There is no real school cricket-ground in the kingbardship in an elder boy employing dom. In former days, it was contwo or three younger ones in stop- sidered one of the advantages of a ping his balls for an hour or so: it public school life that boys learnt is one of the most practically con- to do things for themselves. The venientof the Sixth-Form privileges, system of education pursued at Mr and may very fairly be conceded to Squeers's well-known establishment his position in the school : the ser- was far from perfect ; but that vice has nothing in it that is menial “first class in English spelling and or degrading, and it is what he philosophy," in which a boy learnt might very reasonably require from not only to spell "horse” but to his younger brothers at home. It rub him down, always struck us as only becomes oppressive when a a redeeming feature. And an hour's boy is kept at it too long at a time, rolling of the old cricket-ground at or so often as to cut up his own Rugby was very wholesome and imhalf-holidays too much; and this proving exercise for a young genneed never be the case in so large a tleman who was rather loud in his school as Rugby. The Report re- orders to servants at home. The marks very justly, that “the Har- fault of schools fifty years ago was row rule as to cricket fagging ap- hardness ; future years will not impears to be well calculated to pre- prove them if they introduce softness serve it from abuse without entire- instead. Even at Rugby, the comly abolishing it." There are certain parative luxuriousness of modern boys (known familiarly as slave- habits seriously diminishes the prodrivers) appointed by the head of fits of the boarding-house masters, the school to send fags down to ser- by “necessitating very much better vice on the cricket-ground in regu- accommodation, and therefore much lar rotation. It is so arranged that larger rents, and secondly, a great no boy has to be fagged in this many more servants of a different manner more than once a-week; class ;" and this is not only likely to and if he is sent down a second involve a future increase in the chartime," he may simply come to the ges to parents (which Dr Temple captain of the eleven," who at once suggests), but has already led to some admits the appeal. The Commis difficulty in obtaining first-rate men sioners have not thought it beneath as masters when vacancies occur, their office to suggest a doubt whe- because the profits of a boarding. ther“ the total abolition of fagging- house (which form one of the main out at cricket would not unneces- sources of emolument), no longer sarily shorten the apprenticeship in offer the same inducement as forthe less exciting but not useless merly. And yet it is of Rugby that practice of fielding ;” a suggestion the Commissioners specially report to which we hope the reformers of that “as the charge for board is Rugby will give its due weight. moderate, so is the dietary simple ;" We do not think it even a distinct that "it certainly does not incline matter for congratulation that the too much to a high scale,” though fags have no longer anything to do amply sufficient "to support a stuwith keeping the cricket-ground in dious life," as well as “football in order. It is the fashion now at its most combative form.” In short, public schools that the boys should the school makes some respectable have everything done for them; attempt to maintain that “plain even the stumps and bats are now, living and high thinking” which at most schools, carried down to one who carried off its bighest honthe ground by one of those paid ours once recommended in a time
of trouble to his fellow-students at work with any real success, there Oxford.*
can be no question ; but it may be There is one point of school gov- doubted whether the enforcing it ernment common to both Harrow as a necessary part of the school and Rugby, to which they owe constitution, as the Commissioners much of their present success and recommend in their general Reprosperity ; it is the cordial work- port, would not be quite as apt to ing together of the head-master and introduce elements of discord. The his staff. Nothing is clearer, both summoning of any such council from Dr Temple’s and Mr Butler's should be a spontaneous and cordial evidence than this ; that, retaining motion of the head-master. But it for themselves in theory the supreme is, as the Report observes, “imposand unfettered control of all the sible to read the evidence furnished school regulations, and accepting from these schools and from Eton all the responsibility which this respectively, without perceiving involves, in practice they would that in the former the assistants take no step of importance without have a thorough sense of co-operaconsulting their assistant-masters, tion with the head - master, which and would give the greatest weight is wanting in the other.” I In the to any of their suggestions or re- Rugby evidence especially, every monstrances. The Harrow masters one who has read Dr Temple's exmeet regularly once a-fortnight for amination will be quite prepared consultation at the head - master's to find that the footing upon which house. “I habitually consult all he stands not only with Rugby of the masters," says Mr Butler; masters but with Rugby boys, is “I should attribute the greatest thoroughly open and cordial ; that, importance to their opinions, whe- as one of his pupils testifies, there ther expressed at their meetings or is “a very great deal of interprivately.” At Rugby, the system course between him and the boys," of regular councils for the purpose and that the influence of his perof discussing all matters connected sonal character is felt “ very perwith the discipline and studies of ceptibly indeed.” In short, as the school was introduced by Dr Lord Clarendon sums up the state Arnold, first in the good old-fash- of things at Rugby in a few permisioned way of friendly dinners, then sible leading questions-not at all for a short period every morning more than the whole tone of the for about a quarter of an hour be- previous evidence fairly warrantsfore“ second lesson,” and latterly, “the masters were on very good in more formal fashion, at intervals terms with each other, and with of about three weeks. These meet the boys,—there was a friendly reings fell somewhat into abeyance lation between them, as if the whole under Dr Goulburn, but have been thing was a joint-stock company, resumed by the present head-mas- and success the object of all." $ If ter. “To this," say Mr Anstey that feeling has indeed been estaband Mr Buckoll, who have worked lished, and can be maintained there, loyally on the school staff under it is not necessary to inquire into many successive rulers,—" to this it the special character of the teachis attributable, in a very great de- ing, or the details of the curricu. gree, that we have so very harmoni- lum of study, to account for the ous a working of the school.”+ Of undoubted popularity and success the necessity of some such practice of Rugby School. in order to insure anything like that The Commissioners seem, indeed, unity of spirit and action through almost to have overstepped the limits out the body of masters, without of their office-which we take to which no public school can hope to have been “ to inquire," rather than
* A. H. Clough of Oriel College, in a pamphlet published during the Irish famine. + Evidence, 119.
# Report, p. 6.
$ Evidence, 2392, &c.
authoritatively to praise or blame- by every year from the lower forms, when they deliver this as the re- and to most of them I think that our sult of the “ general impression” system does but scant justice. I am which they have derived from the
not speaking of the idle and the dull,
but of a very large class of boys of good Rugby evidence :
natural abilities and industry, who yet “A head-master, whose character
do not reach high positions in the school. for ability, zeal, and practical success
At about sixteen years of age this type promises to make him conspicuous on
of mind appears to reach the length of the list of Rugby head-masters ; a staff
its classical tether, and however much of assistants who combine with skill. worked after that time it takes no poability, and knowledge such a lively
lish. ... They have never reached the personal interest in the school as induces point at which the study of classics bethem to make habitual sacrifices for its gins to acquire its greatest value as an welfare : a system of mental training engine of moral discipline ; and apart which comprehends almost every gube from the moral and social advantages, ject by which the minds of boys can
and the unconscious self-education of a be enlarged and invigorated ; a' tradi. large school, their last two or three tional spirit among the boys of respect years at Rugby are, I think, almost unand honour for intellectual work'; a profitable.”- Appendix, p. 314. system of discipline which, while main.
Mr Evans thinks that this applies taining the noble and wholesome tradi. tion of public schools that the abler to “one-half, at least," of those and more industrious should command who leave the school. The remand govern the rest, still holds in re. edy which he would propose is the serve a maturer discretion to moderate adoption of the system generally excess, guide uncertainty, and also to known as “ bifurcation" - i. e.. support the legitimate exercise of power; a system of physical training which,
a classification of the boys, after while it distinguishes the strong,
they have reached a certain standstrengthens the studious, and spares ing in the school, into two di the weak ; a religious cultivation which, departments ; in one of which the although active, is not overstrained, but classical studies would be still conleaves something for solemn occasions tinued as at present, while in the to bring out : such are some of the gen
other mathematics, physical science, eral conditions which have presented themselves to notice during our investi.
modern languages, and history, gation. They co far also, we think, to would, to a great extent, take their explain that public confidence which place. Such a system is actually the school has for many years possessed, at work, under various modificaand never since the days of Arnold in tions, at Marlborough, Cheltenham, larger measure than at the present mo. Wellington and King's Colleges, ment."
and we may have more to say of The authorities of other schools
it hereafter. But Dr Temple is
not in favour of introducing it at which are doing their work honestly and ably may perhaps fairly take
Rugby, which he thinks would lose
very much more than it would gain exception to this elaborate panegy
by such an arrangement. He doubts ric, as savouring rather of the ad
“ whether the boys would get much vocate than the judicial inquirer ; he but there is no reason to question
betterdiscipline, as far as mere menthe facts upon which it is founded.
tal discipline is concerned,” and is
“quite sure that they would lose very Yet even this apparently perfect system does its work very imper
considerably in real cultivation." fectly. Such, at least, is the opin
Even Mr Evans, in his examination, ion of one of the ablest of its ad
admits that this second department
“ would, after all, give a kind of ministrators, Mr Charles Evans ; while the moral results of a Rugby
education inferior to that given at
present.” to be
No doubt of it; and education appear to him
though it would meet the cases of “ most satisfactory," he believes that “intellectually it is at once a
a few individual boys, the result in
the large majority would be open success and a failure.”
to the same failure and disappoint“A large number of boys leave Rug. ment; real application would be as
distasteful in the one class of studies number, it was stated that the colas in the other, and therefore real legers were members of “a sepaeducation as exceptional as ever. rate football and cricket club.” For, after all, the grand question to This statement is not literally corbe solved will be that which Lord rect; the words of the Report are Devon, in apparent despair at its -" They do not play together [i.e., being solved in any way by him with the oppidans), except at fives, self or his brother Commissioners, in some of the cricket clubs, and puts to one of the young Rugby in the first football club." -(Rewitnesses, and gets little help from port, p. 68.) It was stated in the his answer
same article that “no oppidan had “2216. Can you suggest any mode
now gained the Newcastle scholarby which a boy can be prevented from
ship for seven years." This was being idle?-I cannot."
the fact as appeared in the evidence given before the Commission
in 1862; but Mr Fremantle reNOTE.-In the previous article trieved the honour of the oppidans on the Eton Report in our June in this respect in 1863.