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tremendous pull against the com- decorum would prevent their sopany, who not only give long, but journing at Homburg or Wiesbaden. actually incalculable odds; for They could not, of course, be seen while Mr Briggs of the second “punting” at the play - table at class can be crumpled up for two Ems; but here is a legitimate game hundred pounds, the Hon. Sack- which all may join in, and where, ville de Cressy in the coupé cannot certainly, the anxiety that is said be even concussed under a thousand; to impart the chief ecstasy to the while, if the noble Duke in the ex- gamester's passion rises to the very press carriage be only greatly alarm- highest. It is heads and tails for a ed, the cost may be positively as- smashing stake, and ought to intertounding. This I certainly call hardest the most sluggish of mortals.
-very hard. When you book a betW hat a useful addition, then, at Newmarket you never have to would it be for one's Bradshaw to consider the rank of your opponent, have a tabular view of the “ odds" save as regards his solvency. He on the different lines, so that a may be a peer-he is very probably speculative individual, desiring to a publican-it is perfectly imma- provide for his family, might know terial to you; but not so here. where to address himself with best
We all know how a number of chance of an accident! One can what are termed technically serious imagine an assurance company people went to Exeter Hall to listen puffing its unparalleled advantages to the music of the “Traviata,' what and unrivalled opportunity, when no possible temptation would have four excursion trains were to start induced them to hear within the at five minutes' intervals, and the walls of a theatre. Now, may not prospect of a smash was little short these railway insurances be some- of a certainty. “Great attraction! thing of the same kind ? May it the late rains have injured the not be a means by which deans chief portion of the line, so that a and canons and other broad-hatted disaster is confidently looked for dignitaries may enjoy a little gamb- every hour. Make your game, genling without "going in" for Blind tlemen-make your game; nothing Hooky or Roulette ? Regard for received after the bell rings."
THE INTOXICATING LIQUORS BILL. Anything more absurd than the of lecturers have converted it into late debate in the House on the a profession. None denied the existbest means of suppressing intem- ence of the disease; what we craved perance it is very hard to imagine. was the cure. Some discrepancy of First of all, in the van, came the opinion prevailed as to whether the grievance to be redressed; and we vice was on the increase or the dehad a statistical statement of all crease. Statistics were given, and, of the gallons of strong drink con- course, statistics supported each assumed -all the moneys diverted sertion. This, however, was a mere from the legitimate uses of the fa- skirmish-the grand battle was, how mily-all the debauchees who rolled was drunkenness to be put down ? drunk through our streets, and all Mr Lawson's plan was : If fourthe offences directly originating in fifths of the ratepayers of any disthis degrading vice. Now, what trict were agreed that no spirituous conceivable order of mind could liquors should be sold there, that prompt a man to engage on such a such should become a law, and no laborious research? Who either licence for their sale should be doubts the enormity of drunkenness issued. The mover of this proor its freqnency? It is a theme posal, curiously enough, called this that we hear of incessantly. The “bringing public opinion to bear pulpit rings with it, the press pro- on the question.” What muddle claims it, the judges declare it in of intelligence could imagine this all their charges, and a special class to be an exercise of public opin
VOL. XCVI.-NO. DLXXXV.
ion I cannot imagine. Such, how- was somewhat ostentatiously parever, is the plan. Drunkenness aded in the debate, and members is to be repressed by making it vied with each other in declaring impossible. Did it never occur how often they dined out without to the honourable gentleman, that meeting a drunkard in the company. all legislative enactments whatever This is very gratifying and reassurwork not by enforcing what is ing; but I am not aware that anygood, but by punishing what is body ascribed the happy change to evil ? No law that ever was made the paucity of the decanters, and the would render people honest and difficulty of getting the bottle; or true to their engagements ; but we whether it was that four-fifths of arrive at a result not very dissimi. the party had declared an embargo lar by making dishonesty penal. on the sherry, and realised the old
The Decalogue declares : “Thou proverb by elevating necessity to shalt not commit a murder.” Hu- the rank of virtue. man law pronounces what will come Let me ask, who ever imagined of it if you do. It is, doubtless, very that the best way to render a solimperfect legislation, but there is no dier brave in battle was to take help for it. We accept such cases, care that he never saw an enemy, however, as the best defences we can and only frequented the society of find for our social condition, never Quakers ? and yet this is precisely for a moment presuming to think what Mr Lawson suggests. If his that we are rendering a vice impos- system be true, what becomes of sible by attaching to it a penalty. all moral discipline and all self-re
Mr Lawson, however, says, There straint? It is not through my own shall be no drunkenness, because convictions that I am sober; it is there shall be no liquor. Why not through no sense of the degradation extend the principle—for it is a that pertains to drunkenness, and the great discovery—and declare that, loss of social estimation that follows wherever four-fifths of the rate it, that I am temperate. It is because payers of a town or borough are four-fifths of the ratepayers declare of opinion that ingratitude is a that I shall have nodrink nearer than great offence to morals, and a stain the next parish; and this reminds of to human nature, in that district another weak point in the plan. where they reside there shall be no The Americans, who understand benefits conferred, nor any act of something of the evils of drink, on kindly aid or assistance rendered the principle that made Doctor Panby one man to his neighbour? I loss a good man, because he knew have no doubt that, by such legis- what wickedness was, lately passed lation, you would put down in- a law in Congress forbidding the gratitude. We use acts in the moral use of fermented liquors on board world pretty much as in the phy- all the ships of war. It was one of sical ; and it is entirely by the im- those sweeping pieces of legislation possibility of committing the offence that men enact when driven to do that this gentleman proposes to something, they know not exactly prevent its occurrence. But, in the what, by the enormity of some name of common sense, why do we great (abuse. Now, I have taken inveigh against monasteries and nun- considerable pains to inquire how neries-why are we so severe on a the plan operates, and what success system that substitutes restraint for has waited on it. From every offireason, and instead of correction sup- cer that I have questioned I have plies coercion? Surely this plan is received the same exact testimony: based on exactly the same principle. so long as the ships are at sea the Would it, I ask, cure a man of lying men only grumble at the privation; -I mean the vice, not the practice but once they touch port, and boats' to place him in a community where crews are permitted to go ashore, no party was permitted to talk ? drunkenness breaks out with ten
The example of the higher classes fold violence. For a while all real discipline is at an end ; parties are things ; and even they who, so to despatched to bring back defaulters, say, “liked their wine” too well, who themselves get reeling drunk; were slow to disparage themselves petty officers are insulted, and by an indulgence which good taste scenes of violence enacted that give declared to be ungentlemanlike. the unhappy locality where they Is it completely impossible to have landed the aspect of a town introduce some such sentiment as taken by assault and given up to pil- this into other orders of society & lage. I am not now describing alto- We see it certainly in some foreign gether from hearsay; I have wit- countries — why not in our own! nessed something of what I speak. Radical orators are incessantly tell.
As drunkenness, when the ship ing us of the mental powers and was at sea, was the rarest of all the intellectual cultivation of the events, and the good conduct of the working-classes, and I am well-dismen when on shore was the great posed to believe there is much truth object to be obtained, this system in what they say. Why not then may be, so far as the navy is con- adapt, to men so highly civilised, cerned, pronounced a decided failure. some of those sentiments that sway Whatever may be said about the pol- the classes more favoured of foricy of sowing a man's wild oats, no- tune? The French artisan would body, so far as I know, ever hinted deem it a disgrace to be drunkthat the crop should be perennial. so the Italian; even the German
Legislation can no more make would only go as far as a sort of men temperate than it can make beery bemuddlement that made him them cleanly or courteous. If Par- a more ideal representative of the liament could work miracles of this Vaterland : why must the Englishsort, it would make one really in man, of necessity, be the inferior in love with constitutional government. civilisation to these? I am not willBat what a crotchety thing all this ing to believe the task of such a reforamateur law-making is! Why did mation hopeless, though I am perit not occur to this well-intentioned fectly convinced that no greater folly gentleman to inquire how it is that could be committed than to attempt drunkenness is unknown, or nearly it by an Act of Parliament. unknown, in what are called the When legislation has led men to better classes? How is it that the be agreeable in society, unassumorgies our grandfathers liked so ing in manners, and gentle in dewell, and deemed the great essence portment, it may make them temof hospitality, are no longer heard perate in their liquor, but not of? The three-bottle man now before. The thing cannot be done could no more be found than the in committee, nor by a vote of the Plesiosaurus. He belongs to a past House. It is only to be accomtotally and essentially irrevocable. plished by the filtering process, by
And by what has this happy which the good habits of a nation change been effected ? Surely not drop down and permeate the strata by withdrawing temptation. Not beneath ; so that, in course of time, only have we an infinitely wider the whole mass, leavened by the same choice in fluids than our forefathers, ingredients, becomes one as combut they are served and ministered pletely in sentiment as in interest. with appliances far more tasteful “Four-fifths of the ratepayers” will and seductive. It is, however, to not effect this. After all, Mr Lawthe higher tone of society the revolu- son is only a second-hand discoverer. tion is owing. Men saw that drunk- His bill was a mere plagiarism from enness was disgraceful : it rendered beginning to end. The whole text of society disorderly and riotous; it in- his argument was said and sung by terfered with all real conversational poor Curran, full fifty odd years ago: pleasure ; it led to unmannerly ex- “My children, be chaste till you're tempted; cesses, and to quarrels. A higher
And humble your bodies with fasting cultivation repudiated all these Whenever you've nothing to eat."
While sober, be wise and discreet;
THE EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF NAVAL OFFICERS.
PROBABLY at no period of our to conduce most effectually to the history-certainly not at any time efficiency of the whole. And it during the present generation has would certainly be concluded by the Royal Navy occupied so large any reasonable person, that the a share of public consideration as careful and judicious training of at present, as may be easily per- the young lads destined to become ceived from the close attention the officers of the Fleet would be bestowed by Parliament upon all one of the first points looked to. matters relating to it, from the Would it be believed, therefore, constant discussions upon naval by any one not conversant with subjects with which the public naval affairs, that until these last press teems, and from the widely- very few years this important subspread and still increasing popu- ject has been utterly neglected, and larity of this noble service through- is only now, as it were, beginning out the length and breadth of these to receive that attention and care Islands. Hence no excuse is neces- which its consequence demands ? It sary for bringing forward any point is not too much to say that in no bearing upon the welfare and effici- other country has the training of ency of the Navy; and the particu- its naval officers been so disregardlar subject of which we propose to ed as in England, and we are still treat in this paper, is one that has far behind every other nation in not received that general considera- this respect. It may well be a tion which its importance justifies matter of no small pride and gratiand requires.
fication to the officers of the Navy, We propose, then, to consider the when they consider the many names present system of educating and distinguished in science which their training officers for the Royal Navy, body has furnished; for these have and to see how far this system meets been in a great measure self-taught, the requirements of the service. and owe nearly everything to their
If we remember the very early own exertions and industry, having age at which it is requisite for a striven to make up by these means lad to embark in a seafaring life in for the absence of advantages which order to make a good sailor—the should have been supplied them by age when the mind is most im- the State. pressionable, and in the most pli- The records of the educational able state for being moulded into branch of the naval service are any form, or trained in any direc- scanty indeed. The first attempt tion—if we bear in mind further at anything like a State interference the very peculiar and special re- with the training of lads intended quirements of the naval profession, for the Navy took place in 1729, we cannot fail to perceive how im- when a Royal Naval Academy was portant it is that a boy intended instituted in Portsmouth Dockyard for the Navy should receive that for that purpose. The scheme of particular sort of education which instruction which was framed for is best suited to his future career. this establishment was excellent. It might, with great reason, be sup- and well suited for the requireposed that, in this the greatest ments of the service, had it been maritime country of the world— made compulsory. It included the boasting a Navy famous in his- elements of a general education, as tory and equal in size to all other well as mathematics, navigation. navies combined-every branch of French, drawing, fortification, gunthis great service would be vigi- nery, and the small-arm exercises ; lantly watched and tended, so as together with the principles of shipbuilding, and practical seamanship This state of matters lasted until in all its branches, for which latter the close of the great war; but, in a small vessel was set apart. Had 1816, material alterations were made this arrangement extended to all in the arrangements. A school for those who entered the Navy, we naval architecture was added to the probably should not now have to establishment, and the staff of prolament the backward condition of fessors and masters was altered in the service in this respect; but the consequence. In 1828 the free evil genius of “half measures" education of naval officers' sons-a seemed to wield his baneful influ- boon which had been thankfully ence even in those days, for the enjoyed by them for fifty-five years entrance to the Academy was-was discontinued; they were now purely voluntary, and the building required to pay at a reduced rate, was only intended to contain forty in proportion to their rank. Moreboys, which was but a small pro- over, the number of appointments portion of those annually entered in open to them according to this the service. The voluntary system, scale-which had been reduced from inoreover, proved a total failure : forty to thirty in 1816—was now the nobility and gentry, for whose to be shared by the sons of military benefit the Academy was instituted, officers; and thus the advantages apparently did not care to send which the Navy had so long detheir sons there-preferring, pro- rived from the Academy were so bably, sending them at once to sea curtailed as to become little more under charge of some friend or re- than nominal. lative-for the maximum number In order to keep up the number of forty scholars was never attain- of students at the College, it had ed. In 1773, therefore, the numbers been found necessary, from time to having fallen very low, the King de time, to extend special privileges termined to offer a gratuitous edu- to those young officers who had cation to a certain number of naval joined the Navy through that estabofficers' sons; and, accordingly, fif- lishment; and this produced a disteen boys out of the forty, being cordance between the two classes sons of commissioned officers, were of officers that was found to be educated free of all expense. The productive of great inconvenience stimulus thus given to the Academy to the service. Accordingly, these revived its failing strength, and it advantages were gradually withcontinued on this footing until drawn during the later years of its 1806, when the enormous extent existence; and the College again of our naval armaments called for languished, and finally terminated a large increase of the number of its checkered career in the year officers ; and the Academy was en- 1837. From that date until 1857 larged for the accommodation of no steps whatever were taken to seventy pupils, being thenceforward re-establish any sort of training designated the Royal Naval Col- for naval officers, the system under lege. Forty out of the seventy boys which they joined the service durwere now to receive a free educa- ing these twenty years being the tion as the sons of naval officers; same as that applying previously and the plan of instruction was the to all those who did not pass same, with slight modifications, through the College. The age of as that which had been before es- admission into the Navy was from tablished for the Academy. But twelve to fourteen; and the only even this increased number of pu- qualification necessary to become pils came far short of the require an officer was, to be able to write ments of the service, and therefore English from dictation, to know the greater part of the young officers the first four rules of arithmetic, joined the Navy without passing Reduction, and the Rule of Three. through the College.