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two, in return for which I have ly dissimilar-neither of them, howsent down three bottles of our ever, had this neither had this," host's champagne to his reverence. cried he, as he darted a look of cat“ Monday.-Lobsters.
like fierceness from his fiery grey “ Tuesday.--Somebody ill appar- eyes. “The Princess Metternich ently; much ringing of bells and fainted when I gave her that glance. disorder. My dinner an hour late. She had the temerity to say, 'Qui est Another appeal from Mrs M'C., re- ce Monsieur M'Caskey?! Why not peating her former proposal with ask who is Soult? who is Wellinggreater energy; this feminine in- ton? who is everybody? Such is sistance provokes me. I might tell the ignorance of a woman! Madame her that of the three women who la Princess," added he, in a graver have borne my name none but her- tone, “if it be your fortune to turn self would have so far presumed, your footsteps to Montpellier, walk but I forbear. Pity has ever been into the churchyard there, and see the weakness of my nature; I feel the tomb of Jules de Besançon, its workings even as I write this. late Major of the 8th Cuirassiers, it may not carry me to the length and whose inscription is in these of forgiveness, but I can compas- few words- Tué par M'Caskey.' sionate; I will send her this note :- 1.put up the monument myself,
for he was a brave soldier, and de“MADAM,—Your prayers have served his immortality.” succeeded; I yield. It would not be Though self-admiration was an atgenerous in me to say what the sacritractive pastime, it palled on him fice has cost me. When a MCaskey at last, and he sat down and piled bends, it is an oak of the forest up the gold double ducats in two snaps in two. I make but one con- tall columns, and speculated on the dition ; I will have no gratitude. various pleasures they might proKeep the tears that you would shed cure, and then he read over the at my feet for the hours of your draft on Parodi, and pictured to his solitary sorrow. You will see, there- mind some more enjoyments, all fore, that we are to meet no more of which were justly his due, "for,"
“One of the ducats is clipped on as he said himself aloud, “I have the edge, and another discoloured dealt generously by that woman." as by an acid ; I am above requir- At last he arose, and went out on ing that they be exchanged. No- the terrace. It was a bright starlit thing in this last act of our inter- night, one of those truly Italian course shall prevent you remember- nights when the planets streak the ing me as “Semper M'Caskey." calm sea with long lines of light,
“'Your cheque should have speci- and the very air seems weary with fied Parodi & Co., not Parodi alone. its burden of perfume. Of the To a man less known the omission voluptuous enervation that comes might give inconvenience; this too, of such an hour he neither knew however, I pardon. Farewell.'" nor asked to know. Stillness and
calm to him savoured only of death; It was evident that the Major he wanted movement, activity, exfelt he had completed this task with citement, life, in fact, life as he had befitting dignity, for he stood up always known and always liked it. before a large glass, and placing one Once or twice the suspicion had hand within his waistcoat, he gazed crossed his mind that he had been at himself in a sort of rapturous sent on this distant expedition to veneration. “Yes," said he, thought- get rid of him when something of fully, “George Seymour, and D’Or- moment was being done elsewhere. say, and myself, we were men! His inordinate vanity could readily When shall the world look upon supply the reasons for such a course. our like again ? Each in his own He was one of those men that in style, too, perfectly distinct, perfect times of trouble become at once famous. “They call us dangerous," thought that if no intention of forsaid he, "just as Cromwell was cible detention had ever existed, dangerous, Luther was dangerous, the fact of his having feared it would Napoleon was dangerous. But if be an indelible stain upon his courwe are dangerous, it is because we age. “What an indignity,” thought are driven to it. Admit the supe. he, "for a M'Caskey to have yieldriority that you cannot oppose, yield ed to a causeless dread !" to the inherent greatness that you As he thus thought, he saw, or can only struggle against, and you thought he saw, a dark object at will find that we are not dangerous some short distance off on the sea. -we are salutary.”
He strained his eyes, and though “Is it possible,” cried he aloud, long in doubt, at last assured himself “that this has been a plot—that it was a boat that had drifted from while I am here living this life of her moorings, for the rope that had inglorious idleness the great stake fastened her still hung over the is on the table—the game is begun, stern, and trailed in the sea. By and the King's crown being played the slightly moving flow of the tide for ?" M'Caskey knew that whether towards shore she came gradually royalty conquered or was vanquish- nearer, till at last he was able to ed-however the struggle ended reach her with the crook of his there was to be a grand scene of riding-whip, and draw her up to pillage. The nobles or the mer. the steps. Her light paddle-like chants-it mattered very little which oars were on board, and M'Caskey to him—were to pay for the coming stepped in, determined to make a convulsion. Often and often, as he patient and careful study of the walked the streets of Naples, had he place on its sea-front, and see, if he stood before a magnificent palace, could, whether it were more of chaor a great country-house, and specu- teau or jail. lated on the time when it should be With noiseless motion he stole his prerogative to smash in that smoothly along, till he passed a stout door, and proclaim all within little ruined bastion on a rocky it his own. “ Spolia di M'Caskey” point, and saw himself at the enwas the inscription that he felt trance of a small bay, at the extrewould defy the cupidity of the mity of which a blaze of light boldest. “I will stand on the bal- poured forth, and illuminated the cony,” said he," and declare, with a sea for some distance. As he got wave of my hand, These are mine : nearer he saw that the light came pass on to other pillage.”
from three large windows that openThe horrible suspicion that he ed on a terrace, thickly studded with might be actually a prisoner all this orange-trees, under the cover of time gained on him more and more, which he could steal on unseen, and he ransacked his mind to think and take an observation of all withof some great name in history whose in; for that the room was inhabited fate resembled his own. “Could was plain enough, one figure conI only assure myself of this,” said tinuing to cross and recross the winhe, passionately, “it is not these old dows as M'Caskey drew nigh. walls would long confine me; I'd Stilly and softly, without a ripple scale the highest of them in half an behind him, he glided on till the hour; or I'd take to the sea, and light skiff stole under the overhangswim round that point yonder—it's ing boughs of a large acacia, over a not two miles off ; and I remember branch of which he passed his rope there's a village quite close to it." to steady the boat, and then standThough thus the prospect of escape ing up he looked into the room, presented itself so palpably before now so close as almost to startle him, he was deterred from it by the him.
MR LEWES is known to every selves willing or able to read critistudious reader by his ‘Biographical cally the original Greek of a by no History of Philosophy,' by his phy. means captivating writer, some such siological writings, by his ‘Life of work as this was absolutely necesGoethe,' and by a host of miscellane- sary. Aristotle as a logician is ous papers, all displaying the same known, or presumed to be known, tact, the same clear vision and lucid to all educated men; at all events, style. Remarkable for a distinct and there are works enough in our lanrapid development of difficult and in- guage to which to refer the eager tricate subjects, he has proved him- student thirsting for syllogism, or self one of the happiest expositors of the categories, or even for whatever those metaphysical subtleties which the ancient sage may have taught he, at the same time, describes and of rhetoric, or politics, or poetry. discards; while in that branch of But if any one, bewildered by the science to which he has sedulously contradictory estimates thrown out devoted himself, he has been, if not by eloquent lecturers, or other disa discoverer, yet much more than tinguished men, desired to know an expounder, for he has introduced what really Aristotle taught on into it an accuracy of thought, a scientific subjects on the inorgandistinctness in the reasoning or ic and organic world before us, theorising upon known facts, which on the great mechanism, in short, the readers of physiological works of nature—there was no book in our most often have felt the want of language, nor, as Mr Lewes assures Having paid his homage, his fare- us, in any modern language, which well tribute to philosophy, the part would have given him the materials ing guest, whom he “slightly shakes for a calm and sober judgment. On by the hand," he, as a true son of the one hand, we hear the most unthe nineteenth century, turns to sparing contempt thrown upon the wards science,
science of Aristotle ; and till lately * And with his arms outstretched as he all popular lecturers, in their extrawould fly,
vagant eulogies upon Bacon, were Grasps in the comer."
accustomed to tell their credulous It is now apparently his design to audience that, till the lord of Verudo for the history of science what lam arose, no one understood that he had formerly done for that of the knowledge of nature was built metaphysics-to describe the course on the observation of nature. On of its development, to give what he the other hand, there have been has called “the embryology of eminent men who were not satisfied science;" and the present volume with proving that Aristotle knew is a chapter from this projected as well, and had stated as distinctwork. It is a chapter which may ly as any of his successors, the very well constitute a distinct and paramount necessity of observation separate treatise, what our neigh- and an accurate collection of facts, bours have taught us to call a mo- but that he had really observed and nograph. We bave Aristotle brought reasoned upon facts in so miraculdistinctly before us as the man of ous a manner as to have been able science.
-standing, as it were, at the very To all who felt a curiosity in es- starting point of science—to have timating Aristotle from this point anticipated many of those disof view, and who were not them coveries to which the moderns
* Aristotle: A Chapter from the History of Science, including Analyses of Aris. totle's Scientific Writings.' By George Henry Lewes.
VOL XCVI.—NO. DLXXXVI.
had slowly attained by the labours into the calm and clear-sighted criof successive generations. If this tic. On the whole, the work will conwere true, it would be, as we have firm and render distinct the vague intimated, nothing short of miracul- impressions which most of us have ous. It would be as if Eclipse not received of the science of Aristotle ; only distanced all competitors in the that it was all that could be expected race, but was gifted with a faculty from mortal man living at the period by which he could reach the goal of Aristotle, but that, regarded from without passing over the interme- our present position, it can have no diate ground. For science is know- value except to those who are curiledge built on knowledge; it is not ous to trace the progress of the an affair of intuition. Neither is a human mind. happy guess, figuring perhaps amidst And indeed it is from this point a crowd of vagrant fancies, to be of view that Mr Lewes invites us dignified with the name of a scien- to the study of the scientific works tific truth. There is no such thing of Aristotle. A mere history of as the anticipation of a discovery, past blunders is the dreariest thing unless the intermediate steps also imaginable. We are too anxious to have been anticipated, by which learn something of real science, and alone it becomes a discovery, or is there is too much on every side to distinguished from a random guess. be learnt, to allow us time for study. Amidst such opposite estimates as ing, merely for their own sake, the these, such unqualified detraction inevitable mistakes and errors of on the one hand, such inordinate the past. And remember that in and impossible praise on the other, science the past error is utterly exMr Lewes offers himself as our tinct-dead beyond all possibility guide. He has given us an analy- of revival. It is otherwise in phi. sis of Aristotle's scientific writings losophy. The old quarrels here are quite ample enough for the pur- always capable of being rekindled. pose at which he aims. Had it Often they are the same disputes been more complete, the patience which agitate the living generation; of the reader would have broken nay, it has happened that a specudown; had it been briefer than it lation in philosophy, after having is, we should have complained that been given over to mere ridicule as materials enough had not been given a flagrant folly of the past, has been for an independent judgment. He revived, and taught, with some mohimself holds the balance with im- difications, as a profound truth. partiality, or, at least, with the evi. We should not wonder if the very dent effort to be impartial. Between age we live in took to the belief in the careless detractor who echoes a the transmigration of souls. When contempt which had become con- souls inhabit the legs of tables, or ventional, and the lover of paradox, creep under chairs and paw us or the pedantic devotee of whatever about the knees, this old fancy of is ancient and whatever is Greek, the East must surely seem a most Mr Lewes steers his middle course. respectable article of faith. There He is, perhaps, more successful, is no folly of this kind that may more completely convincing, when not be revived. But a scientific he combats the exaggerated praise hypothesis, once fairly supplanted, of certain admirers of Aristotle, is extinct for ever; its place can than when he himself becomes eu- know it no more; there, where it logistic. Desirous of assuming the stood, and where alone it could more agreeable attitude of bestowing stand, another growth has occupied praise, he, on two occasions, opens the soil. The transmigration of the chapter with a rather startling souls might be revived to-morrow; note of admiration, but the extracts phlogiston is dead for ever. Philowhich follow hardly support his own sophical speculations are like the eulogium. He gradually relapses clouds of heaven, which may rise to
day and disperse to-morrow, just as them. And Mr Lewes has shown they rose and dispersed a thousand in the present volume that he well yesterdays ago. Science is like the understands the art of mingling totree which grows from the seed, and gether the modern truth of science from a seedling extends its branches and the ancient guess-work, so that into the air, but goes never back by their contrast they may throw into the seed again. To write a light upon each other. Of course, narrative, therefore, of the errors of when we speak of the truth of mothe past, that had no other object dern science, we do not forget that than simply to record such errors, many of our truths may be destined would be the most wearisome and to figure as pardonable errors in the useless of tasks. But, in fact, it is pages of some future historian of not in this barren spirit of narra- science. tive that Mr Lewes, or any philoso- A brief account of the life of phical writer, would invite us to Aristotle naturally precedes the survey the mistakes and tentatives criticism upon his philosophy, or of the past. It is as part of the rather, we should here say, upon history of that living human mind his science. This relates, in a short which is still with us, and is still compass, all, we believe, that is ours, that this narrative of its past known of Aristotle's personal biswanderings becomes valuable. Phlo- tory. As the few facts that bear giston and the like are dead, and the stamp of credibility are familiar let them be buried so far as they to most readers, or at least lie open are individually concerned; but to every one in the pages of biograthat human spirit from which phical dictionaries, we need not science grew is with us still, and repeat them here. But in this our we would study this its faculty of critical age the following list of the growth, and trace the method of its authorities on which all these acprogress. From this point of view counts are founded will be accepta history of scientific errors becomes able. It will be seen how remote a history of the development of we are from anything like contemthe human mind. We highly ap- porary evidence. prove of Mr Lewes's undertaking
" What, then, are the dates, or there. to write what he terms the embry
ne terms the embry- abouts! Aristotle was born B.C. 384. ology of science; nor need we sug Diogenes Laertius, whose narrative is gest to a writer of his tact and dis
the fullest, the best, and the most genecrimination that it would be useless rally followed, was born, at the earliest, to load his pages with a multitude nearly six centuries later -- i. e., A.D. of errors of the same kind. We have 200 ; and it is even supposed that he read histories of medicine where
was as late as Constantine. The next
on our list is Ammonius (if the work be the philosophical lesson which
really his), who comes eight centuries might be learnt from past errors after his hero, in A. D. 460 ; and that was quite lost sight of in the mul these eight centuries have not been protitude of instances given of absurd fitably employed in sifting tradition and hypotheses and miserable nostrums. bringing it nearer to accuracy, may be The attention was fatigued by the gathered from a single detail noticed by
Buhle, that Aristotle is made a pupil of mere enumeration of fantastic spe
Socrates, who died just fifteen years beculations, which were followed, alas!
fore the Stagirite was born. The nearest by very real sufferings to the pa- biographer in point of time is Dionysius tient in the shape of cruel and dis of Halicarnassus (B.C. 50), and this gives gusting remedies. On the other a gap of three centuries; moreover, one hand, there is no more effective meagre page comprises all he has to say. manner of pypounding the latest Hesychius was born A.D. 500, nearly
nine centuries too late; the date of Suitenets or discoveries of science than by a judicious account of the errors than the eleventh century of our era.
das is uncertain, but probably not earlier and mistakes which preceded them, “ These writers contradict each other and which often led the way to on separate points. What means have