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tained into unbashful meaning. Schoolmasters, transpositions serve at once to give an idea of the who knew all that was in him except his graces, translator's learning, and of difficulties surmounted. give the names of places and towns at full length, and he moves along stifly in their literal versions, PENELOPE TO ULYSSES. as the man why, as we are told in the Philosophi- "This

, still your wife, my ling'ring lord ! I send: cal Transactions, was afflicted with a universal Yet be your answer personal, not penn'd.” anchilosis. His fernale imitators, on the other hand, regard the dear creature only as a lover; ex

These lines seem happily imitated from Taylor, press the delicacy of his passion by the ardour of the water-poet, who has it thus; their own; and if now and then he is found to grow “To thee, dear Ursula, these lines I send, a little too warm, and perhaps to express himself a little indelicately, it must be imputed to the more

Not with my hand, but with my heart, they'ro poignant sensations of his fair admirers. In a

penn'd.” word, we have seen him stripped of all his beauties

But not to make a pause in the reader's pleasure, in the versions of Stirling and Clark, and talk like

we proceed. a debauchee in that of Mrs. - -; but the sex should ever be sacred from criticism; perhaps the "Sunk now is Troy, the curse of Grecian dames! ladies have a right to describe raptures which none (Her king, her all, a worthless prize!) in flames. but themselves can bestow.

O had by storms (his fleet to Sparta bound) A poet, like Ovid, whose greatest beauty lies Th' adultrer perished in the mad profound! rather in expression than sentiment, must be necessarily difficult to translate. A fine sentiment

Here seems some obscurity in the translation; may be conveyed several different ways, without we are at a loss to know what is meant by the mad impairing its vigour; but a sentence delicately ex

profound. It can certainly mean neither Bedlam pressed will scarcely admit the least variation with-nor Fleet-Ditch; for though the epithet mad might out losing beauty. The performance before us agree with one, or profound with the other, yet will serve to convince the public, that Ovid is more The profound has frequently been used to signify

when united they seem incompatible with either. easily admired than imitated. The translator, in his notes, shows an ardent zeal for the reputation bad verses, and poets are sometimes said to be of his poet. It is possible too he may have felt his mad: who knows but Penelope wishes that Paris beauties; however, he does not seem possessed or might have died in the very act of rhyming; and the happy art of giving his feelings expression. If

as he was a shepherd, it is not improbable to supe a kindred spirit, as we have often been told, must pose but that he was a poet also. animate the translator, we fear the claims of Mr. "Cold in a widow'd bed I ne'er had lay, Barret will never receive a sanction in the heraldry Nor chid with weary eyes the lingʻring day.” of Parnassus.

His intentionis, even envy must own, are laud- Lay for lain, by the figure ginglimus. The able: nothing less than to instruct boys, school- translator makes frequent use of this figure. masters, grown gentlemen, the public, in the principles of taste (to use his own expression ), both Nor the protracted nuptials to avoid, by precept and by example. His manner it seems

By night unravell’d what the day employed.

When have not fancied dangers broke my rest? is, “to read a course of poetical lectures to his pupils one night in the week; which, beginning with Love, tim'rous passion! rends the anxious breash this author, running through select pieces of our

In thought I saw you each fierce Trojan's aim; own, as well as the Latin and Greck writers, and

Pale at the mention of holu Hector's name!" ending with Longinus, contributes no little to.

Ovid makes Penelope shudder at the name of wards forining sheir taste.” No little, reader ob- Hector. Our translator, with great propriety, serve that, from a person so perfectly master of the transfers the fright from Penelope to Ulysses himforce of his own language: what may not be ex-self: it is he who grows pale at the name of Hecpected from his comments on the beauties of an- tor; and well indeed he might; for Hector is repreother?

sented by Ovid, somewhere else, as a terrible felBut, in order to show in what manner he has low, and Ulysses as little better than a poltroon. executed these intentions, it is proper he should first march in review as a poet. We shall select "Whose spear when brave Antilochus imbrued, the first epistle that offers, which is that from Pene- By the dire news awoke, my fear renew'd lope to Ulysses, observing beforehand, that the Clad in dissembled arms Patroclus died: whole translation is a most convincing instance, And “Oh the fate of stratagem!" I cried. that English words may be placed in Latin order, Tlepolemus, beneath the Lycian dart, without being wholly unintelligible. Such forced His breath resign'd, and roused afresli my smarh


Thus, when each Grecian press'd the bloody fiel:, | The Pylian sage inform'd your son embark'd in Cold icy horrors my fond bosom chill’d."

quest of thee

Of this, and he his mother, that is me. Here we may observe how epithets tend to strengthen the force of expression. First, her hor- "He told how Rhesus and how Dolon fell, rors are cold, and so far Ovid seems to think also; By your wise conduct and Tydides' steel; but the translator adds, from himself, the epithet That doom'd by heavy sleep oppress'd to die, icy, to show that they are still colder—a fine climax And this prevented, a nocturnal spy! of frigidity!

Rash man! undmindful what your friends you owe,

Night's gloom to tempt, and brave a Thracian foe “But Heaven, indulgent to my chaste desire,

By one assisted in the doubtful strife; Has wrapp'd (my husband safe) proud Troy in To me how kind ! how provident of life!

Still throbb'd my breast, till, victor, from the plain, The reader may have already observed one or You join’d, on Thracian steeds, th' allies again. iwo instances of our translator's skill, in parentheti- “But what to me avails high Ilium's fall, cally clapping one sentence within another. This Or soil continued o’er its ruin'd wall; contributes not a little to obscurity; and obscurity, If still, as when it stood, my wants remain; we all know, is nearly allied to admiration. Thus, If still I wish you in these arms in vain? when the reader begins a sentence which he finds pregnant with another, which still teems with a “Troy, sack'd to others, yet to me remains, third, and so on, he feels the same surprise which Though Greeks, with captive oxen, till her plains, a countryman does at Bartholomew-fair. Hocus Ripe harvests bend where once her turrets stood; shows a bag, in appearance empty; slap, and out Rank in her soil, manured with Phrygian blood; come a dozen new-laid eggs; slap again, and the Harsh on the ploughs, men's bones, half buried, nuniber is doubled; but what is his amazement, sound, when it swells with the hen that laid them! And grass each ruin'd mansion hides around.

Yet, hid in distant climes, my conq'ror stays; “The Grecian chiefs return,

' each altar shines, Unknown the cause of these severe delays!
And spoils of Asia grace our native shrines.
Gifts, for their lords restored, 'the matrons bring; "No foreign merchant to our isle resorts,
The Trojan fates o'ercome, triumphant sing;

But question'd much of you, he leaves our ports; Old men and trembling maids admire the songs,

Hence each departing sail a letter bears And wives hang, listning, on their husbands' To speak (if you are found) my anxious cares, tongues."

"Our son to Pylos cut the briny wave; Critics have expatiated, in raptures, on the deli- But Nestor's self a dubious answer gave; cate use the ancients have made of the verb pen

To Sparta next-nor even could Sparta tell dere. Virgil's goats are described as hanging on What seas you plough, or in what region dwell I the mountain side; the eyes of a lady hang on the Better had stood A pollo's sacred wall: looks of her lover. Ovid has increased the force of O could I now my former wish recall! the metaphor, and describes the wife as hanging on War my sole dread, the scene I then should know ; the lips of her husband. Our translator has gone And thousands then would share the common woe: still farther, and described the lady as pendent from But all things now, not knowing what lo fear, his tongue. A finc picture!

I dread; and give too large a field to care. "Now, drawn in wine, fierce battles meet their Whole lists of dangers, both by land and sea,

Are muster'd, to have caused so long delay. eyes, And llion's towers in miniature arise :

“But while your conduct thus I fondly clear, There stretch'd Sigean plains, here Simoïs flow'd: Perhaps (true man!) you court some foreign fait ; And there old Priain's lofty palace stood. Perhaps you rally your domestic loves, Here Peleus' son encamp'd, Ulysses there; Whose art the snowy fleece alone improves. Here Hector's corpse distain'd the rapid car." No!- may I err, and start at false alarms;

May nought but force detain you from my arms "Of this the Pylian sage, in quest of thee Embark’d, your son inform'd his mother he.” 'Urged by a father's right again to wed,

Firm I refuse, still faithful to your bed! If we were permitted to offer a correction upon Still let him urge the fruitless vain design; the two last lines, we would translate them into I am, I must be—and I will be thine. plain English thus, still preserving the rhyme en- Though melted by my chaste desires, of late tire.

His rigʻrous importunities abate.

"Of teasing suitors a luxurious train,

ludicrous for serious reproof. While we censure From neighbouring isles, have cross’d the liquid as critics, we feel as men, and could sincerely wish plain.

that those, whose greatest sin, is perhaps, the veHere uncontrolled the audacious crews resort, nial one of writing bad verses, would regard their Rifle in your wealth, and revel in your court. failure in this respect as we do, not as faults, but Pisander, Polybus, and Medon lead,

foibles;. they may be good and useful members of Antinous and Eurymachus succeed,

society, without being poets. The regions of taste With others, whose rapacious throuts devour can be travelled only by a few, and even those The wealth you purchased once, distained with often find indifferent accommodation by the way. gore.

Let such as have not got a passport from nature be Melanthius add, and Irus, hated name! content with happiness, and leave the poet the unA beggar rival to complete our shame. rivalled possession of his misery, his garret, and "Three, helpless three! are here; a wife not strong,

his fame. A sire too aged, and a son too young,

We have of late seen the republic of letters

crowded with some, who have no other pretensions He late, by fraud, embark'd for Pylos' shore,

to applause but industry, who have no other merit Nigh from my arms for ever had been tore."

but that of reading many books, and making long These two lines are replete with beauty: nigh quotations; these we have heard extolled by symwhich implies approximation, and from, which pathetic dunces, and have seen them carry off the implies distance, are, to use our translator's expres- rewards of genius; while others, who should have sions, drawn as it were up in line of battle. Tore been born in better days, felt all the wants of povis put for torn, that is, torn by fraud, from her erty, and the agonies of contempt. Who then arms; not that her son played truant, and embark- that has a regard for the public, for the literary ed by fraud, as a reader who does not understand honours of our country, for the figure we shall one Latin might be apt to fancy.

day make among posterity, that would not choose “Heaven grant the youth survive each parents that might have made good cobblers, had fortune

to see such humbled as are possessed only of talents date,

turned them to trade? Should such prevail, the And no cross chance reverse the course of fate.

real interests of learning must be in a reciprocal Your nurse and herdsman join this wish of mine, proportion to the power they possess. Let it be And the just keeper of your bristly swine.”

then the character of our periodical endeavours, and Our translator observes in a note, that “the sim- hitherto we flatter ourselves it has ever been, not to plicity expressed in these lines is so far from being permit an ostentation of learning to pass for merit, a blemish, that it is, in fact, a very great beauty; nor to give a pedant quarter upon the score of his and the modern critic, who is offended with the industry alone, even though he took refuge behind mention of a sły, however he may pride himself Arabic, or powdered his hair with hieroglyphics. upon his false delicacy, is either too short-sighted Authors thus censured may accuse our judgment, to penetrate into real nature, or has a stomach too or our reading, if they please, but our own hearts nice to digest the noblest relics of antiquity. He will acquit us of envy or ill-nature, since we semeans, no doubt, to digest a hog-sty; but, antiquity prove only with a desire to reform. apart, we doubt if even Powel the fire-eater him- But we had almost forgot, that our translator is self could bring his appetite to relish so uneavoury to be considered as a critic as well as a poet; and a repast.

in this department he seems also equally unsuc

cessful with the former. Criticism at present is “ By age your sire disarm’d, and wasting woes,

different from what it was upon the revival of taste The helm resigns, amidst surrounding foes.

in Europe; all its rules are now well known; the This may your son resume (when years allow),

only art at present is, to exhibit them in such lights But oh! a father's aid is wanted now.

as contribute to keep the attention alive, and excite Nor have I strength his title to maintain,

a favourable audience. It must borrow graces Haste, then, our only refuge, o'er the main."

from eloquence, and please while it aims at instruc"A son, and long may Heaven the blessing grant, tion : but instead of this, we have a combination of You have, whose years a sire's instruction want.

trite observations, delivered in a style in which Think how Laertes drags an age of woes,

those who are disposed to make war upon words, In hope that you his dying eyes may close;

will find endless opportunities of triumph. And I, left youthful in my early bloom,

He is sometimes hypercriticul; thus, page 9. Shall aged seem; how soon soe'er you come."

“ Pope in his excellent Essay on Criticism (as will,

in its place, when you come to be lectured upon it, But let not the reader imagine we can find plea- atfull be explained,) terms this making the sound an sue in thus exposing absurdities, which are too echo to the sense. But I apprehend that definition

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takes in but a part, for the best ancient poets ex- Sometimes contradictory : thus, page 3. "Style celled in thus painting to the eye as well as to the (says he) is used by some writers, as synonymous ear. Virgil, describing his housewife preparing her with diction, yet in my opinion, it has rather a wine, exhibits the act of the fire to the eye. complex sense, including both sentiment and dic

tion.” Oppose to this, page 135. “As to conAut dulcis musti Vulcano decoquit humorem,

cord and even style, they are acquirable by most Et foliis undam irepidi dispumat aheni.'

youth in due time, and by many with ease; but « For the line (if I may be allowed the expres- the art of thinking properly, and choosing the best sion) boils over; and in order to reduce it to its sentiments on every subject, is what comes later." proper bounds, you must, with her, skim off the And sometimes he is guilty of false criticism : as redundant syllable." These are beauties, which, when he says, Ovid's chief excellence lies in dedoubtless, the reader is displeased he can not scription. Description was the rock on which he discern.

always split; Nescivit quod bene cessit relinquere, Sometimes confused: “There is a deal of artful as Seneca says of him : when once he embarks in and concealed satire in what Enone throws out description, he most commonly tires us before he against Helen : and to speak truth, there was fair has done with it. But to tire no longer the reader, scope for it, and it might naturally be expected. or the translator with extended censure ; as a critic Her chief design was to render his new mistress this gentleman seems to have drawn his knowledge suspected of meretricious arts, and make him ap- from the remarks of others, and not his own reflecprehensive that she would hereafter be as ready to tion; as a translator, he understands the language leave him for some new gallant, as she had be- of Ovid, but not his beauties; and though he may fore, perfidiously to her lawful husband, followed be an excellent schoolmaster, he has, howeve ne him."

pretensions to taste.






THE EDITOR'S PREFACE. Their formality our author carefully preserves.

Many of iheir favourite tenets in morals are illus The schoolmen had formerly a very exact way trated. The Chinese are always concise, so is he of computing the abilities of their saints or authors. Simple, so is he. The Chinese are grave and senEscobar, for instance, was said to have learning as tentious, so is he. But in one particular the resem. five, genius as four, and gravity as seven. Cara-blance is peculiarly striking: the Chinese are often muel was greater than he. His learning was as dull

, and so is he. Nor has any assistance been eight

, his genius as six, and his gravity as thir. wanting. We are told in an old romance, of a certain teen. Were I to estimate the merits of our Chi- knight errant and his horse who contracted an intinese Philosopher by the same scale, I would not mate friendship. The horse most usually bore the hesitate to state his genius still higher; but as to knight; but, in cases of extraordinary dispatch, his learning and gravity, these, I think, might the knight returned the favour, and carried his safely be marked as nine hundred and ninety-nine, horse. Thus, in the intimacy between my author within one degree of absolute frigiility.

and me, he has usually given me a lift of his eastYet, upon his first appearance here, many were ern sublimity, and I have sometimes given him a angry not to find him as ignorant as a Tripoline return of my colloquial ease. ambassador, or an envoy from Mujac. They were

Yet it appears strange, in this season of panesurprised to find a man born so far from London, gyric, when scarcely an author passes unpraised, that school of prudence and wisdom, endued even either by his friends or himself, that such merit as with a moderate capacity. They expressed the

our Philosopher's should be forgotten. While tue same surprise at his knowledge that the Chinese epithets of ingenious, copious, elaborate

, and redo at ours. *Horo comes it, said they, that the fined, are lavished among the mob, like medals a Europeans so remote from China, think with so

a coronation, the lucky prizes fall on every side, much justice and precision? They have never but not one on him. I could, on this occasion, read our books, they scarcely know even our let- make myself melancholy, by considering the caters, and yet they talk and reason just as we do. priciousness of public taste, or the mutability of The truth is, the Chinese and we are pretty much fortune: but, during this fit of morality, lest my alike. Different degrees of refinement, and not of reader should sleep, I'll take a nap myself, and distance, mark the distinctions among mankind. when I awake tell him my dream. Savages of the most opposite climates have all but

1 imagined the Thames was frozen over, and I one character of improvidence and rapacity; and stood by its side. Several booths were erected tutored nations, however separate, make use of

upon the ice, and I was told by one of the specta the very same method to procure refined enjoy- tors, that Fashion Fair was going to begin. He ment.

added, that every author who would carry his The distinctions of polite nations are few, but works there, might probably find a very good resuch as are peculiar to the Chinese, appear in every ception. I was resolved, however

, to observe the page of the following correspondence. The me- humours of the place in safety from the shore; taphors and allusions are all drawn from the East. sensible that the ice was at best precarious, and 'La Comte, vol. I. p. 210.

having been always a little cowardly in my sleet.

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