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Printed for the use of the Committee on Government Operations

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

WASHINGTON : 1964

33-697

PURCHASID THROUGH

DOC. EX. PROJECT

COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS

JOHN L. MCCLELLAN, Arkansas, Chairman HENRY M. JACKSON, Washington

KARL E. MUNDT, South Dakota SAM J, ERVIN, JR., North Carolina

CARL T. CURTIS, Nebraska HUBERT H. HUMPHREY, Minnesota JACOB K. JAVITS, New York ERNEST GRUENING, Alaska

JACK MILLER, Iowa
EDMUND S. MUSKIE, Maine

JAMES B. PEARSON, Kansas
CLAIBORNE PELL, Rhode Island
THOMAS J. MCINTYRE, New Hampshire
ABRAHAM RIBICOFF, Connecticut
DANIEL B. BREWSTER, Maryland

WALTER L. REYNOLDS, Chief Clerk and Staff Director

ARTHUR A. SHARP, Staff Editor

SUBCOMMITTEE ON NATIONAL SECURITY STAFFING AND OPERATIONS

HENRY M. JACKSON, Washington, Chairman HUBERT H. HUMPHREY, Minnesota

KARL E. MUNDT, South Dakota EDMUND S. MUSKIE, Maine

JACOB K. JAVITS, New York
CLAIBORNE PELL, Rhode Island

JACK MILLER, Iowa
ABRAHAM RIBICOFF, Connecticut
DANIEL B. BREWSTER, Maryland

DOROTHY FOSDICK, Staff Director
ROBERT W. Turts, Chief Consultant
RICHARD E. NEUSTADT, Special Consultant
RICHARD S. PAGE, Research Assistant

JUDITH J. SPAHR, Chief Clerk
LAUREL A. ENGBERG, Minority Consultant

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FOREWORD

Under the Constitution, it is the responsibility of the Senate to advise and consent to appointments of Ambassadors. Probably not one American in ten could name the American Ambassadors to France, Germany, Russia, and Japan, let alone our Ambassadors to Cyprus, the Congo, and Malaysia, to pick a few contemporary trouble spots. But our Ambassadors—though the news stories seldom mention their names—are our representatives on the front lines of history, where a misstep may mean a costly setback or even a crisis endangering peace. As Congress recognizes, there is no substitute for the broadlyexperienced Ambassador who exercises leadership of American government activities in his area, who makes a positive contribution to policy plans and operations, and who has reserves of judgment, nerve, and know-how to call upon in a pinch. From the start of its nonpartisan study of the administration of national security, the Subcommittee on National Security Staffing and Operations has given major attention to the role of the modern American Ambassador in the conduct of our relations with other countries, and the support given him in Washington. The Subcommittee has received the counsel of ranking authorities in this country and in U.S. missions and military establishments abroad. It has released testimony on the office of Chief of Mission by Secretary of State Rusk, Under Secretary of State Harriman, and Deputy Under Secretary of State Crockett. A series of published hearings and memoranda constitute a unique symposium of retired and active American Ambassadors—Ellis O. Briggs, H. Freeman Matthews, Edwin O. Reischauer, David K. E. Bruce, Samuel D. Berger, George F. Kennan, Lincoln Gordon, Livingston T. Merchant, Edmund A. Gullion, and Foy D. Kohler. The Subcommittee has also published an historical study, The Ambassador and the Problem of Coordination, prepared by the Historical Studies Division of the Department of State. This Subcommittee staff report—companion to one issued earlier this year entitled The Secretary of State—makes certain findings about the role of the Ambassador in assisting the President and the Secretary of State in developing and executing national security policy. HENRY M. JAckson, Chairman, Subcommittee on National Security Staffing and Operations. JUNE 15, 1964.

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