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BARNES' NEW ARITHMETICS.
Two-Book COURSE, Present a minimum of theory with a maximum of practice; adopt the shortest and best methods; language clear and exact.
MONTEITH'S NEW GEOGRAPHIES,
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SILLS' LESSONS IN ENGLISH.
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BARNES' BRIEF GENERAL HISTORY.
A Brief History of Ancient, Media val and Modern Peoples, in one volume. The most fascinating and complete General History pnblished. Sample copy, $1.60.
Embracing Philosophy, Physiolwgy, Chemistry, Zoology, Geology, Astronomy and Botany. pre sents the cream of the respective studies; and the treatment of the subjects is not only practical, but fresh and interesting. 7 vols. Sample copy, $1.00 each
STEELE'S HYGIENIC PHYSIOLOGY.
With Special Reference to the Use and Effects of Alcoholic Drinks and Narcotics. Edited and endorsed by the W. CT, U., of the United States. Sample copy, $1.00. The same abridged, 50 cente
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Elementary Physiology and Hygiene.
Having special reference to the effects of
Stimulants and Narcotics on the Human System. By WILLIAM THAYER SMITH, M. D., Dartmouth Medical College.
An original and striking work, as remarkable for its judicious omission of animportant details as for its masterly treatment of the essentials of the science.
“So far as we can see * * * it is the most complete treatise, in a concise form, yet given to the American reader."- Every Other Saturday, Oct. Uith, 1884. Full cloth. Richly illustrated with colored plates and wood cuts. Over 200 pages. Introduction Price, 50'cts. Copies sent for examination, post-paid, on re
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Educational Journal of Virginia.
Richmond, Va., August, 1885.
The Value of Pictures in Teaching Physical Geography.
By Lillie J. MARTIN.
Drawing makes complicated explanations simple, and gives vividness to descriptions not thoroughly grasped by the imagination. It is particularly valuable as a test of a pupil's knowledge of a descriptive subject. If a beginning class in physical geography is given a descriptive subject to illustrate, more than half the class will fail. Nor is this failure chiefly among those who draw indifferently. The test brings to light a mental deficiency among all the pupils that must be remedied. But the nature of the difficulty must be first ascertained. A re-study of the lesson shows that it does not come from inattention. Careful questioning develops the fact that the pupils have no material with which to picture what they read. Here is another proof that “the mind can create no new material, but can divide and combine the parts of material things with which it is familiar so as to form new existences.”
Since the surrounding country does not always furnish proper material for illustrating physical geography, what is to be done? Pictures appeal so strongly to all the senses that they may be used for this purpose. No physical geography furnishes a sufficient amount. Nor is this to be regretted. The very gathering of pictures excites interest and draws closer attention to the subject. A method something like the following has been fairly successful in carrying on this work. On beginning physical geography a list is made of the subjects that can be illustrated by pictures, and the pupils are set to gathering these from magazines, railroad guides, etc. Each is expected to make a small collection on all subjects, and a larger collection on that subject that he finds the most interesting. Additions are made to this collection during the whole course of study. These pictures and, if possible, railroad maps showing the location, are mounted on white or brown paper and
labelled so as to show the teacher what subject the pupil intends a given picture to illustrate. For convenient handling they are placed in a portfolio made of paper and enclosed in a large envelope for protection. The pupils are encouraged to preserve bits of information from newspapers, etc., scraps of appropriate poetry and attach them to the pictures. Care is taken, however, that the main thought may not be lost sight of by too many details.
After the pupil has been over a new subject somewhat cursorily, for the purpose of learning the proper terms to employ in discussing it, he is taken into the country to study the thing itself. If this is impossible, he examines the pictures from the various collections on this subject. Especial attention is given in class recitation to one of the best pictures. Several pupils put it upon the board to improve their drawing. One of the rest tells what he sees and the others make additions. The pupils' imaginations thus receive material for future use. Of course, this material cannot be used at present. The surroundings of place and time must first be forgotten. Perhaps some one will propose describing the picture as if colored. This narrows the scene to a particular time and makes it almost a reality. Some one will tell how the place appeared in the past, another, how it attained its present state, and another, how it will look in the future. What could give the imagination better exercise !
Each pupil writes a composition on the subject that he has selected for fuller illustration. He makes a drawing of the best picture that he has on the subject. This is not done altogether to give him practice in drawing but to hold his attention long enough to observe points that would otherwise escape his notice. "The pencil is the best microscope.” The composition is divided into two parts. Part I contains a description of what the pupil sees with his mental and physical eves. All the pictures that he has on this subject are to be described. He may choose, also, to describe any imaginary picture that contains the main points of his subject. Part II is something from books. The pupil states in his own words what he has read, and employs the narrative or descriptive style as he prefers. The second part is added for the purpose of directing the pupil's attention to the best books on physical geography and to assure a careful reading of them. Encyclopædias, books of travel and description, novels, poetry, legends, etc., should be recommended. From these the pupil may select something on a particular picture or on the subject as a whole.
Cañons and waterfalls are among the best subjects for composition work. Good pictures are easily obtained, and there is a variety of