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any better until you impress upon the world your existence as well as your importance, to say nothing of your skill? Attend the institutes. All other professions and trades are bound together by organizations for mutual development and protection, then why should the teachers act as a disorganized body? Attend the institutes, join the reading associations and make use of every available means to improve yourselves, and you will be in a better condition to demand more wages.

Circular of Information.

We are in correspondence with the railroad and other transportation companies, and as soon as we get their rates will publish a circular of information for the use of teachers and others, which, in addition to what has already been stated, will contain the propositions of the respective points, railroad rates, programme of exercises, and so on.

School Census.

We are putting up the census blanks upon which to take the census of the children of the State as the law requires, and hope to have them in the hands of the superintendents before they receive this JOURNAL. We published in the last JOURNAL some of the requirements of the law and respectfully refer all who are interested to the law for information.

The blanks will be sent directly to the superintendents, except in the following counties: Giles, Grayson, Highland, Lunenburg, Mathews, Northumberland, Patrick, Lee, Tazewell, Bland, Carroll, Craig, Dickenson, Essex, Princess Anne, Stafford, Westmoreland, Wise, Scott and Russell. As these counties are remote, to save time and facilitate the work, one-half of the blanks will be sent directly to the clerks and the remainder to the superintendents. This will not relieve the superintendents of responsibility ; in every instance they will be required to exercise special care in securing a prompt and accurate discharge of this duty by the district clerk, and will save themselves trouble if they will follow strictly the instructions contained in the circular accompanying the blanks.

The Best Way to Induce Teachers to attend the Institutes.

It has been suggested by Superintendents Bowles, of Staunton, and Roller, of Augusta, that the best way to induce teachers to attend the summer institutes is for each superintendent to convene his teachers at some central point and there to present the great importance of these institutes to them “face to face.”

This is a good idea, and we hope superintendents will adopt it. Frequently the failure of teachers to attend the institutes is due to a want of definite information, and as they are arranged this year so as to bring them within easy reach of all we expect superintendents to be more than usually energetic in getting their teachers to attend. Let us show our appreciation of the value of the aid extended to us by the Hon. J. L. M. Curry, agent of the Peabody Education Fund, by all attending the institutes. Last year we had four institutes, giving sixteen weeks' instruction, and one thousand teachers attended. This year we have five institutes giving twenty-one weeks' instruction, and we expect over fifteen hundred teachers to attend. This is a very small proportion of the 6,371 teachers employed in the State, being less than thirty per cent.

It wont do for superintendents to wait until the institutes open, and then wonder why their teachers are not present. Now is the time to get them to attend. Teachers are human-strange as this assertion may seem to some-and require time to make up their minds and to make their arrangements to attend. We look to the superintendents to agitate this matter and shall hold them responsible for their teachers' failing to be present. Of course it is unreasonable to presume that every teacher can or will attend an institute, but every county should be represented at one or the other institute for white teachers, as well as those for colored.

We find that over forty counties last year had not a teacher at either of the institutes. A census of the teachers who attend the institutes is taken, and in the report for 1884, of the institutes held that year, table 13 gives the counties represented and the number whe attended from each. We are determined this year to do more and intend to publish the name of every superintendent whose county or city is not represented at one or the other of the institutes, and ask him the reason for the failure.

The institutes are located so as to be accessible to all the teachers.

We have been to much trouble to arrange for reduced rates of board and transportation. We have had to exercise great care, with the small amount of funds at our disposal, to arrange so as to run the four institutes, and but for the liberality of the towns, where they are to be held and the citizens of those towns it could not have been done. It will not do for superintendents to attempt to excuse themselves on the plea that this is extra work without any extra pay ; the work done by this office in arranging for the institutes is all extra work, and is even outside of that authorized by the State, and its laws, but in our judgment it is the most needed and the most beneficial work done by this department, notwithstanding the large amount of extra labor it entails. Then, superintendents, let us all do our duty, commencing now and continuing until the institutes are successfully closed. The circulars, containing fuller information, will be sent you just as soon as they can be prepared; but don't wait for them, you are in possession of all the vital information; go to work.

Peabody Scholarships. Examinations to fill the vacancies in these scholarships at the Nashville College will be held at Staunton Institute commencing Thursday, July the 30th, 1885; at Fredericksburg, commencing Tuesday, July 28th, 1885, and at Marion, commencing Thursday, August 6th, 1885.

All who desire to enter the competition for these scholarships are required to atter.d one or the other of these examinations. All further information can be obtained by addressing this office.

Institute in Northampton.

Superintendent J. C. Weaver, of Accomac county, reports a very successful institute held at Eastville, Northampton county, May the 5th and 6th, and says that thirty teachers were present, “some having travelled over sixty miles." We commend their zeal and hope they will persevere in the good work and extend their travel to the Fred. ericksburg institute. He says “the work of the institute was good, and tended largely to raise the standard of public schools and con

vinced the neighborhood that men and women had them in charge fully competent and worthy of confidence.”

Prof. George E. Little.

The chalk-talk man will give lessons in drawing at all the insti.

tutes.

Hon. W. H. Ruffner, Principal of the State Normal School at Farmville, will attend the Staunton institute and promises, if possible, to visit those at Marion and Fredericksburg.

Circular No. 443.

In addition to the information contained in this circular we desire to state that the law does not allow any compensation for listing children under five years of age. See Sec. 75 of School Law. Children under five years of age are required to be listed under the provisions of the said section (as stated in the circular), that declares "and to gather statistics relating to the interest of education in the district according to forms furnished from the office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction.

OFFICE OF SUPT. OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.

RICHMOND, May 27th, 1885. I have just received a communication from Prof. W. B. McGilvray. He declines to assist at the Staunton institute. I regret this, but in due time will make suitable provision to fill this unexpected vacancy.

SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.

SCHOOL LAW OF VIRGINIA.

(Continued from page 184.)

143. Be it enacted by the general assembly, That whenever the said Norfolk and Western railroad company shall pay unto said Board of Public Works the sum of five hundred thousand dollars aforesaid, or any part thereof, it shall be the duty of the Board of Public Works to pay the sum of four hundred thousand dollars, part thereof, into the treasury to the credit of the public free school fund, and subject to the draft of the State Board of Education, at the rate of one hundred thousand dollars per annum, to be expended by said Board for purposes of public education, and apportioned ratably among the school districts of this State, as current revenues for similar purposes are apportioned.

144. The remaining one hundred thousand dollars, of the sum so paid, shall be paid into the treasury on special deposit subject to the future action of the general assembly, the same being intended for the erection and maintenance of a normal school for colored teachers, to be hereafter established.

HOW STATE FUNDS OTHER THAN THOSE PROVIDED FOR IN THE ACT APPROVED MARCH 6, 1882, ARE PLACED IN COUNTY TREASURY.

Treasurer to notify county superintendent thereof.

145. At the proper time each county superintendent of schools shall notify the county treasurer in writing that the State money apportioned to the county is ready for distribution, whereupon the county treasurer shall forthwith make requisition in due form upon the second auditor of the State for the amount specified, and as soon as the money has been received into the county treasury, it shall be the duty of the treasurer to inform the county superintendent in writing of the fact.

HOW MONEY FOR SCHOOL PURPOSES,

Other than those provided for in the act approved March 6, 1882, is drawn from

county treasury.

146. The methods of drawing school moneys from county treasurers shall be as follows:

147. For the pay and allowances of the county superintendent of schools, so far as the same is to come out of the county funds, a warrant therefor in writing shall be drawn, signed by the county superintendent himself, stating on its face the ground on which such pay or allowance is claimed, and verified by his own affidavit; but if the county treasurer has reason to doubt the validity of the claim, or any part of it, it shall be his duty to withhold payment, and to state the ground of his doubts on the

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