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County Exhibitions .....
First Virginia Reading Association Or-
First Virginia Reading Association......
for Course of Reading Selected........
Summary from Census of Teachers....... 492
at ..................................... 496
Amended .............................. 2
Teachers' Census, Summary from........ 492
Wilson, Wm. D.....
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14 | Book Notices.....
II. Offcial Department.
D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers,
APPLETON'S AMERICAN STANDARD GEOGRAPHIES, STICKNEY'S CHILD'S BOOK OF LANGUAGE, and LUPTON'S ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC AGRICULTURE,
HAVE BEEN LICENSED BY
For use in the Public Schools of Virginia, and ADOPTED FOR EXCLUSIVE use by a
large number of the leading Counties and Cities in the State.
THESE GEOGRAPHIES present the latest and best improvements in School Text-Books, and ombody the methods approved and followed by the most intelligent and successful educators. Their mechanical exeoution is unsurpassed. In striking illustrations, clearness of maps and beauty of letter press, they have no equals. The attention of the Principals of all grades of Schools is especially called to these books. The exchange and introductory prices are as follows:
ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY, exchange 35 cents, introductory 55 cente.
THE CHILD'S BOOK OF LANGUAGE supplies & want long felt in all grades of Elementary Schools; it bas for this reason been received with universal favor.
Teaching children to write their own language in a simple and natural manner has been so long and so generally neglected that all subsequent training of them as young men and woman in Schools of every grade has failed to develop a reasonably good style of writing. This is painfully apparent in the labored, stilted, and unnatural style of the essays and compositions read by the graduates at most if not all educational institutions,
If District Boards and the Principals of Private Scbools would remedy this evil, they should see that these valuable little books are introduced and used in every School under their charge. They are a graded series of lessons and blanke in four numbers and introduced at 8 cents per copy and retailed at 9 cents per copy, Teachers' edition 50 cents per copy.
No. 1, STORIES IN PICTURES, appeals to the child's delight in stories, and, by means of pictures suggesting incidents or adventures, enlists the imagination and so makes him forget himself and his school surroundings, and act in the freedom of his home-life.
No. 2, STUDIES IN ANIMALS, avails itself of the curiosity of the child and gives him opportunity for learning more while contributing what by his own observation he has already learned of the ways and forms of animals.
No. 3, STUDIES IN PLANTS, by presenting a great variety of pictures, is the best substitute for and reminder of life out-of-doors, in fields and gardens, and makes possible the acquaintance with forms and habits of plants which should precede even the most elementary lessons in Botany.
No. 4, STUDIES OF WORDS, considers language-forms in the same manner as things are studied, first developing them in so natural a way as not to excite self-consciousness, then using them in their most apparent and familiar connections.
LUPTON'S ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC AGRICULTURE meets the demand for a brief treatise on this subject. The time is at hand when the farmer must know something of the scientific principles involved in the productions of the soil or fail to profit by his calling, and as a large majority of boys will receive no scientific instruction beyond the Public Schools, they should have just such information as this little book supplies.“ For further information, address,
W. HORACE SOPER, General Agent for Maryland and Virginia, No. 332 W. Baltimore Street, Baltimore, Md.
1. VENTILATION AND HEATING.-For a large part of our schoolyear we in the South have little or no trouble under this head; but the occasional short spells of very cold weather require that we should give it close attention. Our buildings are not constructed with storm doors, double windows and the many appliances common to those at the North.
Whatever be the source of heat (and in the space allotted me it is impossible to discuss this part of the subject), the temperature of the school-room should always be maintained up to sixty-five degrees (Fahr.) and never be allowed to exceed seventy. A temperature of sixty-five degrees to healthy children warmly clad is generally sufficiently high, but in public schools there are always a number of children not warmly clad, and for them it would be unhealthy to permit the temperature to remain below seventy degrees for any length of time.
The maintenance of an even temperature somewhat low is, however, more to be desired than excessive heat, which has a great disturbing effect on the circulation of the brain. My own experience with teachers leads me to the conclusion that most teachers maintain their rooms at too low a temperature rather than two high a one. The tendency to become absorbed in the work of the school makes them too long neglect the source of heat, or the open window which has been raised for purposes of ventilation; and above all others is the tendency to make their own feelings rather than the thermometer the test of the temperature of the room. The real difficulty is to maintain an even temperature and at the same time have sufficient ventilation. In a room heated by two sources of heat, a hot-air flue at one end and an open stove, or fire-place, at the other, this difficulty is fully overcome, for the open stove furnishes a most perfect ventilator, and the fue furnishes a constant supply of warmed fresh air. Experience with rooms heated in this way has convinced me that it is a most desirable way of heating and ventilating; in fact here the system of ventilating in no way contradicts that of heating, as is so frequently the case. Where rooms are heated by stoves, the simplest contrivance for admitting fresh air without producing draughts, is to place under the lower sash of each window a narrow piece of wood, the length of the width of the sash. The effect is to leave a narrow opening between the sashes, and thus admit air in an upward direction. This works very well if there is a transom, or chimney or fue on the opposite side of the room, and will then sufficiently ventilate a room full of children. As to the amount of fresh air required for good ventilation, doctors here, as elsewhere, disagree, some authorities placing the amount at 1,400 to 3,500 cubic feet hourly to each scholar, while a writer in a recent number of the Popular Science Monthly puts it at one-third or one-half that amount. No system of ventilation and heating will work unless the teacher and janitor work together.
In ordinary weather, our rooms in the South can be well ventilated by keeping the upper sash of each window constantly lowered an inch or two (more than that produces too much draught) and leaving the door open four of five minutes at the expiration of each half hour.
2. CARE OF THE EYES.-Here the teacher is rarely beset with difficulties not of his own making ; no defective Alues, no mode of heating determined by school-authorities, or undue pressure brought to bear by ambitious parents and exacting superintendent, or principal. In one respect only may he have any one else to blame: the architect may have put in too few or too many windows. And as the difficulties are few, the responsibility is great, the greater in that the wider the extension of education, the larger the number of pupils of defective vision.
Says Mr. Brudenell Carter in his treatise on the care of the eyes : “It is very worthy of note that in the experience of opthalmic surgeons, it is exceptional to meet with a child suffering from defective vision who has not, before the defect was discovered, been repeatedly and systematically punished by teachers or school-masters for sup. posed obstinacy or stupidity.” Defective vision is rapidly increasing as our education becomes more widely diffused, and the tendency of near-sight to increase as school-life advances is fully shown by the following statistics obtained by Dr. Derby, of New York, and Dr. Conklin, of Dayton.