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obtaining a teacher's license in the case of candidates who have had no other preparation for the work.
Pedagogics in Universities and Colleges.--Chairs of pedagogics or didactics, have been established in the Universities of Michigan, Missouri, Iowa and Nebraska, and an effort is being made to establish the same in the Mississippi State University and in the Agricultural and Mechanical College of that State. Johns Hopkins University maintained during 1882 special Saturday classes for the benefit of teachers of Baltimore. The public lectures given under the auspices of the University have also been largely attended by teachers.
Kindergarten.--The principal growth has been in the very largest of the cities, in which the Kindergarten methods are most demanded. More than one-half of these enterprises have started in the cities of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Washington, Chicago, and San Francisco. They are supported by the wealthy for the sake of their own children and by the philanthropic for the benefit of the poor by whom they are surrounded.
Secondary Instruction.--Under this heading is comprised, for convenience, the work of three classes of institutions: Public high schools, private academies and seminaries, and preparatory schools and preparatory departments. In the first are reported more than 39,000 pupils; in the second, about 138,000. The aggregate number of pupils receiving preparatory instruction reaches 251,613.
The movement for the higher education of women has had a favorable effect upon secondary instruction.
Information from public high schools is less complete than is desired. The reported enrolment in these is equal to 1 in every 286 of our city population, as given in the census of 1880. Neither this average estimate, it is remarked, nor the larger ratio of attendance in particular cities, warrants the opinion that the high schools render any considerable portion of our youth either visionary or averse to industry. The cause of such tendencies, it is thought, must be sought in our social and industrial habits rather than in our schools.
In the Northwestern States the policy of making the high school course continuous with the courses of the State Universities is proving doubly advantageous. It promises on the one hand to relieve the higher institutions of the burden of preparatory work, and on the other it greatly improves the quality of instruction in the high schools.
Superior Instruction.-Reports were received from 227 institutions of collegiate rank, exclusively for women, of which 142 were authorized to confer collegiate degrees. The property owned by them was valued at about $10,000,000; the productive funds owned amounted to only about $1,000,000, yielding $53,000 annually, the chief source of support being tuition fees. A total of 28,726 students were enrolled in these institutions, about 8,000 of them being in preparatory departments, an increase during the year of about 2,600 students.
Every year shows a slight increase in the number of women brought under instruction in schools that maintain high standards, and an increase in the enrolment of women in collegiate courses.
No change has taken place since the last report in the attitude of any of the older Eastern colleges with reference to the admission of women, but the sentiment in favor of equal and identical provision for both sexes has become deeper and more extended.
In Table IX are reported the statistics of 365 colleges and universities, all enrolling about 64,000 students, and employing more than 4,000 instructors, an increase for the year of 3 colleges, 1,661 students, and 52 teachers, about 32,000 of the whole number of students being in collegiate departments. The exact classification is given of only about 21,000 collegiate students, but of these 16,000 were pursuing classical courses (including nearly 14,000 men and a little over 2,000 women), while upwards of 5,000 were students in scientific courses, nearly one-third of the latter being women. Fifteen colleges report only preparatory students; in 288 the collegiate course comprises 4 years, in two only 3 years, while in 16 the courses were entirely elective.
Scientific and Industrial Education.—Table X shows 86 schools of science, including State agricultural colleges, employing more than 1,000 instructors and enrolling nearly 16,000 students, an increase for the year of i school and 63 teachers, and over 3,000 students. Continued interest in industrial and scientific education is shown by the extension of facilities for instruction in such schools, as well as by increased attendance on them and by a general discussion of the subject. People are alive to the necessity of cultivating the arts of peace, and are inquiring for methods of education directly preparatory to the common industries. Men, eminent as leaders in technical education, are studying the schools of Europe and introducing valuable features from them into American schools.
Agricultural education has made perceptible advance during the time covered by the last report.
Encouraging progress has also been made in mechanical instruction.
Public Libraries.-Incomplete reports from over 4,000 public libraries, each having 300 volumes or more, show an aggregate of over 13,000,000 volumes. The total yearly additions (1,800 libraries reporting) were about 529,000 volumes; the yearly use of books (only 900 reporting) was nearly 10,000,000. It is said that the reports of other countries can show no parallel to this voluntary and uniform method of collecting and communicating information respecting these establishments, so graphically called the universities of the people,
Reform Schools.-Twenty-three States and the District of Columbia report 67 reform schools, with nearly 15,000 ininates, less than one-third of them being girls. The cost of supporting these institutions amounted to nearly $2,000,000, and their earnings to over $400,000.
The success of the training given appears in the fact that a majority of the youth sent out from these schools become useful men and women. We are told there is abundance of proof that the usual result of reformatory education is to prepare inmates to meet successfully the duties of life in some honorable pursuit; but that the attention given to industrial training is still insufficient, and it is to be hoped that leg. islatures may see the wisdom of promoting it by such means as they are able to com. mand.
Educational Benefactions.—More than $7,000,000 were given during the year to the various classes of educational institutions in aid of their work. Of this amount colleges and universities received over three and a half millions; colleges for women, $373,000; schools of science and theology, each about $640,000; schools of medicine, about $125,000; schools of law, $175; schools for secondary instruction, including college preparatory schools, nearly $800,000; institutions for the deaf and dumb and blind, $21,000; for the training of nurses, $25,000, and for the feeble-minded,
Forestry.-The interest in forestry is increasing as the injurious effects of the dimi. nution of wooded areas are more fully realized. Societies for the preservation of forests and the cultivation of trees are being organized in various States, and their gatherings attract much attention, while in other States school authorities encourage the planting and protection of trees. The study of forestry, moreover, is pursued in the agricultural colleges of many States, especially in the West, and the school of political science in the University of Michigan has an attractive course of instruction in this branch,
Recommendations.—The Commissioner recommends the publication of twenty thousand copies of the report for the use of the office, which will only enable it to supply its correspondents.
The Commissioner also renews his recommendation for the organization of the educational museum, which now constitutes a collection of great value and is more and more visited and studied by teachers and school officers.
He also renews most earnestly the following recommendations :
1. That the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction for each Territory be created, to be filled by appointment by the President, the compensation to be fixed and paid as in the case of other Federal appointees for the Territories.
2. That the whole or a portion of the net proceeds arising from the sale of public lands be set aside as a special fund, the interest of said fund to be divided annually pro rata among the several States and Territoriec and the District of Columbia, un. der such provisions in regard to amount, allotment, expenditure and supervision as Congress in its wisdom may deem fit and proper.
3. The enactment of a law requiring that all facts in regard to national aid to education and all facts in regard to education in the Territories and the District of Columbia necessary for the information of Congress, be presented through this office.
4. An increase of the permanent force of the office.
The Influence of Scientific Pursuits.
[The broadening tendency of scientific pursuits, as indicated in the following extract, is readily granted. The search for truth, and the careful comparison of indi. vidual phenomena, in order to arrive at a comprehensive truth is an excellent training for the mind. Yet it cannot be denied that many of the most advanced scientists have so expanded their intellects in these pursuits, as to push out from them everything which is not appreciable to human reason. What they cannot understand they will not believe. The religious element is eliminated from their minds. There can be no objection to questioning Nature, to finding out her secrets as far as it can be done. But we must recognize that there is a point beyond which human reason cannot go, where our only means of knowledge is through a direct revelation from God. In thinking of these skeptical scientists, we are constantly reminded of the contrast presented by the Apostle Paul between the simplicity of the Gospel and the pride of human wisdom in I. Cor. i, 21 : “For after that, in the wisdom of God, the world by wisdom knew not God; it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.” There can be no conflict between true science and revelation. “ God is not the author of confusion.” The developments of science may modify our views of the Bible, yet scientific truth should always be sought reverently, with a firm conviction of the existence of the Supreme Being and of the truth of His revelation to men.-ED.)
“The dominant ideas of the past have been confining and restrictive. National feelings are diverse and antagonizing; religions are hostile and politics local and ex. lusive; but science is as universal as Nature, its devotees are one in spirit and in purpose, and it is undoubtedly the supreme unifying element of the modern social state. It studies phenomena of every kind, and is equally at home in every place. Its perpetual aim is the dispassionate consideration of facts and the generalization of wider and more comprehensive truths. Eschewing all narrowness and prejudice, by the very nature of its discipline it tends to break down factitious limitations, it cultivates the spirit of large-mindedness, and is the great teacher of toleration, liberality, and catholicity. By leading to profounder agreements, by awakening broader sympathies and making possible more harmonious co-operations in the further progress of civilization, the extension of science is full of hopeful encouragement for the best interests of mankind. Under its influence men emerge into the light of new intellectual relations, new opportunities, and new responsibilities. The elevated sentiments by which men of science are more and more animated, were thus eloquently expressed by one of the distinguished presidents of the British Association, Sir John Herschel. He said: “Let selfish interests divide the worldly, let jealousies torment the envious; we breathe a purer empyrean. The common pursuit of truth is, of itself, a brotherhood. In these meetings we have a source of delight which draws us together, and inspires us with a sense of unity. That astronomers should congregate to talk of stars and planets; chemists, of atoms; geologists, of strata, is natural enough; but what is there; equally pervading all, which causes their hearts to burn within them for mutual unbosoming ? Surely the answer of each and all—the chemist, the astronomer, the physiologist, the electrician, the biologist, the geologist—all with one accord, and each in the language of his own science, would answer, not only the wonderful works of God and the delight their disclosure affords, but the privilege he feels to have aided in the disclosure. We are further led to look onward through the vista of time with chastened assurance that Science has still other and nobler work to do than any she has yet attempted.-Prof. E. L. Youmans in Popular Science Monthly for September.
EDITORIAL PARAGRAPHS. The FARMVILLE NORMAL SCHOOL.--At a recent meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Farmville Normal School the Faculty of the institution was completed by the election of the following teachers : Miss Bush, of the Connecticut State Normal School; Miss Gash, of North Carolina ; Miss Lee, of the Connecticut State Normal School, and Mrs. C. T. Bartkowska, of Richmond, Va. Miss Bush was selected by Dr. Ruffner as Assistant Principal under the discretion allowed him by the Board of Trustees, Miss Lee has had experience in Normal school work in the Connecticut State Normal School, Miss Gash was highly recommended by Dr. Buchanan, a member of the Board of Trustees, and by Dr. Wiley, President of Martha Washington College in Abingdon, Mrs. Bartkowska is a graduate of the Richmond High School, and for several years past has taught with marked success in the Richmond schools.
Dr. Ruffner, Principal of the school, reports that the prospects of the school altogether seem fair for a successful session.
It is a great point gained that Virginia is committed practically to the Normal school as a factor in public education. The idea of its value, once lodged in the minds of the people, will grow till we have a number of such schools in the State. This will be the case unless the Farmville school is a failure. But there is no good reason why it should fail. Equipped as it is, with a learned and energetic Principal and experienced teachers, it ought not to fail. We have great confidence and hope in its success. It will not fail if the friends of public education give it the countenance and support which they ought. Let them all combine to forward its interests and make its success assured.
THE NORMAL MUSIC COURSE. A series of Exercises, Studies, and Songs,
Defining and Illustrating the Art of Sight Reading. Progressively arranged from the first Conception and Production of Tones to the most Advanced Choral Practice. THIRD READER SUPPLEMENT. By John W. Tufts and H. E. Holt.
New York, Boston, Chicago, and San Francisco. D. Appleton & Co. 1884. · The preceding books of the Normal Music Course, have taken the student over the music course, explaining the difficulties and using all the keys. This book, therefore, is not arranged on a strictly progressive plan. It contains a series of compositions, selected, adapted, and arranged from the best masters, and though designed as a supplement to the Third Reader, may be used just as well by seminaries or soci. ties where compositions for female voices are required.
OUTLINE OF LECTURE NOTES ON GENERAL CHEMISTRY. By JOHN
T. STODDARD, Ph. D., Prof. of Chemistry in Smith College. The Non-Metals. AN OUTLINE OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS, FOR BEGINNERS. By
JOHN T. STODDARD, Ph. D., Prof. of Chemistry in Smith College. Harris & Rogers, 13 Tremont Place, Boston. 1884. Price, 75 cents, each.
These two little manuals seem to be carefully prepared and well suited to the purpose for which they are designed.
THE FRENCH TEACHER. A Right System of Teaching French. Dedicated to teachers by Prof. E. C. DUBOIS, author of “ Broken English.” Boston: Lee & Shepard, publishers. 1884. Price, $1.
This volume is highly recommended by those who have used Prof. Dubois' method, for its simplicity and the aid given, especially in pronunciation and the verbs. For sale by J. W. Randolph & English.
ADDITION MANUAL BY WHICH ADDITION IS MEMORIZED, AND THE
SUM OR DIFFERENCE OF ANY TWO NUMBERS KNOWN AT SIGHT. By F. B. GINN. Ginn, Heath & Co., Boston, New York and Chicago. 1884. Mailing price, 20 cents.
The plan of the author is to teach pupils all the combinations of two numbers so thoroughly that the simple putting of the two numbers one above the other suggests, without thougbt, their sum, just as c-a-t is at once recognized as cat without spelling