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banks, viz. : Wisconsin, Dane County, Bank of the Capitol, Merchants', and State Banks, all flourishing institutions with large capitals. The City Cemetery occupies a fine situation near Lake Mendota. Dane County Bible Society was lately organized. There are eleven different religious denominations in Madison, nearly all of which have fine church edifices. The Press is well represented, viz. : the Argus and Democrat, and Patriot (Democratic), and the State Journal (Republican); published both daily and weekly- the Argus and Democrat also issues a tri-weekly. The Norske Americaner (Democratic), a Norwegian weekly; the Staats Zeitung (Democratic), and Madison Zeitung (Republican), are German weeklies; the Western Fireside, a valuable literary and family paper, is issued weekly; the Wisconsin Farmer, a monthly magazine of thirty-six pages, is the most ably-conducted of its kind in the Northwest ; and the Students' Miscellany is a creditable monthly literary magazine, published by the students of the State University. These several publications, together with the State printing, book publishing, and job work, consume nearly 10,000 reams of paper annually, and give employment to 110 hands.
DESCRIPTION OF TOWNS.
JANESVILLE, one of the most flourishing and important towns in the State, the county-seat of Rock County, is beautifully located on both sides of Rock River, forty-five miles southeast of Madison. It contains eight churches, three banks, several academies, seminaries, the State Institution for the Blind, manufactories and mills of various kinds, and five newspapers. The Milwaukee and Mississippi Railroad is here intersected by the Fond du Lac and Rock River Road. There are other railroads in course of construction, which, when completed, will largely increase its extensive trade. In 1846, the population was estimated at 400; in 1854, at 6000; and, at the present time, about 10,000.
BELOIT, a few miles distant in Rock County, near the south line of the State, was incorporated in 1845. It is finely situated on Rock River, and is amply supplied with water-power sufficient for manufactories and mills of every description. It is noted for its fine churches, spacious streets, and for being the seat of Beloit College, which was founded in 1846. The present population is about 7000.
MINERAL POINT, the county-seat of Iowa County, fortyseven miles distant from Madison, derives its importance from the rich mineral region surrounding it. Large quantities of lead and copper are exported by way of Galena. It is a place of active business, having several smeltingfurnaces, six churches, banks, and many stores.
Potosi is situated on Grant River, near its entrance into the Mississippi, fifteen miles above Dubuque. It is the principal depot of the mineral region of Wisconsin. Large quantities of lead are annnally shipped in steamboats from the landing at the mouth of Grant River.
CASSVILLE, on the Mississippi river, twenty-eight miles above Dubuque, is a very important shipping port for the lead of this region. In 1853, over 990,000 pounds were shipped from its landing.
PRAIRIE DU CHIEN, one of the oldest towns in the State, is on the Mississippi river, four miles above the mouth of the Wisconsin. It is the county-seat of Crawford county, and the terminus of the Milwaukee and Mississippi Railroad. It contains several churches, stores, and three news
LA CROSSE, the county-seat of La Crosse county, is beautifully situated on the Mississippi, at the mouth of the river of the same name.
We landed here, on our way up the Mississippi, in the summer of 1853, and can bear testimony to its astonishing increase and prosperity. At that time it contained some forty or fifty houses, and over 300 inhabitants; now its population has increased to about 7000. It contains five churches, ten saw-mills, three shingle-mills, one sash and blind mill, and an iron foundry; besides, there are considerable quantities of pine lumber manufactured. Its merchants transact a large amount of business with the surrounding country, which is fast being settled with an industrious agricultural population. The claims of education have not been neglected; a building was lately erected for school purposes, at a cost of $10,000. This city possesses peculiar advantages, from being the terminus of the La Crosse and Milwaukee Railroad, which will be finished by 1858. In addition to this, the Root River Valley and Southern Minnesota Railroad Company have lately received a munificent grant of land from the General Government, to construct their road to the Big Sioux river. Thus La Crosse will be the terminus of two of the most important railroads in the Northwest. We have, therefore, every reason to expect that its future growth will far exceed that of the past.
PRESCOTT, the county-seat of Pierce county, at the confluence of the St. Croix and Mississippi rivers, is a rapidly increasing town, and soon to be connected with Milwaukee by railroad.
Hudson, one of the most flourishing towns on Lake St. Croix, at the mouth of Willow river, is the capital of the county. The St. Croix and Lake Superior Railroad passes through it, connecting it with that great Lake and Milwaukee.
PORTAGE CITY is situated at the head of navigation of the Wisconsin river, and on the ship canal connecting it with the Fox. It is a depot for large quantities of pine
lumber. There is now uninterrupted steamboat navigation from this place to the Gulf of Mexico.
FOND DU LAC, at the foot of Lake Winnebago, and capital of the county of the same name, is one of the most flourishing of the interior towns. It is connected by railroads with Milwaukee, and is the starting point of the Easteru Land Grant roads. Plank roads are constructed in several directions, giving it communication with various parts of the State. It has five newspapers, several banking houses, car factories, iron foundries, many dry goods and other stores, and contains a population of about 8000.
Oshkosh stands on a site where, a few years ago, was a dense wilderness. Situated on Lake Winnebago, at the mouth of the Fox and Wolf rivers, commanding a steamboat navigation of over two hundred miles, no point in the interior of Wisconsin possesses greater facilities for trade. In 1855 it had a population of 4000, and now it numbers nearly 10,000. Nor is this growth remarkable, when we consider its resources, and the demand of the surrounding country. The railroads, nearly completed, will connect this place with Lake Michigan on the east, and the Mississippi on the west. The Fox River Improvement, already described, enables its merchants and manufacturers to ship their goods through to the Lower Wisconsin and Mississippi. Oshkosh is lighted with gas, and contains five churches, several academies, land offices, four newspapers, seven hotels, fourteen grist mills, steam grist and shingle mills, twelve dry goods and seventy other stores, besides boiler factories, and other like establishments. The sales of several of the leading mercantile houses, for the past year, exceeded $163,000. The amount of lumber manufactured yearly, is over 25,000,000 feet.
KENOSHA, the most southerly lake port of Wisconsin, formerly known as Southport, but, by the good taste of its citizens, recently changed to its old Indian appellation, has a good harbor, and fine piers extending into the lake. Its imports, for 1851, were $1,968,084; exports for the same year, $661,250; arrivals into the harbor, 730. These reports are made partly upon conjecture, as the growth of the lake towns has been so rapid, that the ascertained population of one year may be scarcely more than a moiety of the succeeding. The city contains several churches, public buildings, banks, manufactories, newspapers, and is rapidly increasing in commerce and prosperity.
RACINE, situated on Lake Michigan, at the mouth of Root river, twenty-three miles southeast of Milwaukee, is the second city in the State in population and commerce, and one of the most beautiful in the West. Its commercial advantages are great; the entrance of Root river into the lake forms a commodious harbor, and large sums have been expended for its improvement at different times. large amount of grain seeks this port for an outlet. There are nine large storehouses, capable of containing 70,000 bushels each. In addition to these, the railroad companies have capacious freight depots, for storing merchandise. The favorable location of this city has attracted the attention of manufacturers, and large and profitable investments have been and are still making. The Board of Trade have prepared a statistical report of its manufactures for 1855, the total amount of which is $1,104,605. During the past year, gas works have been erected, and over three miles of pipe laid, at a cost of fifty thousand dollars; also one church, three school buildings, two depots, two large machine shops, one round-house with stalls for thirteen locomotives, several manufactories, planing and other mills, stores and warehouses of various kinds, sereral fine mansions, and nearly two hundred smaller dwellings. In 1840 it had a population of only 337; in 1850, 5117; in 1853,