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coarse towel, and the muscles kneaded for the same period; the child was also to be brought to me three times a week for faradization.

“ This treatment was continued for three weeks with but little if any benefit. During this time I bad continued to use very strong induction currents for fifteen minutes to each leg three times a week. The machine, which was very powerful, was put in action by a battery consisting of three Smee's cells. The current excited caused the most intense pain, but did not produce the slightest apparent contraction in any muscle. I then determined to make use of the constant current derived from a voltaic pile of one hundred pairs—and consequently possessed of great intensity. The poles were applied first to the tibialis anticus of the right leg. The instant the circuit was made the foot, moved up. By continuing the experiment, I found that contractions could be induced in every muscle of both legs. I then had an arrangement constructed for making and breaking the circuit rapidly, and persevered with the treatment daily for a week. During the whole of this period, at every trial contractions were invariably induced in every muscle upon the circuit being made and broken. The warm water frictions and kneading were also continued. I now found that the temperature of the legs below the knees was 86°, and that the circumference was, at the former place of measurement, seven and one-eighth inches. The facts that the toes could now be slightly flexed and extended by voluntary efforts, and that there was some little power over the gastrocnemii muscles, assured me that the cure would ultimately be complete. In this hope I was not disappointed. Amendment continued, and on the 17th of August, when I saw the child for the last time professionally, power over all the muscles of both legs was almost completely restored. Very feeble induction currents now caused contraction. The tibialis anticus was still, however, weak; but I have no doubt that by exercise it, is well as all the rest, will become well nourished and strong. At this date the circumference of the legs was eight and a half inches, and the temperature 90°."

This, with the two other cases, presents, Dr. H. remarks, fair idea of the action of the continuous galvanic current of great intensity in exciting muscular irritability when it has been apparently altogether lost, so far as other means enable us to determine. After contraction has been well established, and the will begins to assume its power over the affected muscles, I prefer to use the induced or faradaic currents, as being more local in their effects. The continuous current, as I propose to show in a subsequent memoir, does not limit its action to the part through which the galvanism passes, but affects distant regions of the body,

“ The voltaic pile of which I make use is one which I devised myself,

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and which I find to possess great intensity. It is constructed of perforated zinc and copper gauze cut into square pieces soldered together, and the couples separated by pieces of woollen cloth. It is set in action by strong vinegar, a few seconds' contact of the poles (terminated by wet sponges) with the skin will cause vesication. Its use, therefore, requires caution. It cannot be applied to the face, or any part of the head and neck to which the fifth pair of nerves is distributed, without risk of causing great disturbance of vision and perhaps blindness from overexcitation of the retina."

SYCOSIS CURED BY SULPHATE OF SODA.

By J. Y. Dale, M.D., Agricultural College, Pa. In August, 1865, I was consulted by T. W., aged 23, a returned soldier, who had sycosis menti, which extended over his chin and the left side of his face. Having read of the influence of sulphite of soda on diseases of cryptogamic origin, it occurred to me that this would be a very good case in which to try its effects. I therefore prescribed for him as a local application sodæ sulphis gr. xl, aquæ 3 ij, glycerinæ 5j, M., which was to be used frequently; and I directed him to keep his beard closely trimmed, but not to shave. In four days not a vestige of the eruption remained. The same remedy has proved equally effectual in three cases treated since then.

ON THE NATURE AND TREATMENT OF CHILBLAINS.

By Henry SAMUEL PUrdun, M.D., L.R.C.P.Ed., L.R.C.S.I., Physician to the Belfast

Dispensary for Diseases of the Skin, Assistant Physician to the Belfast Charit

able Infirmary, &c. Chilbains are an inflammatory state of the cuticle arising from exposure to cold, Dermatitis congelutionis, as Hebra calls it. Now the specific inflammation (if I may so term it) that causes chilbains extends to the deeper structures of the corium, frequently to the cellular tissue beneath it, and is not primarily subcutaneous. In chilblains, like other inflammations, we have increased vascular action, followed by subcutaneous infiltration.

This affection is ushered in by a feeling of heat and itchiness, combined with redness and swelling of the affected part; the sensation of itching is aggravated by warmth. In some cases vesicles make their appearance, accompanied by a weeping of serum, being a typical eczema of Wilian; in other instances by numerous fissures, the eczema fissum of Wilson, eczema rimosum of McCall Anderson, eczema fendill of the French. When the disease passes this stage, suppuration usually takes place, eventually ending in painful ulceration ; indeed, cases have been recorded in which the integument covering the bone has completely sloughed off.

Chilblains are most frequently met with in children and females of a cold lymphatic temperament, and already several cases have been admitted at the Belfast Dispensary. This affection commonly appears on the fingers, toes, and ears, arising from exposure of these parts to cold when being imperfectly dried after washing.

Towards the prevention of chilblains in those who have been subject to them, bathing the hands or feet, as the case may be, in cold water, to which some vinegar has been added, and afterwards brisk friction employed, tends considerably towards keeping the parts in a healthy state.

In the majority of the prescriptions given by authors for the cure of this complaint rectified spirit enters largely. Tincture of arnica, on the same principle, by lowering inflammatory action and causing absorption of any effusion that may have taken place, is extremely useful in unbroken chilblains; but my favourite prescription is that of Marjolin's, and which seldom fails:

R Balsami Peruviani, 3 ss.

Spiritus rectificati, 3 iss.
Dissolve, and ada

Acidi hydrochloridi, 3 ss.
Tinct. benzoini. comp. 5 ss.

M. A little of this is to be rubbed occasion lly into the affected part, or if preferred by the patient, a small piece of linen can be moistened with some of the above and applied to the part; a sensation of smarting is usually experienced for a few minutes.

When the chilblain is broken, I find the calomine ointment (Turner's cerate) a very good dressing, and if thought desirable to stimulate the part we may combine it with equal parts of elemi ointment.

If ulceration has taken place the nitrate of silver should be freely used.

Belfast, November, 1865.

THE CHOLERA AS IT APPEARED AT THE PORT OF NEW YORK

IN 1865. By J. SWINBURNE, M.D., Port Physician. linta,” an English mail steamer, iron-built, of 325 feet in

et beam, with two first and second cabins fore and aft op

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the deck, and three separate steerages of 98, 80 and 70 feet in length, and 81 to 9 feet in height, sailed from London on the 10th of October, with a full cargo, and 28 cabin and 12 steerage passengers. London was at that time perfectly healthy. On the 11th she arrived at Havre, 'remaining only one day and receiving 24 additional cabin and 540 steerage passengers, mostly from Switzerland, the southern part of Germany and eastern France, all, with few exceptions, passing through Paris on their way to Havre, some remaining only a few hours, others for days in the Metropolis, where already at that time cholera was reported to prevail, though to a limited extent and a of mild type. Among these were two families from Germany, who remained a day at the hotel, City of New York,” at Paris, and five days at the “Weissen Lamm,” and Hullgarder Hof,in Havre. While at these hotels, emigrants who had arrived only a few days before them were taken ill, visited and attended by government officials, and by their orders sent to the hospitals.

The “ Atalanta” sailed again on tie 12th of October. On the 13th the first death from cholera occurred in the person of a little child in the family from the "Wiessen Lamm.On the 14th, 16th, 18th, 19th and 22d, five deaths from cholera occurred in one family from the Hullgarder Hof." On the 22d, a friend of the family, also from the "Hullgurder Hof," but in the 2d steerage, sickened, and died on the 24th. On the 28th, the first cases occurred in the 3d steerage; 3 of the emigrants from London were taken ill on the 30th, all of whom, however, recovered. When the Atalanta arrived, the surgeon of the steamer reported 60 cases of cholera and 15 deaths during the passage; two more died after her arrival in port, and 6 out of 42 cases admitted on board the hospital ships, making a total of 102 cases and 23 deaths. Of the 42 cases treated in the hospital, 22 were admitted on the 6th; six on the 7th; two on the 8th ; seven on the 9th ; two on the 15th; three on the 16th; one on the 19th. From the first case, the disease presented the uniform symptoms pathognostic of Asiatic cholera, and although in comparatively few cases terminating fatally, the same virus produced the milder forms of disease which destroyed life in 24 or even in 12 hours.

The Hermann,” which sailed from Havre at the same time with the Atalanta, arrived at the lower quarantine on the 26th of November. The physician in charge reported 7 deaths-4 children, 3 adults. The former he reported to have died of diarrhoea and inanition; the 3 adults of disease of the heart, inflammation of the bowels, and premature parturition after a few days illness. Singular, however, that the first death

a occurred in the very family who had lost the mother at the Hullgarder Hof at Havre, and whose disease and death, after 36 hours' illness, the

VOL. II.

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illiterate peasant, her husband, so graphically described, that no doubt whatever could exist, that she died of cholera asphyxia. The "Cella," of the same line of steamers, arrived on the 20th from Havre with 360 passengers of the same class, and from the same region of country, but no case of sickness or death was reported during the passage and on arrival. The “Mary Ann," an American bark, from Havre on the 25th of Oc. tober, arrived on the 12th of December. The captain reported 5 deaths during the passage, 4 from cholera; the first died on the 28th of October, the 3 others on the 3d, 4th and 5th of November, after an illness of one to two days duration. On a small vessel, with a deck scarcely 6 feet high, and crowded to its utmost capacity, and without any special care or prevention, the disease disappeared, and all on board enjoyed good health for 30 days previous to her arrival in port. The Harpswell,” which sailed on the 28th of October, a few days after the “ Mary Ann," lost 7 infants during the passage, but no cholera cases occurred. Equally exempt were the two first class steamers “Europe" and "America," with passengers directly from Paris, where the majority had resided for some time previous.

That cholera prevailed in Paris, and to some extent in Havre, has been admitted by all, and what is still more significant, the "Atalanta," Mary Ann,Hermann," and "Harpswell," had each names on the passenger list which were not among the passengers, but reported to bave been sent to the hospital by the local authorities at Havre. The clean bills of health were unquestionably issued by the same spirit which reported 200 cases at Paris at a time when upwards of 300 daily died of cholera.

Although the appearance of cholera was not unanticipated in the port of New York, no facilities whatever were prepared for an efficient quarantine. The Atulantu was immediately, upon arrival, sent to the lower Bay, the surgeon of the vessel relieved, and as soon as the hospital-ship could be prepared and the weather admitted of the removal of the sick, they were all, and as they occurred, transferred to the hospital-ship; the baggage of the passengers was opened and aired; the soiled linen washed, and baggage, bedding, and personal effects of every kind subjected to fumigation in cool chambers prepared for that purpose. This fumigation was effected by a mixture of black oxyd of manganese, common salt, equal parts, well moistened--and the addition of sulphuric acid, one part to four. The generation of gas was so abundant that one of the hands of the boat could only be restored with difficulty and after hours' attention. :n the effects of inhaling the gas, four hours after fumigation bad

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