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quate rival.

of power.

Just like their fathers, (the offices of marshal of the Court of Mr. Pitt has brilliant language, Mr. Exchequer, receiver of the six-penny Fox solid sense, and such luminous duties, and cursitorship,) and the artist powers of displaying it clearly, that to gratify his patron, came out with a mere eloquence is but a Bristol stone triumphant set of plates, “The Fall of when set by the diamond reason.” Phaeton," wherein Fox is represented as

The opponents of this India Bill de falling headlong from the car of state, clared that it was an infringement of the reins being snatched by royalty, the Company's rights, and that it would the influence of the King being used to give immense influence to ministers. throw out that great minister. In anSome said that Fox aimed at a sort of other, published the 12th January 1784, supreme India Dictatorship, and on this Sayer has attempted a parody of Milaccount they gave him the title of“ Carlo ton's passage descriptive of the assemKhan." Out of doors the caricaturists bling of the fallen angels, exhibiting were at work as busily as ever. Cari- Fox as the political Satan, surrounded catures, squibs, and pamphlets, were by his satellites Lords Portland, Carlisle, showered down upon him fast and Cavendish, Keppel, and North, and also furiously. Sayer came out on the 20th Edmund Burke; all his followers have of November with a print called "A rueful countenances, but Fox encourages Transfer of India Stock," wherein the them; he minister is represented as carrying the

“With high words that bore India House on his shoulders to St. Semblance of worth, not substance, gently raised James'; a hint of course of the transfer Their fainting courage, and dispeli'd their fears."

Sayer appears to be assi- Leaving James Sayer, comfortably duously courting the notice of Wil- enjoying his place, and passing in afluliam Pitt, and on the 5th of Decem-ence a life, presenting no other remarkber issued his most famous production, able occurrence than the issue from time a caricature which is very inferior to to time of a strong political lampoon, or most of his works, but which had an a smart caricature, we must now proceed extraordinary sale; and which accom- to take up the thread of caricaturo plished the end for which it was history as exemplified in the life of intended. It bears the title of “ Carlo Gilray.

moreover almost Khan's Triumphal Entry into Leaden obliged to pursue this course, because hall Street," and represents Fox as the most notable instances in both Carlo Khan, seated upon the back of lives run parallel with each other. an elephant, the face of the animal

JAMES GILRAY being that of Lord North. The elephant is led by the celebrated Edmund has perhaps the most famous name in Burke, as Fox's imperial trumpeter; political pasquinading in the world. Burke having been the loudest sup. His life being passed in a most exciting porter of the India Bill in the House period, when the world was undergoing of Commons. A bird of ill omen on such a transition as possibly we shall the top of a neighbouring house is not see again, he had a greater opporcroaking forth the impending doom of tunity of influencing the mass, ignorant the monarch.

and excitable as most of the populace "The night crow cried foreboding luckless then were, than any modern caricaturist time."

can hope for. His father, who bore the Fox is said to have acknowledged that his same name as himself, was born Sept. India Bill received its severest blow in 3rd, 1720, at Lanark. He enlisted early public estimation from this caricature, in life, and was present at the famous which had, as we have before said, a battle of Fontenoy, where he lost an prodigious sale, and the effect of which arm; on his return to England, he bewas increased by a multitude of pi- came an out-pensioner of Chelsea rated copies and imitations. On the Hospital, and in order to add some17th of December the bill was thrown thing to the very small dole which the out by a majority of nineteen, and on government afforded to its veterans, bethe night of the 18th, the King dis- came sexton to the Moravian burial missed his ministers, and gave the ground in that parish. He married, seals into the hands of Lord Temple. but who or when, we are not told. His When Pitt came into power, he rewarded celebrated son was born about the midthe caricaturist with a profitable place, dle of the last century,

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When of sufficient age, he was, like Agreeably to this intimation, an imHogarth before him, and William Sharp mense multitude assembled in St. the eminent line engraver, bound ap- George's Fields, where Lord George adprentice to a silver or heraldic engraver. dressed them in an inflammatory speech. This sedentary, and if not laborious, Then the procession marched, six abreast, at least fatiguing business, did not over London Bridge to Old Palace Yard, please him, and having imbibed a taste where they behaved riotously, and anfor private theatricals, he ran away to noyed and insulted the members who join a company of strolling players. If were entering the house. We need not the monotony of an engraver's bench, here go any further into the history of and of having his head continually the “No Popery" riots. In his admibent down watching the strokes of his rable tale of “ Barnaby Rudge," Charles burin, were tiresome, he now found that Dickens has already made that period he had escaped from one kind of drudg- of history popular. The caricaturists ery to embrace a worse. The hardships did their part in ridiculing the rioters, he had to endure, the mean and dis- and in throwing the whole proceeding honest shifts which the strollers are into contempt. An anonymous print. put to; the sordid way of life, so differ- probably gives us a very good specimen ent from the glowing pictures before of what sort of men these rioters were. the scenes, totally destroyed the illusion The “no popery man

appears to have which he had formed, and uprooted any been of the lowest kind of rabble, and love which he had for the life of an has his hat ornamented by a cockade, actor. He returned to his father, and on which is written, “No Popery.” The entered his name as one of the students subscription of the plate is entitled, of the Royal Academy. His style of "No Popery, or the Newgate Reformers." drawing, vigorous, free, and masculine The rioter is in the act of shouting, as it is, will witness that he did not “Down with the Bank,” a consummaneglect his lessons. He appears first tion which was indeed devoutly wished to have obtained work from the book- by a great majority of the concourse of sellers, and illustrated Goldsmith's thieves and low people, who formed the " Deserted Village,” in an edition which supporters of Lord George. was published in 1784. His master in The riot went on with fury for some the art was most likely Ryland, a well days, but on Saturday, 8th June, 1780, known artist of the time.

after a great many of the rioters had been Caricature, however, was soon found killed by the soldiery, and a yet greater to be his forte, and he very early gave number had perished through excessive intimation of his powers. In 1779 he intoxication, and some by being left published, as far as we can ascertain, helplessly drunk in the burning houses, his first plate, which appears to be an tranquillity was restored. On the folimitation of the very successful Sayer, lowing Saturday, Lord George Gordon as it bears that artist's monogram. This was committed to the Tower, whence was called “Paddy on Horseback," and he was subsequently brought to trial contains a joke, which at that time for high treason. He escaped conricwas, perhaps, new; namely, of an tion, and was committed to Bedlam, Irishman riding with his back to the having shown sufficient proofs of inhorse's head, and the horse, moreover, sanity. Lord Amherst, who after the being represented by a bull, intimating, death of General Wolfe had obtained no doubt, the headstrong tendency of the credit of the conquest of Canada, the Irishman for that kind of verbal directed the military operations against error. Gilray made his appearance in these rioters. His severity rendered a stirring time. Lord George Gordon, him unpopular, and he became the butt whom Walpole designates as “The Jack of the caricaturists; one by Sayer, (an of Leyden of the age," was at the head admirable portrait,) represents the of a society termed the “ Protestant General as killing geese, (in allusion Association," and after various inflam- to the rioters,) whilst he is so occupied matory speeches, gave notice, on the he is made to declare, “ If I had the 26th of May, 1780, of his intention on power I'd kill twenty in an hour." the 2nd of June following, of present. By another plate we are made acquainted ing a petition against the toleration of with the fact, that a rumour existed the Roman Cattholics, signed by above that the King (George III.) was secretly a hundred thousand men.

inclined to Popery; he is represented as

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kneeling before an altar, and wearing ble print by Gilray, represents the prothe dress of a monk; a picture of the bable fate of the obnoxious Ministers; it Pope hangs above the door, on one side, is called “ Britannia aroused,” and the whilst on the other a print of Martin genius of the country has hold of Fox Luther is dropping in neglected frag- by one leg, and of Lord North by the ments from the wall. To the fanatical shoulder, and is about to dash them to ultra Protestant party, the great Burke pieces in her ire. Another, bearing the had also made himself particularly ob- old title of “ a long pull, and a strong noxious, on account of his advocacy of pull,” represents King George the III. the Catholic emancipation. With the and Fox, pulling each different ways, mob he obtained credit for a character by the halters of an ass, which is laden under which he was often pictured; with packages like sand-bags, labelled namely, that of being a concealed Jesuit. taxes. The ass, of course, typifies the In another of these humorous prints, British nation. The road to which Fox we shall find that the personification of would take the animal leads to “ReJohn Bull, under which the British na- publicanism,” the other to Absolute tion at the present moment is so often Monarchy;" republican being a term typified, was not yet (1780) invented, of reproach applied to Fox's party; they, or rather since it is taken from the sati- however, had their caricaturists, and rical fable of Swift and Arbuthnot, had from the style of some of these it would not become popular: Britannia, with seem that Rowlandson worked for them. her faithful lion and her red-cross shield, In March 1784, the dissolution of supplies his place. We meet this latter the unpopular ministry took place, and figure in various plates, and in many William Pitt, then only in his twentydifferent attitudes, Sometimes she sits fifth year, was firmly established as dejected and weeping, at others exulting: prime minister of England. His colThe different political views of the cari- leagues were those who were well known caturists inducing them to clothe her in as the “ King's friends,” and he united regal purple or in rags; or to repre- in himself the offices of First Lord of sent her as victorious, or destitute and the Treasury, and Chancellor of the Exabout to be executed. But shortly after chequer. The royal hand was shown this time we have a faint gleam of the in many ways, in turning out the coalicoming glory of the effigies of John Bull. tion, and in establishing the Pitt minisIn the month of April, 1780, an unpo- try, and for once the nation and the pular ministry had been defeated, and a monarch were on the same side. “Adcaricature called “The Bull over-drove; dresses were poured in upon the Crown, or the Drivers in Danger,” represents the thanking the king for exerting his peBritish bull in a rage kicking at the rogative against the palladium of the ministers; the kings of France and people," writes Walpole, and the great Spain are standing by, and the latter whig families were, in the election which exclaims, “I wish I was out of the way, ensued, turned out of seats which they he heats the bulls of Spain.”

had hitherto regarded as their own. Parallel circumstances call forth simi- But the most remarkable contest perlar ideas, the history of caricatures is haps ever witnessed in the history of not free from plagiarism any more than elections took place at Westminster. It any other art; our readers will recall had been represented previous to the many touches in Punch similar to dissolution by Sir Cecil Wray and Fox. that of the “Bull over-drove;" but in Wray deserted his side, and turned to 1784 we have a subject from the pencil the Court, and the king resolved to turn of Gilray, which has since been repeated Fox out, and place Admiral Hood in by Mr. Leech, in Punch. Pitt in the his seat. The poll was opened on the character of the infant Hercules, is 1st of April, and continued without instrangling the two serpents of the coa- termission until the 17th of May, 1784. lition, Fox and Lord North. The coa- For the first few days Fox was in the lition must have been extensively un- minority, buteventually he was returned popular, from the multitude of songs, by a majority of 236 over Sir Cecil pasquinades, and pictures, which were Wray. published against them. There seems No political event seems to have to be in the nature of such connections, given birth to a greater number of something extremely disagreeable to songs, squibs, and caricatures, than the English nation. A bold and forci- this election. Sir Cecil had, in the former parliament, proposed a tax upon two court candidates with placards of servant maids. This was a point not a virulent nature, and with caricatures to be neglected, and innumerable satiri- of a humorous and of an insulting kind. cal plates represented “Judas,” as Wray In one Wray was represented as driven was called, from his desertion of Fox, away by a maid-servant's broom, and a as obnoxiously interfering with our do- pensioner's crutch; in another, he was mestic concerns; in the songs the ladies, Hying from a crowd, bearing on their who in this extraordinary election were banners, “No tax on maid-servants;" no less active in their endeavours than in a third, he was riding a race, mounted the men, are warned not to solicit votes upon a slow and obstinate ass, whilst for Sir Cecil,

the successful candidates upon spirited For though he opposes the stamping of notes,

horses are far in the distance. 'Tis in order to tax all your petticoats ;

The other side were not idle. Their Then how can a woman solicit our votes, For Sir Cecil Wray ?

caricatures came forth sheet upon sheet,

holding up to scorn gambling, the besetThe exertions of the Court against ting sin of Fox. And we now first perFox seem to have been of a very extra- ceive the unhappy difference which took ordinary kind. The King received in- place between the Prince of Wales and telligence of the progress of the elec- his father. Incensed, it is said by Pitt's tion several times a day; and the royal haughty bearing towards him, the young name was used very freely to secure Prince became a warm partizan of Fox, votes for Wray and Hood. On one and a most determined opponent of Pitt. occasion 280 of the household troops An early caricature by Gilray, represents were sent to vote in a body, as house the heir to the throne “Returning from holders, and all dependents of the Brookes's,” in a state of drunkenness, Court were ordered to vote on the same and supported on one side by Fox, and side. Not satisfied with this, the minis- on the other, by“Sam House,” an ardent terial party showed that they were not admirer of the latter. This “Sam House,” backward in creating a popular disturb- was a publican, and a character of his ance when such a measure could serve day. During the election, he kept open them. Lord Hood brought up a party his house for Fox's supporters at his own of sailors, who interrupted the liberal expense, and was gratified by the comvoters and were the occasion of much pany of many of the Whig aristocracy. disturbance. On the other hand, the He was remarkable for a clean, a perpartisans of Fox met them by a nume- fectly bald head, on which he never rous band of chairmen, chiefly Irish. wore hat or wig. He dressed in nan. On the third day the sailors surrounded keen breeches, and brightly polished the tavern where Fox's committee had shoes and buckles. His waistcoat he their meetings, and began shouting at, wore open, displaying remarkably clean jostling, and even striking the gentle- and fine linen. "His legs, often bare, men who were proceeding to join that were, when clad, covered with the finest body. Annoyed by this the committee silk stockings. When asked who he was, sallied out and beat the sailors. Next at the canvassing booth, he answered, day the chairmen also beat those aggres- as he gave his plumper for Fox, sors, who marched off to St. James-street, Publican and a Re-publican.” He was with the idea of breaking up the chairs remarkably successful in his canvassing, belonging to their opponents, but they and his figure is therefore a prominent were again met and defeated, and here one in the caricatures of the day. heads, arms, and legs, were broken. But the most successful of Fox's parThe guards were at length called out tizans was the very beautiful Georgiana and put an end to the disturbance, and Spencer, Duchess of Devonshire. As the next day special constables were active and generous as she was handsworn in. These latter did more harm some and accomplished, she entered than good. They were so decidedly with spirit into the contest, and attended anti-Foxite, so much inclined to the by several beautiful ladies of title, went Court party, that they interrupted and and personally solicited votes for Fox. insulted all voters who were not on The success she had greatly irritated their side.

the Tories, and their papers and caricaBesides meeting Sir Cecil Wray and tures were most insulting to the DuLord Hood with armed force, the poli- chess. In one, she is represented (acticians on the side of Fox opposed the cording to a current report of the day)

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as bribing a butcher with a kiss. In Orleans, old Egalité, father of Louis another, she is feeing a cobler's wife Philippe. Dissuaded from this, he dewith gold, whilst the husband mends termined to commence a life of economy, her shoe. In a third, Fox is represent- suppressed the works at Carlton House, ed as the successful candidate carried shut up his state apartments, and sold triumphantly upon the back of the Du- his race horses, hunters, and even coach chess. The papers were even less civil. horses, and, at the same time, invested Hints and inuendos were thrown out, £40,000 per annum, out of an income which are no less disgraceful to the writers of£50,007, for the payment of his debts. than to the time in which they appeared. This determination rendered the prince In fact, few can look back upon the po- far from unpopular, and his friends litical features of the age, the faction, trumpeted the action far and wide, but hatred, bribery, and intimidation mani- the Government caricaturists published fested at an election, without feeling scenes of his promiscuous amours in not thankful that we have, if not quite, yet very decorous prints. In one, by Gilray, in a great degree, escaped the conta- he and his friends are pictured as “The gion.

Jovial Crew; or, the Merry Beggars;" The election of 1784, which made the in another he is shown as having just caricaturists so busy, threw out no less arrived at Botany Bay; he is carried on than 180 of Fox's most staunch sup- shore by two convicts, and supported porters, who, on this occasion, received on either side by Fox and North. These the burlesque title of “ Fox's Martyrs." attacks were continued from time to The number of members entirely new time, just as particulars of the licento the House gave rise to some ironical tious life of this Prince came before the observations from Fox, and Pitt, in public. In 1787, Gilray represents him defending his supporters, grew angry as “The Prodigal Son,” he is seated on enough. The prints of the time give the ground by a hog trough, and the us the portrait of Fox as “ Catiline re- animals are devouring the Prince's prehended,” sitting, with his face almost feathers. There is fine satire in the hidden by his hand and hat, listening touch which shows us the Prince's garto one of these Philippics. Pitt, of ter all but devoured, of the motto only course, being the eloquent Cicero. The the word honi” is visible. In another, print is by Sayer. A companion to it we see him pictured as receiving money shews us the philosophic Burke sending from the Duke de Chartres. · With a the whole house to sleep by his rather bitter satire, the Prince is represented too discursive harangues. The print is as fat and bloated, but the motto under a voucher for the truth of Goldsmith's the feathers is “Ich starve." assertion, that Burke

In 1787, on the recommencement of Kept on refining,

the parliamentary session, Burke again And thought of convincing, whilst they thought brought forward his impeachment of of dining

Warren Hastings. It is not my proIt is entitled,

on the Sub-vince to enter upon that (to me) very lime and Beautiful."

theatrical trial. We want some new The thoughts and attention of the and uninterested historian to write an nation were now again turned on the account of an affair, which made so much thoughtless extravagance and riotous noise at the time, and was so eagerly living of the Prince of Wales. Se- seized upon by Burke and Sheridan parated from the family of the King, and for oratorical display, let it suffice for surrounded by such bon vivants

as my present purpose to say that neither Captain Morris, and others of the same the pencils of Gilray or of Sayer were stamp, the Prince's natural impulses idle. One of the most celebrated prints to vice received an impetus which he of the former represents“ The political had little wish or power to resist. The Banditti, assaulting the Saviour of Incaricaturists of the day let us know dia," the person designated by that something of his private life at this title being Warren Hastings. Burke period. He is frequently represented fires a blunderbuss at him in front, and with Fox, Sheridan, Burke, Lord North, Fox endeavours to stab him from beand Captain Morris. In the summer bind, while Lord North robs him of of 1786, his debts had become so great his money-bags. Hastings, however, that he was on the point of borrowing defends himself with the “shield of a large sum of money from the Duke of honour.". On the other side, the Go.

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