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gently for the benefit of ages to come. their batteries on some useless abstracThis is the nature of constitutional li- tion, some false dogma, or some gratuitberty; and this is our liberty if we will ous assumption. Or, perhaps, it may rightly understand and preserve it. be more proper to say, that they look at Every free government is naturally it with microscopic eyes, seeking for complicated, because all such govern- some spot, or speck, or blot, or blur, ments establish restraints as well on and if they find anything of this kind, the power of government itself as on they are at once for overturning the that of individuals. If we will abolish whole fabric. And, when nothing else the distinction of branches and have will answer, they invoke religion and but one branch; if we abolish jury speak of a higher law. Gentlemen, trials and leave all to the judge; if we this North Mountain is high, the Blue then ordain that the legislator himself Ridge higher still; the Alleghany higher be that judge ; and if we place the ex- than either; and yet this higher law ecutive power in the same hands, we ranges farther than an eagle's flight may readily simplify governinent. We above the highest peaks of the Allemay easily bring it to the simplest of ghany. No common vision can disall possible forms, a pure despotism.” cern it; no conscience, not transcen

In the same speech there is a figure dental and ecstatic, can feel it; the which has often been quoted, but which hearing of common men never listens is so beautiful that we shall lay it be- to its high behests; and therefore one fore our readers. It is, the reader will should think it not a safe law to be perceive, an expansion of a well-known acted on, in matters of the highest expression, but more beautiful than the practical moment. It is the code, original; Webster is speaking of Eng- however, of the fanatical and factious land as “ a power to which Rome in the abolitionists of the North. height of her glory is not to be com- “The secessionists of the South take pared; a power which has dotted over a different course of remark. They are the surface of the whole globe with her learned and eloquent; they are anipossessions and military hosts, whose mated and full of spirit; they are highmorning drum-beat, following the sun, minded and chivalrous; they state and keeping company with the hours, their supposed injuries and causes of circles the earth with one continuous and complaint in elegant phrases and exunbroken strain of the martial airs of alted tones of speech. But these comEngland."

plaints are all vague and general. I It was such passages as this which confess to you, gentlemen, that I know caused men to hang delighted on the no hydrostatic pressure strong enough lips of Webster, and another cause was to bring them into any solid form, in his thorough nationality, which, like which they could be seen or felt. They that of Shakespere, seemed ever to per- think otherwise, doubtless. But, for vade his words, for America, the one one, I can discern nothing real or wellwhole and undivided nation, he would grounded in their complaints. have perilled everything,-how well he may be allowed to be a little profescould declaim on the beauties of union, sional, I would say that all their comthe following, from a speech at a dinner plaints and alleged grievances are like given to bim in 1851, and at which Sir a very insufficient plea in the law; H. Bulwer was present, will testify: they are bad on general demurrer for

“The support of the Union is a great want of substance. But I am not dispractical subject, involving the pros- posed to reproach these gentlemen, or pects and glory of the whole country, to speak of them with disrespect. I and affecting the prosperity of every prefer to leave them to their own reindividual in it. We ought to take a Hections. I make no arguments against large and comprehensive view of it; to resolutions, conventions, secession look to its vast results, and to the con- speeches, or proclamations. Let these sequences wbich would flow from its things go on. The whole matter, it is overthrow. It is not a mere topic for to be hoped, will blow over, and men ingenious disquisition, or theoretical or will return to a sounder mode of thinkfanatical criticism. Those who assail ing. But one thing, gentlemen, be the Union at the present day seem to assured of, the first step taken in the be persons of one idea only, and many programme of secession, which shall of them but half an idea. They plant be an actual infringement of the Con

If I

stitution or the Laws, will be promptly adjusted to states, and a minister who met. And I would not remain an hour can secure the permanent approbation in any administration that should not of his own countrymen with as fair a immediately meet any such violation of renown abroad as was enjoyed by the Constitution and the Law effectu- Daniel Webster, has achieved as much ally, and at once."

glory as even the best politicians are The speech quoted, however, savours likely to obtain. of slavery, which was the rock upon The disappointment of defeat was which Webster split. He seems to poignant, and Webster lived not long have been a man supremely suited to after it, he went home to Marshfield to his age and country. An age which die, and died better in good honest worships intellect more than any other truth, than latterly he had lived. We age, and which also counts upon riches have not touched upon his private vices, as the greatest good. To lead it and nor will we; his neighbours loved him conquer its vanity and to guide it to a for his farmerlike manners and kindly higher aim, the great man should be presence and voice, and there are few gifted above all, with a fine conscience, more touching scenes than that which and a great heart, great in affection, follows : and greatest in all in his religion, and He had started small and poor, had his dependence on his God. Daniel Web- risen great and high, and honourably ster seems to have been in his last days fought his way alone. He was a farmer, little else than intellect, and intellect and took a countryman's delight in of the most busy and bustling kind country things—in loads of hay, in without God, bending to expediency, trees, turnips and the noble Indian corn, he forgot the eternal law of right; in monstrous swine. He had a patritruckling for the Presidential chair, he arch's love of sheep-choice breeds gave an absolute negation to his nobler thereof he had. He took delight in speeches, and sought to aggrandize cows—short-horned Durhams, Herehimself by the misery of his fellows. fordshires, Ayrshires, Alderneys. He These are grave faults; but even those tilled paternal acres with his own more base in the eyes of the world, are oxen. He loved to give the kine fodder. laid to his charge. "A senator of the It was pleasant to hear his talk of oxen. United States,” says Theodore Parker, And but three days before he left the "he was pensioned by the manufac- earth, too ill to visit them, his oxen, turers of Boston. Their gifts in his lowing, came to see their sick lord, and hands, how could he dare be just ? as he stood in his door his great cattle His later speeches smelt of bribes." were driven up, that he might smell Alas! the student of history is not their healthy breath, and look his last comforted by recalling the rapacious- on those broad generous faces that were ness of Raleigh, and the venality of never false to him." Francis Bacon, or the blot which a We have told how he died, broken and bribe has fixed upon the name of Sid- worn with storms of state and wrecked ney. Webster is one more fallen from ambition, and after his death all his bright hopes and brilliant beginnings, backslidings were forgotten, and the one more example that the heaven people mourned for him as they might which “lies about us in our infancy," for a great and mighty voice which and still glows in our youth and honest henceforth was to be silent amongst manhood, grows dark and sullen as we them. They showed respect in every

possible way, the ships lowered their Weighing well these facts, we shall Hags half-mast high, the papers went concur in the estimate given by one in mourning. who has no interest to praise or blame. Before the interment took place, the He presents a marked resemblance to body was removed to a lawn in front of Daniel O'Connell, but he enjoys this the mansion, and placed on a bier besuperiority of the great Agitator, that neath one of the large poplar trees, and he never seriously designed to lead his from nine to half-past one the assembled countrymen astray. ... He was beyond multitudes took a last look. The counall doubt an acute lawyer, an accom- tenance was serene and life-like. Two plished scholar, an experienced diplo- garlands of acorns and oak leaves, and matist and a great statesman. ... It two bouquets of flowers were placed on must be remembered that ministers are the coffin. Many shed tears and grieved

near the grave.

for the loss, as for a departed father or ing of mourning was perceptible; the dear friend. The funeral procession ships of all nations lying along the contained no carriages, nor were there course of the north and east rivers disany ladies, but to such a length did it played their flags at half mast, and extend, that the corpse had reached the minute guns were fired throughout the grave before scarcely two-thirds had day. And so passed away from amongst left the house. The burial took place his people Daniel Webster, bearing exactly at half past two o'clock, and an once the proud title of “Expounder eloquent prayer was offered up by the and Defender of his Nation's Laws;" Rev. Mr. oiden, the parish minister. and if accomplishing little, yet reveThe funeral was attended by upwards renced as he was for his intellectual of 10,000 persons; among whom were power, leaving a great name which will Gen. Franklin Peirce, (now President,) Iong be heard of in America. Governor Massy, the Hon. Abbott Lawrence, the Hon. Edward Everett, Harr'd into fragments by the tempest blast

The Rhodian monster lies; the obelisk the Hon. Charles Ashman, Chancellor That with sharp line divided the broad diso Jones, &c. The whole of the proceedOf Egypt's sun, down to the sands was cast:

And where these stood, no remnant trophy stands, ings were solemn, appropriate, and And even the art is lost by which they rose; affecting. Mr. Webster was buried on Thus with the monuments of other lands, own grounds, by the side of his Yet triumph not, 0 Time; strong towers decay,

The place that knew them, now no longerknows. children. At New York a general feel. But a great name shall never pass away!

THE CARICATURISTS. It is much to be regretted that to many written about poetically? asked the minds certain objects which excite scoffers; and so they scoffed down mirth, should be looked upon as weak, Wordsworth, whilst they allowed poetry frivolous, and beneath notice, as if He- to a pirate as in “ Lara," or a rake as raclitus were the true philosopher, and Don Juan." But Wordsworth won the Democritus none.

Books which are battle which he fought, and brought amusing have been too often set down poetry to the humblest hearth, and we as the very reverse of instructive, and are rapidly winning ours. The truth is, dry uninteresting treatises have been that wisdom is sometimes clothed in deemed the proper garb of science. the jester's motley, and as deep morality Yet few dogmas have less of truth in and meaning lies in the gibes of the them than the foregoing ; Horace per- gravedigger, or the jests of Yorick, as ceived this long ago, and boldly asks, in the melancholy of Hamlet.

These remarks will perhaps be found “Ridentem dicere verum

necessary to introduce an article upon Quid vetat ?"

“ Caricature” in a work intended for and some bold spirits in our own day the student and the closet; we shall have absolutely made knowledge inte find that many grave affairs have been resting, and planted flowers along the brought about by the pencil of a Gilray, dusty high way of the schools. At first and many a lesson taught by the etchthey were laughed at; one who amused ing point of a Cruikshank, whilst to his readers was declared not to be pro- the Historian, such notices illustrating found, just as Wordsworth, when he as they do a very important portion of called a bird a nightingale, and not our history, will not be found unin

Philomel,” and left off styling the sun teresting.

Bright Phæbus,” or “ Apollo's golden But, whilst thus insisting upon the fire,” was thought by many to be very dignity of our paper, we must not unpoetical. A fault which he quadru- be thought to countenance in any way pled by writing, poetically, of “the Cum- undue, stupid and frivolous levity. A berland Beggar," " the Idiot Boy," and wit of our own day has endeavoured " the Female Vagrant.” How could an to render history comio.

The grand idiot, a vagrant and a beggar, things legends of Rome have been made the essentially unpoetical in themselves, be vehicle for word-play and pun; and the


noble achievements of our fathers, their discovery of the printing press carried hard-won liberties, their blood-shedding its boon to the caricaturist as to every and battles; their martyrdom and im- one else; by it impressions could be mulprisonments, have been made the vehi- tiplied indefinitely; and it was therecles of the smart sentence and the inane fore during the latter part of tbe 16th jest. Nothing could be more odious to and more than ever during the 17th the writer, or more hurtful to the young centuries that caricatures became the than such a proceeding; how could potent weapons which they are in polithey reverence past ages, their early tical warfare, and formidable instruments acquaintance with which began with in working upon the feelings of the laughter? how could they worship a populace. hero whose deeds had been a subject of But the reader must not fall into the jest? No; such is not the purpose of common mistake of regarding this art this paper ; too much dulness is indeed as entirely comic. Nothing can be fara grave fault; but unbounded levity, ther from the truth. In their earliest often, as in the case of a modern revo- period they were seldom, if ever, pictures lution, the concomitant of impiety and merely to provoke a laugh, but were cruelty, is a sin.

serious affairs, frequently of a very saBut to our subject.

vage nature, and made subservient to Caricature seems to be derived from the political warfare which was then an Italian word, caricare, to overload, going on, the character of which they, and therefore a caricature has been well of course, partook. The chief of our defined as a loaded, overcharged repre- English caricatures were imported from sentation. Caricature in painting, Holland, and they first came into exbears an affinity to Burlesque in poetry, tensive circulation and notoriety after and a finely drawn caricature would bear the revolution of 1688, which happily the same analogy to Raphael's picture placed the third William upon an Enof the Last Judgment, as Butler's Hu- glish throne. No doubt, this arose dibras does to Paradise Lost as an epic from the fact of England possessing no poem. Addison defines caricature, as artists of sufficient skill to enable them pictures “where the art consists in pre- to produce the plates rapidly and effecserving amidst distorted proportions tively. The caricatures, of which there and aggravated features, some distin. were plenty which satirized the Protecguishing likeness of the person.” Such, tor Cromwell

, were executed chiefly by indeed, is the style of caricature which the Dutch ; and in the flood of this was prevalent in his day, but we have kind of pictures, which that stirring arrived to a much more refined state of time of speculation, the days of the the art, and have been gradually pro- South Sea Bubble gave rise to, the large gressing towards, perhaps, a perfection majority came from the Dutch. Their which the elder caricaturists little character was totally different to what dreamt of.

now understand by the The application of pictures of a satiri- term. They were chiefly emblematical, cal kind to politics, which constitutes and in a folio volume of them, all relating the great body of the caricatures with to the speculating mania, which prewhich we shail have to deal, is, it has vailed both in Holland and France at been well observed, no new thing, and the time of Law and his Mississippi can be traced among every people with scheme, and which was published under whom, historically, we have any ac- the title of “ Her groote Tafereel de quaintance. In the very centre of the Devaasheid,” (The great Picture of pyramids, upon Egyptian tombs, cari- Folly,) some of them are so difficult to catures have been found; and many an divine, and have so very little point, that old manuscript or sculptured piece of an authority on the subject has sugwood tells us that our most remote an- gested that the great sale of caricatures cestors enlivened the darkness of the made the booksellers look up old plates middle ages with pictorial satire. But published upon totally different subin those days the artists laboured under jects, and after adding new inscriptions immense disadvantages. Engraving and new explanations publish them as was indeed understood, but the art of caricatures on the Bubble. multiplying the impressions from the plate, and spreading them before the eyes of the Many was unknown. The l of the House of Hanover."

* Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., “History





This dulness and emblematical cha- cies of humorous composition, his racter seemed for a long time to per- finer works are so far removed from it, vade the artists of the day, and even that they should rather be held as fine Hogarth, when he turned his skilful and deep satires upon humanity, satires pencil to this kind of art, seems to have moreover partaking more largely of been unable to disengage himself from Tragedy than of Comedy. “ Recollecthe prevailing fault. In his second tion,” says Charles Lamb, "of the scene of the election, the “Canvass,” manner in which his prints (the Harthe British Lion is represented as lot's and Rake's Progresses) affected swallowing a golden fleur-de-lis, an me, has often made me wonder when I emblem, we take it, of French gold have heard Hogarth described as being used plentifully as a means of mere comic painter, as one whose chief bribery; and in the third plate, the ambition was to raise a laugh. To deny “ Polling,” the carriage of Britannia is that there are throughout the prints I represented as overturning, whilst the have mentioned, circumstances introcoachman and footman on the box are duced of a laughable tendency, would playing at cards; another emblematic be to run counter to the common norepresentation of the gaming propensi- tions of mankind; but to suppose that ties of the ministers, a madness shared in their ruling character they appeal by the whole aristocracy. But these chiefly to the risible faculty, and not are mild and favourable instances. Two first and foremost to the very heart of celebrated publications of this artist, man, its best and most serious feelings, which are undoubted caricatures, “The would be to mistake no less grossly Times,” and drew upon the designer their aim and purpose. A set of much odium, contain more glaring severer satires (for they are not so examples of this fault than those we much comedies, which they have been have quoted.

likened to, as they are strong and masAfter Hogarth, the art of modern culine satires,) less mingled with anycaricature appears to have taken its thing of mere fun, were never written rise from the pencils of a number of upon paper or graven upon copper. known and unknown amateur artists, They resemble Juvenal, or the satiric (amongst whom we may mention the touches in Timon of Athens."* notorious George Townshend,) who were Bearing the foregoing in mind, we actively engaged in the political in- will proceed. trigues of George II. These carried WILLIAM HOGARTH was born on the on the attack and defence for some 19th of December, 1697, in the parish time; in the earlier years of his suc-of St. Bartholomew, London. He was cessor,


rage for this kind of pictures descended from a Westmoreland family, became great, and then for a while died which had borne the name of Hogard, out to grow brighter, stronger, and or Hogart; his father being the youngest more popular than ever, under the of three brothers, the eldest of whom pencil, and by the conceptions of the lived and died as a yeoman, the second fertile Gilray. This artist was suc- as a farmer, whilst the third, Hogarth's ceeded by others who have not let the father, came up to London, being, perart die, and who have carried down the haps, more educated and having more chain of caricaturists to our own day. learning than the two eldest, and earned So that all of their works collected and arranged with accompanying explana- * Swift, who might just as well be set down as tions would form a better and more a merely comic (i. e. that which is understood by

the modern and somewhat peurile word funny) copious political history of the time writer, as Hogarth solely as a caricaturist, than any we have at present.

seemed to have entertained the same ideas as

Lamb. In writing the biographies of a class

“How I want thee, humorous Hogart! of men who have produced, or rather Thou, I hear, a pleasant rogue art ! who have greatly assisted in producing Were but you and I acquainted, such memorable events as have the

Every monster should be painted;

You should try your graving tools caricaturists, it would be an omission On this odious group of fools; not to include the name of WILLIAM

Draw the beasts as I describe them

From their features while I give them. HOGARTH, but it would also be an injustice to assume that he was nothing

You'll need no caricatura,

Draw them so that we may trace more than a mere caricaturist, for All the soul in every face." although he dealt largely in that spe- A Character, &c., of the Legion Club," 1735.

Draw them like for I assure-a

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