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but a question of time, for that deci- to something being done in Africa itsion, pronounced upon earth and self, for he was instrumental in forming ratified in heaven, sealed its ultimate a society for the purpose of educating doom.

black missionaries for that country ; Samuel Hopkins did not rest content and in 1773, and again in 1776, he and with that resolution, nor confine his Dr. Ezra Stiles issued an appeal to exertions to his own church or locality. the Christian community for assistance He sought out men, both in his own to carry out the project. One of the country and in Europe, who held black pupils he himself educated. Newopinions similar to his own, and with port Gardner went from Boston to them kept up an active correspondence. Africa as a "missionary twenty years Among his fellow clergymen too he after his old teacher had died. This was unwearied, and he had a practical Gardner was a native of Africa, and mode of proceeding well illustrated by a slave of Captain Gardner of Newthe following anecdote, told by an port. His own name was taken from American biographer. Among his the place and the designation of his clerical friends was one Doctor Bel- master. The captain allowed him to lamy, who had a slave. To him went work during his overtime for himself, our abolitionist, and told him of the and the negro toiled all the harder besin of slave-holding. Dr. Bellamy cause he laid by his earnings to buy replied, justifying it by custom, by himself and his family for himself

. Bible quotations, and finally, when Sometimes, by working harder than driven from those points, by the plea usual (or was required), he would get that the man

so faithful and a whole day. Still the amount accuattached that he did not want to be mulated but slowly, and the poor

fellow free. That brought the argument to a in his despair resolved to pray. So he point where theory ceased and fact gained a day, and instead of labouring, became possible, and Hopkins seized shut himself in his hut and sent up the turning point.

unceasingly to Heaven his petition for “Will you," said Hopkins, “consent freedom. He had communicated his to his liberation, if he really desires it?" intention to Dr. Hopkins and one or

“Yes, certainly,” said Dr. Bellamy. two other friends, and while he was

“Then let us have him up,” said his praying the doctor was with his masguest.

ter, entreating him to give his servant The slave was at work in an adjoin- his liberty. His persuasions prevailed, ing field, and, at the call of his master, and the captain sent for the negro. came promptly to receive his com- He was told that the slave had gained mands.

that day. “No matter," said the mas“ Have you a good master ?" inquired ter, “I must see him." And when Hopkins.

Gardner, giving up his prayers, came O, yes, massa ; he berry good.” with reluctance, expecting, perhaps, to

"But are you happy in your present be scolded or punished for some uncondition ?" queried the Doctor. conscious fault, the document securing

“O, yes, massa ; berry happy." his freedom and that of his family was

Dr. Bellamy here could hardly sup- put into his hands. It seemed to him press his exultation at what he sup- that his prayer was answered directly posed was a complete triumph over his from heaven; and though we have on anti-slavery brother. But the perti- record the human agency of Hopkins, nacious guest continued his queries. who shall say that the All Just and All

“Would you not be more happy if Merciful did not lend an ear to the you were free ?"

bondsman's supplications, “O, yes, massa,” exclaimed the negro, We have before mentioned, that his dark face glowing with new life; when at New Barrington, Hopkins “berry much more happy !"

owned and sold a slave. When he To the honour of Dr. Bellamy he did became aware of the wrong of slavery, not hesitate.

he would not retain the price of inno“You have your wish,” he said to cent blood, and devoted the money to his servant ; “from this moment you the education of some negroes. Often are free."

after, he gave for like purposes sums It is evident that Dr. Hopkins looked out of all proportion to his limited (as the friends of the slave still look) | means.

The War of Independence for some he preached on till' he was eightytime interrupted the labours of Samuel three, one of his habitual hearers Hopkins. The island on which he re- being William Ellery Channing, who sided was in 1776 taken possession of ever had the deepest reverence for the by the English troops ; and he passed devout beauty and earnest, sincere the year 1777 preaching at Newbury- strength of his character. Differing port. About the time of his going as they did as theologians, they both away, he published his “Dialogue con- held the same doctrine of unselfish cerning the Slavery of the Africans ;" benevolence, being the essential eleshowing it to be “the duty and interest ment of Christianity. Hopkins's last of the American States to emancipate sermon was preached on the 10th of all their slaves.” This was dedicated October, 1803, and on the 12th of Noto the signers of the Declaration of vember, “full of years and of honours," Independence, and was re-published he was gathered to his fathers. He and widely distributed by the New ended calmly, or rather joyfully, a life York Abolition Society, in 1785. He well spent, saying to a friend, “I am returned to Newport early in 1780, feeble, and cannot say much ;-I have but found a desert where was once the said all I can say.” And adding, “Now garden of New England. The hand of I am going to die, and I am glad of it.” war had been laid heavily upon his He was buried in the ground adjoining congregation, which, once wealthy, was the meeting-house, and the funeral now poor and cast down. Worse than sermon was preached by Dr. Hart, a all, the scenes they had gone through life-long friend, nearly as old as himhad changed their natures for the self

The commerce of the place We have taken but little notice of was gone.

His meeting-house had the theologian in this sketch. His been converted into a barrack, the works in that character — worthy of pews and seats used for fire-wood, and attention as they are as the utterances the bell stolen. Here the character of of a sincere, earnest man--are passing the man showed itself. He was offered into oblivion. But when the religionist appointments at other places which shall have been utterly forgotten, many would have given him both influence a lover of freedom will venerate the meand competence; but he thought that mory of the early opponent of slavery, where there was so much need of him and call down blessings on him who there was his place, and taking up his formed that Newport resolution, which old position, he lived till the day of his must ever be associated with the name death without regular salary, subsist- of Samuel Hopkins, the first of the ing upon such voluntary offerings as Abolitionists. his flock could afford to bestow. Thus



THE royal message which recalled were the three sons of his host, the George Canning from his place of youngest of whom, William Ewart embarcation for India to take the post Gladstone, is now M.P. for the Uniof Foreign Secretary in the British versity of Oxford, Privy Councillor, Cabinet, on the death of Lord Castle- and Chancellor of the Exchequer. reagh (August, 1822), reached him at On the rule invariably observed in the house of Sir John Gladstone, a the BIOGRAPHICAL MAGAZINE, of writwealthy Liverpool merchant. From ing only the public lives of living men, the window of Seaforth House, Canning we abstain from saying, and make no is described by his biographer as look- pretence of knowing, more of Mr. ing out upon the sea that he supposed Gladstone's private history than may was soon to separate him-perhaps for be found in the “Parliamentary Comever-from the Europe whose desti- panion," or other ephemeral compilanies he was unconsciously about to tion of particulars that might be exinfluence beyond any man of his day; tracted from the register of the parish while, sporting on the beach below him, in which he was born or married

and of the schools and colleges he The judgment of so high an authoattended. Our information under this rity as Mr. Macaulay, is so esssential head may be given in a couple of lines. to a just estimate of Mr. Gladstone's -He was born at Liverpool, in the public character and position, that we year 1809; was educated at Eton, and will take the trouble to condense and at Christ Church, Oxford ; and, having copy the opening passages of the article spent a short time in continental in question : travel - after the manner of young “The author of this volume is a gentlemen from time immemorial-he young man of unblemished character, entered Parliament, in 1832, as mem- and of distinguished parliamentary ber for Newark. It is from this latter talents, the rising hope of those stern point that we will pursue his career- and unbending tories who follow, reas yet|short, but eventful and suggestive. luctantly and mutinously, a leader

It will be remembered that the whose experience and eloquence are general election of 1835 took place on indispensable to them, but whose a dissolution of the first reformed cautious temper and moderate opinions Parliament by Sir Robert Peel, on his they abhor. It would not be at all hurried return from Italy to take the strange if Mr. Gladstone were one of Premiership. It is significant either the most unpopular men in England. of the paucity of Sir Robert's materials But we believe that we do him no for the construction of a ministry, or more than justice when we say that of the early promise of young Mr. his abilities and his demeanour have Gladstone, that, immediately on his obtained for him the respect and good re-election, he was appointed Under- will of all parties.

His first appearSecretary for the Colonies, having the ance in the character of an author is new Premier (the Earl of Aberdeen), therefore an interesting event; and it for his chief. This able and promising is natural that the gentle wishes of the government fell before a hostile majo- public should go with him to his trial. rity on the Irish Church question, in “We are much pleased, without any May of the same year.

Mr. Glad- reference to the soundness or unsoundstone, of course, went over with his ness of Mr. Gladstone's theories, to see party to the opposition benches, proved a grave and elaborate treatise on an himself one of its most frequent, though important part of the Philosophy of not obtrusive, speakers, and was re- Government proceed from the pen of a elected for Newark on the same inter- young man who is rising to eminence est (the Duke of Newcastle's), at the in the House of Commons. There is general election consequent on the little danger that people engaged in death of William the Fourth.

the conflicts of active life will be too In the following year he distin- much addicted to general speculation. guished himself by a speech on the Abo- The opposite vice is that which most lition of Negro Apprenticeship, defend- easily besets them. ing the planters from the imputations “We therefore hail with pleasure, upon them; but rar more by the issue though assuredly not with unmixed from the press of an octavo volume,“The pleasure, the appearance of this work. State in its Relations to the Church.” That a young politician should, in the There can be no

more satisfactory intervals afforded by his parliamentary proof of the ability and influence of avocations, have constructed and prothis work, than the fact that it was pounded, with much study and mental honoured, so early as April 1839- toil

, an original theory on a great prowhen it had already reached a second blem in politics, is a circumstance edition--with an elaborate notice in the which, abstracted from all considera“Edinburgh Review," -an article im- tion of the soundness or unsoundness mediately recognized as Mr. Macaulay's; of his opinions, must be considered as included in the authorized collection highly creditable to him. We certainly of his “Historical and Critical Essays;" cannot wish that Mr. Gladstone's docreprinted, with the article on “Ranke's trines may become fashionable among History of the Popes,” in “The Travel- public men. But we heartily wish that ler's Library;" and usually considered his laudable desire to penetrate beneath as the conclusive reply of the party the surface of questions, and to arrive, opposed to Mr. Gladstone, to his doc- by long and intent meditation, at the trine and argument.

knowledge of great general laws, were

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much more fashionable than we at all nature recoil from the horrible practiexpect it to become."

cal inferences to which his theory leads, Mr. Gladstone seems to us to be, in he is reduced sometimes to take refuge many respects, exceedingly well quali- in arguments inconsistent with his fied for philosophical investigation. fundamental doctrines, and sometimes His mind is of large grasp ; nor is he to escape from the legitimate consedeficient in dialectical skill. But he quences of his false principles, under does not give his intellect fair play. cover of equally false history. There is no want of light, but a great “It would be unjust not to say that want of what Bacon would have called this book, though not a good book, dry light. Whatever Mr. Gladstone shows more talent than many good sees is refracted and distorted by a books. It abounds with eloquent and false medium of passions and prejudices. ingenious passages. It bears the signs His style bears a remarkable analogy of much patient

thought. It is written to his mode of thinking, and indeed throughout with excellent taste and exercises great influence on his mode excellent temper; nor does it, so far as of thinking. His rhetoric, though often we have observed, contain one expresgood of its kind, darkens and perplexes sion unworthy of a gentleman, a scholar, the logic which it should illustrate. or a Christian. But the doctrines Half his acuteness and diligence, with which are put forth in it appear to us, à barren imagination and a scanty after full and calm consideration, to be vocabulary, would have saved him false, to be in the highest degree perfrom almost all his mistakes. He has nicious, and to be such as, if followed one gift most dangerous to a speculator, out in practice to their legitimate cona vast command of a kind of language, sequences, would inevitably produce grave and majestic, but of vague and the dissolution of society." uncertain import; of a kind of lan- The question with which Mr. Gladguage which affects us much in the stone had ventured to deal, was presame way in which the lofty diction of eminently the practical question of the the Chorus of Clouds affected the day, as it has been one of the loftiest simple-hearted Athenian.

subjects of speculation, with philoso«ώ γή του φθέγματος, ως ιερόν, και σεμνόν, The problems that Ρlato had under

phers and statesmen, in every age. και τερατώδες. .

taken to exhibit, in his “Republic,” in “When propositions have been esta- a state of solution, so to speak, were blished, and nothing remains but to substantially the same which the Disamplify and decorate them, this dim senters of Nottingham and Manchester magnificence may be in place. But if discussed in public meeting, and of it is admitted into a demonstration, it which Daniel O'Connell attempted to is very much worse than absolute non-compel the settlement, for at least one sense ; just as that transparent haze, branch of the empire, by a thinly disthrough which the sailor sees capes guised display of physical force. In and mountains of false sizes and in the debates on the Irish church, comfalse bearings, is more dangerous than menced with, and protracted through, utter darkness. Now, Mr. Gladstone every session of the Parliaments that is fond of employing the phraseology sat from 1832 to 1838, there was inof which we speak in those parts of his volved,


the consciousness of works which require the utmost per- thoughtful men, a profoundly deeper spicuity and precision of which human and far more difficult question than language is capable ; and in this way was apparent to “the Parliamentary he deludes first himself, and then his rabble,” or the turbulent agitator, or readers. The foundations of his theory, the excited public. It was a sense of which ought to be buttresses of adamant, this that brought Dr. Chalmers to Lonare made out of the flimsy materials don, to deliver his lectures on church which are fit only for perorations. This establishments—perhaps the most elofault is one which no subsequent care quent and least satisfactory of his or industry can correct. The more voluminous performances; for they strictly Mr. Gladstone reasons on his contained little that had not been adpremises, the more absurd are the con- vanced by Hooker, Warburton, or clusions which he brings out; and, Paley, and that little had an air of when, at last his good sense and good commercial utilitarianism, which Mr. Gladstone would probably feel degrad- founding of individual with corporate ing to the theme. The “Student of functions, and the self-deluding use of Christ Church and M.P. for Newark," analogical, in the place of inductive, -as Mr. Gladstone wrote himself on reasoning: his title-page-was content neither It is obligatory on a man that he be with the judicious Hooker's” notion religious, it is therefore obligatory on of an ecclesiastical polity, nor with War- any body of men that they be religious. burton's theory of a contract; whilst Such, we believe, is a fáir epitome of Paley's argument from utility he pro- Mr. Gladstone's “argument for the nounced to be “ tainted by the original obligation incumbent on governors as vice of false ethical principles," and men.” Now, if by this be meant, that Dr. Chalmer's refutation of the sup- associations, like individuals, are moply and demand scheme he deemed rally bound to act from the purest a questionable.” He boldly climbed to motives, and to the highest ends, the the altitude of what he deemed an assertion is merely a truism. But the absolute moral truth, and thought to proposition, as it stands, is one of those bring down thence express authoriza- plausible errors—so logical in form, tion for established churches—or while utterly illogical in spirit—that rather, to lay upon the conscience of are best refuted by pushing them into rulers the obligation of maintaining the realms of active life. This is what that co-relation of naturally opposite the Edinburgh Reviewer has done. systems, known as the alliance of By a great number of supposititious church and state. He thus states his examples, vividly presented, he shows general proposition, which, he thinks, that society would go to pieces if this must surely command universal rule were attempted to be enforced. assent:"

But, we think that with any intelligent “Wherever there is power in the uni- definition of religion itself

, the propoverse, that power is the property of sition is incompatible. A priori, as God, the King of that universe—his well as practical, considerations, are property of right, however for a time fatal to it. In the atmosphere of withholden or abused. Now this pro- common sense, it cannot draw a single perty is, as it were realised, is used breath. Even by a change of expresaccording to the will of the owner, sion, the thing intended is instantly when it is used for the purposes hé destroyed. Put the sentiment, for has ordained, and in the temper of instance, in this form-Whatever is mercy, justice, truth, and faith which incumbent on a man in one capacity, is he has taught us. But those principles incumbent upon him in any capacity:never can be truly, never can be per- and the absurdity of the conclusion manently, entertained in the human sought to be established is evident at breast, except by a continual reference Yet is there no unfair exchange to their source, and the supply of the of phraseology; for it is only because Divine grace.

The powers, therefore, man is a social being, that he has more that dwell in individuals acting as a than one capacity of action. Even in government, as well as those that the most rudimentary forms of combidwell in individuals acting for them- nation,-in the relation of parent and selves, can only be secured for right child, of master and servant, for examuses by applying to them a religion." ple-new duties, with their correspond

“The powers that dwell in indivi- ing rights, immediately arise. If reliduals acting as a government,” he gion be a personal obligation-if it be elsewhere describes by resembling the anything more than the practice of magisterial to the parental character. unmeaning ceremonies-if it be a cerIn other places he expressly declares, tain state of intellect and heart-the “The governors are reasoning agents father or the employer can have no busifor the nation, in their conjoint acts as ness to enforce religious observances such ;” and denies that the people are upon his household; for he thereby entitled to more than a beneficial use invades that private right which is of the funds raised by taxation. necessarily involved in the private

In these two sentences we have indi- obligation. The influence of example cated the prominent characteristic, and of solicitation is the only force Mr. Macaulay would say the funda- which he can legitimately put into mental errors of the book ;-the con- operation ; and he must remember how


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